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Abstract

Professional organisations and regulatory bodies are making critical reflection a mandatory component of professional practice. Reflection is a vital part of learning from experience and is central to developing and maintaining competency across a practitioner's lifetime. This paper will discuss key educational theories to illustrate why reflection is important. Kolb's and Gibbs' reflective cycles are used to structure the process of critical reflection. Elements of the educational tradition of Bildung are discussed and integrated to enrich the understanding of self and to facilitate the reader's ability to enhance their professional practice.

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... Interestingly, Donaghy and Morss used the theoretical underpinnings of seminal thinkers in reflection: Dewey and Schön. Each of the following frameworks was cited as guiding reflective practice: the International Classification of Functioning, 38 Schulman's Table of Learning, 41 van Manen's Levels of Reflexivity, 19 Kolb's Cycle of Experiential Learning, 21 Gibb's Reflective Cycle, 21 and Schön's model of Reflective Practice. 39 Edwards, in 2004, developed a descriptive framework to aid in clinical reasoning strategies. ...
... Interestingly, Donaghy and Morss used the theoretical underpinnings of seminal thinkers in reflection: Dewey and Schön. Each of the following frameworks was cited as guiding reflective practice: the International Classification of Functioning, 38 Schulman's Table of Learning, 41 van Manen's Levels of Reflexivity, 19 Kolb's Cycle of Experiential Learning, 21 Gibb's Reflective Cycle, 21 and Schön's model of Reflective Practice. 39 Edwards, in 2004, developed a descriptive framework to aid in clinical reasoning strategies. ...
... 44 Jensen, in 1992, also developed a conceptual framework to aid in understanding the physical therapist practice environment. 40 The purpose of using a framework was identified to help practitioners ask themselves questions to improve their reflective practice, 19 help develop skills of critical reflection, 21 and improve clinical decision-making. 39 Although a clear definition of reflection was not provided, instructions in the study provided a working definition. ...
Article
Background: Many practitioners experience complex, uncertain, and unique clinical practice situations that can be navigated with reflection. Little is known about the theoretical and pragmatic perspectives of reflection in physical therapy. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the literature on reflection in physical therapy and identify gaps in the literature. Data source: The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and PsycINFO were used to identify articles. Study selection: Studies were selected to describe: (1) theoretical concepts related to reflection, (2) examples of reflection, and (3) the use of reflection in clinical or educational contexts. Data extraction: Authors, year of publication, country of origin, publication type or source, methodology, conceptual approach (including terminology used, definition of terminology used), and practical approach (including theoretical underpinning, context of reflection/reflective practice, and target group) guided the data extraction. Data synthesis: A total of 46 articles were reviewed spanning from 1992 to 2017, which included research studies, field articles, editorials, and a review article. Theoretical underpinnings of reflection were based on the thoughts of Donald Schön. Written approaches to reflection were most common, and reflection was used to inform education, clinical practice, and professional growth. Limitations: As with any review paper, there is a certain level of interpretation required when collating and interpreting data. Conclusions: Reflection in physical therapy could be advanced by a thorough conceptualization of reflective practice, a broader and deeper pool of research to inform optimal implementation of reflection across the career span from learners to experts, and a clear definition and linkage of reflection to epistemologies of physical therapy practice.
... These theories outline the process by which novice and experienced practitioners process and reflect on their practice either during or after a learning experience (Schön, 1983). A review of the literature by Paterson and Chapman (2013) suggested that these processes lead to increased clinical reasoning and clinical knowledge. However, there is still a lack of comparative research that looks at the quantitative benefits that reflection has on clinical performance (Mann et al., 2009;Paterson & Chapman, 2013) and in particular critical reflection. ...
... A review of the literature by Paterson and Chapman (2013) suggested that these processes lead to increased clinical reasoning and clinical knowledge. However, there is still a lack of comparative research that looks at the quantitative benefits that reflection has on clinical performance (Mann et al., 2009;Paterson & Chapman, 2013) and in particular critical reflection. Whilst unable to determine causation between the CRT and APP, the results of the present study indicate that there is a relationship between better critical reflective ability (CRT) and better clinical performance (APP). ...
... While the findings of this report are important to the potential implementation of teaching critical reflection (i.e. a combined process of reflection and self-assessment) to improve clinical performance, it is important to remember that APP scores may be impacted by many other factors (i.e. timing of placement, student preparedness, clinical area and environment etc.) (Paterson & Chapman, 2013). This research indicates that there could be a role for teaching critical reflection to improve clinical performance as a controllable variable in the clinical environment. ...
... Moreover, behaviours that are genuine and congruent with a situation arise from appropriate states. Therefore, if physiotherapists are aware of and able to critique their thoughts, emotions, attitudes and assumptions [59] and adjust as needed, conditions can be developed, maintained, or deepened. This reflection can occur outside of the clinical interaction, which is more likely with novice physiotherapists or within the clinical interaction, otherwise known as 'reflection-in-action' [59]. ...
... Therefore, if physiotherapists are aware of and able to critique their thoughts, emotions, attitudes and assumptions [59] and adjust as needed, conditions can be developed, maintained, or deepened. This reflection can occur outside of the clinical interaction, which is more likely with novice physiotherapists or within the clinical interaction, otherwise known as 'reflection-in-action' [59]. Reflective practice targeting therapeutic relationships is critical for encouraging physiotherapists' abilities to cultivate the conditions of engagement. ...
Article
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Background The therapeutic relationship between patient and physiotherapist is a central component of patient-centred care and has been positively associated with better physiotherapy clinical outcomes. Despite its influence, we do not know what conditions enable a physiotherapist and patient to establish and maintain a therapeutic relationship. This knowledge has implications for how clinicians approach their interactions with patients and for the development of an assessment tool that accurately reflects the nature of the therapeutic relationship. Therefore, this study’s aim was to identify and provide in-depth descriptions of the necessary conditions of engagement of the therapeutic relationship between physiotherapists and patients. Methods Interpretive description was the qualitative methodological orientation used to identify and describe the conditions that reflect and are practically relevant to clinical practice. Eleven physiotherapists with a minimum 5 years of clinical experience and seven adult patients with musculoskeletal disorders were purposively sampled from private practice clinics in Edmonton, Canada. The in-person, semi-structured interviews were completed in a location of the participant’s choice and were audio recorded and transcribed. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the textual data and constant comparison techniques were integrated to refine the categories and sub-categories. Rigour strategies used throughout the study were peer debrief, interview notes, reflexive journaling, memoing, member reflections, audit trail, and external audit. ResultsFour conditions were identified as necessary for establishing a therapeutic relationship: present, receptive, genuine, and committed. These conditions represent the intentions and attitudes of physiotherapists and patients engaging in the clinical interaction. Although distinct, the conditions appear related as being present and receptive create a foundation for being genuine and committed. Conclusions These conditions of engagement are needed for physiotherapist and patient to “be” in a therapeutic relationship. Although communication skills are important for advancing therapists’ relational abilities, awareness and integration of intentions and attitudes are essential for shaping behaviors that develop the therapeutic relationship. These findings also suggest there are characteristics of the therapeutic relationship specific to physiotherapy. Therefore, theories from other contexts (e.g., psychotherapy) should be used judiciously to guide physiotherapy practice and research.
... Typically, professional expertise is considered a gradual transition, often starting with formal (university) education and then specializing through (clinical) experience and ongoing informal learning, which builds upon this academic foundation. 4 Experts in a specialized field demonstrate ongoing regular deliberate practice and consistently successful superior performance in complex situations. 5 Not all specialists will become 'experts' but a suitable specialization process can facilitate developing expertise characteristics. ...
... Not all experiences trigger the same amount of reflection with expected outcomes tending to confirm existing knowledge, thereby triggering less reflection than an unexpected outcome where reflection generates new learning and knowledge. 2,4,8 As reflection encourages creative and contextual learning, the authors suggest that a deliberate strategy to encourage evidencing reflective practice would address the perceived value of informal implicit learning. Experience alone does not appear to be enough to generate expertise, rather the development of expertise depends on the nature and frequency of reflection. ...
... Thus reflective practice becomes one of the most effective means for personal professional development and improvement. The theoretical knowledge that one would have acquired is contextualised and consolidated through reflective practice (Paterson & Chapman, 2013;McBrien, 2007). Thus reflective practice becomes one of the effective means of giving meaning to theory through practice Reflective practice can be considered as learning from experience. ...
... Thus reflective practice becomes one of the effective means of giving meaning to theory through practice Reflective practice can be considered as learning from experience. According to Paterson and Chapman (2013), reflective practice is fundamental for a practitioner since it stresses on accountability of one's practices through introspection. Some confirmatory remarks were enunciated by one of the informants; ...
... To clarify reflective practice in general, Paterson and Chapman (2013) explained that reflective individuals do not merely think about their past actions but consciously rethink their experiences, actions, and emotions and combine them with their background schema of knowledge to enhance their reading comprehension skills. Furthermore, reflections allow the teacher to become aware of the pros and cons of their instructional process and gain a better understanding of how the teaching method, technique, and materials are proceeding (T€ oman, 2017). ...
Article
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This study aimed to scrutinize the effects of the reflection-based questioning approach (RBQA) on Myanmar students’ achievement in English reading comprehension. The RBQA approach covers Oo et al.’s (2021) reflective teaching model for reading comprehension (based on planning, acting, reflecting, and evaluating) in which the teacher uses a questioning strategy (initiate-response-evaluate model). Employing cluster randomized trials, quasi-experimental research was conducted to investigate RBQA’s effectiveness in teaching reading comprehension skills to Grade-9 students. The experimental group (N = 228) received the RBQA intervention; the control group (N = 230) did not receive the intervention but was provided with traditional instruction. During RBQA intervention, teachers used the anonymous student questionnaire and observation scheme as effective reflection tools. After a five-week intervention, both groups completed post-tests to assess their achievement. The study findings revealed that teaching with RBQA had a significant positive effect on students’ reading comprehension. Therefore, this study is of immense significance to English language teachers and their students.
... Researches in medical education, nursing, allied health sciences, as well as pharmacy professions have found learning benefits from self-reflection, including enhancing of self-learning from encountered experiences, clinical knowledge improvement, and enhanced clinical reasoning (Atkinson, Ajjawi, & Cooling, 2011;Chirema, 2007;Kuiper & Pesut, 2004;Lutz, Scheffer, Edelhaeuser, Tauschel, & Neumann, 2013;Mann, Gordon, & MacLeod, 2007;Paterson & Chapman, 2013). In addition, the reflection writing provided in-depth detail regarding thinking process and the CRC. ...
Thesis
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Objectives: This thesis aimed to develop the rubric system for assessment of clinical reasoning competency in community pharmacy practice through self-reflection of 6th- year pharmacy students. Methods: There were 3 phases of this study with different research methodology. The first phase was focus group discussion of experts to identify components of the competency. The item-objective congruence (IOC) index and the expert discussion were used to judge the content validity of the identified components. In the second phase, the identified components were transformed into a rubric. The rubric was tested for its intra-rater reliability and revised. In the third phase, the inter-rater reliability, and concurrent validity were tested, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. The instruction for the self-reflection and SOAP note was also revised in the second phase according to the survey of the student opinions. Results: Nine components of clinical reasoning competency were identified. Each construct was transformed into a rubric item with 4 competency levels. The content validity of the rubric was substantially high (IOC between 0.88 to 1). The ICCs for intra-rater reliability of each rubric item were from 0.76 to 0.92, which were considered almost perfectly reliable. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability of each rubric item were from 0.52 to 0.69, which were moderately to substantially reliable. However, the assessment scores given by the rubric were not statistically correlated with the scores of SOAP presentation that was the current assessment method (the correlation coefficient = -0.176, p = 0.26). Conclusion: The validated rubric system for assessment of clinical reasonging competency in community pharmacy practice through self-reflection was developed. This rubric was shown to have good reliability and content validity, but limited concurrent validity.
... Lately, it has grown to assume an established role in medical education, propelled by a rising recognition of the need to cultivate self-aware healthcare practitioners. Its purported benefits are wide-ranging, spanning from bridging the theory-practice gap to encouraging critical problem resolution (Paterson and Chapman, 2013). However, as an intercalating medical education student armed with pedagogical knowledge in one hand and the medical student experience in the other, I have come to question the effectiveness of current teaching on reflection in meeting the demands of tomorrow's patients. ...
Article
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A call for a modernised approach to teaching and promoting reflexivity in medical education, drawing upon personal experience and social media.
... It enables continuity of learning and ensuring individual growth. [19] Thus, reflective process is part of most learning processes [14,18,34]. RP can be integrated in different time framesbefore-, in-and on-action, as discussed next. ...
Article
Reflective practice is encouraged in medical education in general and in teaching communication skills in particular to develop into a reflective practitioner. However, the term is complex to understand and multidimensional thus challenging to grasp, describe and teach. Furthermore, though used frequently little guidance exists on how to promote reflective ability in teaching communication skills. This paper builds on a keynote address delivered at the International Conference of Communication in Healthcare (ICCH 2019) and is based on the vast literature on reflection and the author’s personal experience as a researcher and educator. It discusses the components of reflective practice as well as exemplifies the importance of reflective practice to student’s capability to learn communication skills.
... Once the student receives feedback, they must then reflect upon it to successfully grow from the learning experience [9], [11]. The reflective step is crucial if the student is to develop their professional skills and deepen the learning from the experience [12], [13]. The assessment and quality of feedback received is therefore important to encourage professional development. ...
Article
The Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board’s definition of professionalism, one of twelve graduate attributes, does not mention professional behaviour, but rather focuses on understanding the role of engineers in society. While difficult to define, challenging to teach, and even harder to assess, the engineering faculty at the University of Guelph felt professional behaviour was an important element of professionalism to consider in their curriculum. This study investigates how professional behaviour might be taught and assessed. The researchers developed course material on professional behaviour for the winter 2019 offering of a third-year multidisciplinary design course (369 students), using Kelley et al.’s (2011) Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT). Using a quasi-experimental design, the researchers assessed whether student professionalism improved based on their change in PAT scores over the semester using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. They also analyzed a sample of student final reflections on professional behaviour. Student PAT scores increased significantly over the semester (n = 340, p<0.05), but the effect sizes observed, using Cohen’s d, were small (0.14 to 0.29). The student reflections (n = 53) suggest that improvements to their professionalism were a result of working in a team, experience gained from their project, and individual efforts made to behave professionally. While infrequently discussed in the reflections, over half of the post-term survey responses revealed that students felt the lab activities helped improve their professional skills generally, and/or increased their awareness of these skills. The improved awareness aspect of student professionalism was an unexpected, but important outcome of the PAT-based course material and may have reinforced student ownership of their soft skill development.
... [13][14][15][16] Whether reflection prompts learning and change has been questioned, although some studies have identified changes in behaviour as a direct result of reflection taking place within clinical practice settings. [17][18][19][20] Reflective practice is now mandated for most health professionals, with documented evidence of reflecting on patient and colleague feedback required for continuing professional development and revalidation. Despite the focus on retrospective written reflection, increasingly, arguments are being made that reflection, and in particular reflection in action, should instead be fully embedded within the multiple contexts of clinical practice. ...
Article
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Background: Patient and staff experiences provide important insights into care quality, but health systems have difficulty using these data to improve care. Little attention has been paid to understanding how patient experience feedback can act as a prompt to reflection in practice in the clinical setting. Objective: We aimed to identify the ways in which different types of patient experience feedback act as a trigger or prompt for engagement in reflection in clinical practice in acute hospital settings and identify important considerations for enhancing the value of patient experience data for reflective learning. Methods: We conducted an ethnographic study in eight acute care units in three NHS hospital trusts in England, including 140 hours of observations and 45 semi-structured interviews with nursing, medical and managerial staff working in acute medical units and intensive care units. The data were analysed thematically. Findings: We distinguished between formal patient experience data sources: data purposively collected and collated to capture the patient experience of care, generally at organizational level, including surveys, complaints and comments; and informal sources of feedback on the patient experience recognized by staff alongside the formal data. We also identified patient narratives as an 'in between' source of data. The impact of different types of patient feedback in triggering reflection primarily depended on the extent to which the feedback was experienced as personally relevant, meaningful and emotionally salient. Discussion: Patient experience feedback is multi-faceted, but our study suggests that all types of feedback could be harnessed more effectively to prompt reflection.
... Discussion around challenges as well as successes is equally encouraged in a process designed to calibrate staff judgement. It is through analysing events and auditing the efficacy of their practices, that clinicians can gain valuable experiential learning and self-improve (40,41). Despite varying definitions of reflective practice, the literature identifies these consistent features of revisiting experiences in order to progress learning into the future (42). ...
Article
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p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 200%;"> Introduction The ability to critically self-evaluate is fundamental to professional health roles. Reflective practice is now a recognised feature of the professional capabilities of registered paramedics in Australia, which has implications for both education and industry when determining competency. Reflective practice currently receives little priority in teaching, often appearing late in curriculum and not usually linked to high stakes assessment. It is argued that sustainable reflective practice skills should appear earlier and include opportunities for active student involvement in decisions regarding their learning. Student-tutor consensus assessment (STCA) is a reflection-in-practice technique providing a structured approach for critically appraising practice, while calibrating judgement with assessors. We evaluated the experiences of a cohort of newly commencing undergraduates within a fundamentals of paramedic practice subject. Methods Students were invited to complete a questionnaire relating to their perceptions and experiences after participating in the STCA approach. Results 88 responses were collected which indicated broad agreement regarding the value to learning and recognition for the importance of reflective practice skills to future professional roles. Conclusion Students readily embraced the principles of reflective practice and were able to effectively contribute to high level decisions regarding their work despite having only recently commenced the program. In addition, the high levels of broad agreement for the value of the STCA approach, suggest reflective practice and critical thinking-based assessments have a more important role to play in paramedic education. </p
... One of the most popular theories related to RP is Gibbs' reflective cycle, which represents a simplified process within the RP context and consists of six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan [3]. This method helps learners achieve a higher level in their thought processes and also enhances their lifelong learning skills [4]. Some students might develop their capabilities independently [5]. ...
Article
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Background Reflective practice (RP) plays a crucial role in encouraging learners to think critically and consciously about their performances. Providing constructive feedback can further enhance RP. But non-Western learners might face different learning barriers compared to learners in the West, where RP originated. Methods In this retrospective study, we assessed RP and feedback performances on Thai medical students’ patient history-taking skills. We applied RP and peer feedback, along with feedback from the instructors, during the history-taking sessions of the ten-week introduction course for fourth-year medical students. Twelve history-taking sessions were used for the analysis. Two instructors assessed students’ reflective performance and categorised them into one of the six stages of Gibbs’ reflective cycle; their feedback performances were analysed using Pendleton’s model. We investigated the correlations between students’ overall grade point average (GPAX) and patient history-taking scores on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Students’ opinions of the RP teaching method were also collected. Results All (n = 48) students participated in our study. The students’ mean age was 21.2 ± 0.5 years. The majority of the students were female (64.6%). The data indicated that 33 and 4% of the participants were categorised into the evaluation stage and action plan stage of Gibbs’ reflective cycle, respectively. In addition, 22 and 15% of the participants were able to state what their peers did well and suggest how peers could improve their skills, respectively. All students passed the minimum passing level of four history-taking OSCE stations. Participants agreed that RP was a useful tool (mean 9.0, SD 0.1), which enhanced their thought processes (mean 8.4, SD 0.2) and future performances (mean 8.2, SD 0.2). However, there was no correlation between the students’ highest Gibbs’ reflection levels and their history-taking OSCE scores. Conclusions RP, together with feedback, proved to be a useful technique to help fourth-year Thai medical students improve their reflection skills, enhance their medical knowledge, and improve patient history-taking skills. Further study with longer monitoring is required to further explore negative and positive influential factors affecting students’ achievement of better reflection performances. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12909-019-1585-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Additionally, the role of activities designed to support the development of skills in reflection as an integrated element of teacher preparation courses is discussed by Williamson, Mears and Bustos (2015) and also by Bulman, Lathlean and Gobbi (2014) as an important aspect of preparation for individuals entering the caring professions in order to develop their capacities to become reflective practitioners. Similarly, Hargreaves (2016), Paterson and Chapman (2013), Dervent (2015) and Liu (2015) argue the importance of these activities in exclusively educational preparation contexts. Again, the importance of criticality is highlighted. ...
Article
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The study indicates that classroom observation is potentially a useful tool for teachers’ professional development and works best when the personal capacity of a teacher, an observer, and school provide a base for the effective use and outcome for teachers.A brief summary of major findings and lessons learnt from the project, process, learning of teachers and my own learning is presented as follows;i) Teachers found the pre and post-observation sessions very useful for their professional development. These sessions also help the observer to understand the roots of the teacher's classroom problems.ii) Cyclical observations provide the courage and intellectual capacity to the teachers to turn their focus upon improved actions and they also developed their professional skills.iii) Teachers perceived my role as a helper, facilitator and a resource person who could provide suggestions and alternatives, where needed. I feel the need to further explore, how reflective conversations between a teacher and an observer affect individual teacher's attitudes and behaviour. This will highlight what needs to be done further to improve individual competencies. However, I feel that a co-teaching experience can also provide a valuable basis for collaborative inquiry. It might raise a range of interesting issues and questions for using reflective conversation in planning, teaching, and improving this strategy.
... For more than twenty years, reflection has been immensely popular as a pedagogical tool in nursing education (Bradbury-Jones, Coleman, Davies, Ellison, & Leigh, 2010). Many guided models of reflective writing have been developed and used in implementing reflection in education, for instances John's guided model of reflection (Coward, 2011;O'Connor, 2008), Driscoll's model (Macdonald, 2015), Gibbs cycle (O'Connor, 2008), Peshkin approach to reflection (Bradbury-Jones et al., 2010), Value-Based Reflective Practice (VBRP) (Paterson & Chapman, 2013;Rankin, 2013), or narrative journaling in a specific format which is developed by institution (Burrows, 1995;Epp, 2008;Hargreaves, 2004). However, there have been several critiques about using a model or guided format in reflecting, which mostly emphasized that it may restrict the breadth of reflection; an outcome that could inhibit students to think critically (Burrows, 1995;Coleman & Willis, 2015;Coward, 2011;Epp, 2008). ...
Article
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The notion of reflective practice has been considered important in healthcare professionals’ practice. In nursing, particularly in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, it has been set as a required competence for registration. Some action has been taken to support the achievement of competent and reflective practitioners, including embedding reflection in the nursing pre-registration education curriculum. In the past twenty years, there has been focus on using art-based initiatives to help student nurses to reflect on their clinical experience. Amongst the art forms, poetry has been used as a reflective tool. Many studies found that poetry could be helpful for developing students’ reflective skills. This literature review was conducted to identify the feasibility and promising benefit of using poetry to increase student nurses’ reflective skills. A comprehensive search of the literature and integrative review were undertaken for reviewing and discussing the evidence-based literature that supports the using of poetry as a reflective tool. A critical and narrative approach was undertaken for 16 relevant literature related to the importance of reflection in practice, the promising potential to enhance students’ reflective skills during academic education, and how poetry might promote students’ reflective skills. The literature review showed that using poetry in education have been carried out, and have yielded positive results. It is promising to note that the development of reflective practice, as required to be an attribute of a registered nurse, could be stimulated and achieved by the employment of poetry as a reflective tool in clinical education. The literature review also demostrated that using poetry as a reflective tool in nursing education is both feasible and worthwhile. Therefore, it is proven that using poetry as a means of reflection in an education setting is beneficial and valuable.
... Berglund & Ekebergh, 2015;Freshwater, Taylor, & Sherwood, 2008;Johns, 2013;Lethbridge, 2006;Miraglia & Asselin, 2015), for physiotherapists (e.g. Lähteenmäki, 2005;Paterson & Chapman, 2013), and for psychologists (e.g. Fisher, Chew, & Leow, 2015). ...
Research
The concept of reflection expressed as different types of thinking is explicitly given an essential role in specific strands of international discourses on lifelong learning and education. Meanwhile, some researchers consider reflection problematic and point to the lack of consensus on its meaning in theory and practice. Assuming that there are varied conceptualizations and that arguments for learning of reflective skills are deemed sound, it follows that it would be especially meaningful to find out how professionals responsible for educational practices understand the concept. As this kind of research appears scarce in adult education, an exploration may contribute to knowledge underlying what teachers do 'in the name of reflection'. The pedagogy in Swedish popular education is of special interest as it ideally centers adults' participation and reflection with others to facilitate learning. Furthermore, the curriculum is not regulated in law which may indicate a wide variety of interpretations of the teaching mission including its key concepts. Therefore, the aim of this phenomenography inspired study is to identify the variation in folk high school teachers' (n=7) conceptions of reflection in Swedish popular education. Based on analysis of semi-structured interviews, it is argued that the results in some sense broaden the understanding of reflection in revealing three different categories of descriptions. These categories are; reflection as a process fostering understanding of experiences, reflection as a tool facilitating learning and development, and reflection as a pedagogy enacting ideals of popular education and emancipation. On basis of the theoretical idea that teachers' thought is important to and influence their professional action, the potential influences of these varying conceptualizations on folk high school teachers' professional practice are elucidated.
... A professional who reflects on the learnings gained in the field takes a conscious look at the emotions, actions, strategies, experiences, and answers, using that information to bring his/her learning to a higher state of understanding (Paterson & Chapman, 2013). This reflective practitioner is engaged in a process of continuous learning, since he/she pays attention to the communication by bringing together theory and practice (Zarifis & Gravani, 2014). ...
Chapter
Introduction. Educating healthcare professionals to communication skills is a crucial issue in order to inform patients about the risks for their health, and to share together a safe decision-making (Hamilton & Wen-Ying, 2014). Family Medicine is the field where clinicians and nurses face with a wide-spectrum of pathologies, and are required to know the story of different patients (West, 2001) to sustain a respectful therapeutic alliance (Wonca-Europe, 2011). Using metaphors, when communicating with patients and other professionals (Hanne, 2015), may improve “togetherness” and cooperation or, conversely, generate disconnection and discontents. Aims. This qualitative case study aimed to understand the representation that a group of family physicians, nurses and administrative staff, working in an Italian family practice, have about metaphors and their use in health communication. The goal of this poster is to investigate whether metaphors enhance or worsen cooperation in the therapeutic relationship, in order to improve undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing healthcare education. Participants. A family practice in Northern Italy was purposively sampled (case study). Fifteen participants (10 physicians, 2 nurses, 3 administrative staff) (10 female, 5 male) worked in the same practice. Methods. We conducted 15 semi-structured interviews exploring participants’ experience of metaphors in clinical communication with patients, and in their previous education. After a month, all the participants were involved in an unstructured interview, to gather further reflections on metaphors, and for member checking. Following the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith et al., 2009), we codified and organized data, finding similarities, differences, and relations among them. Five major categories emerged from the interviews. To improve trustiness, researchers discussed all the phases of the analysis, until agreement was achieved. Finally, results were confronted with the literature. Results. Metaphors are used by professionals in their practice, sometimes deliberately. For example, to explain some diagnoses and therapies (“take a hammer to crack a nut”). Patients use metaphors too, especially to describe their symptoms (“I have a cat scratching my throat”). Participants perceive that patients feel closer to them when involved in a clear explanation of therapies and diseases. Metaphors can contribute to make that explanation more understandable, and therefore they can promote closeness. Conversely, according to the participants, metaphors sometimes should be avoided because they may confuse the patient. Additionally, interviewees refer some metaphors may hurt the patient and create discontent (e.g. “the obese”). Discussion. Metaphors have revealed cues that can shape the therapeutic relationship, creating a stronger connection with the patient or, conversely, disconnection and discontent. From the interviews it emerged participants not always are aware of their use of metaphors, when communicating with patients and other professionals. To enhance awareness about this issue, specific curricula could be designed, in order to help students/professionals reflect on metaphoric language as a strategy to promote “togetherness” in the clinical encounter. Further research is needed on the role of metaphors in promoting a sense of belongingness in general practice teams and, therefore, in shaping professional identity (Salling Olesen, 2007).
... Action research aims to make the practitioner investigate reality about the self in order to change it [31]. In particular, it is a deliberate process through which practitioners aim to transform their practices through a spiral of cycles of critical and self-critical action and reflection. ...
Chapter
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Traditional education has ripple effects in education. The way the educator was taught is almost always the way the educator teaches the learners. Traditional education has a narration sickness (Freire, 2000) and the so-called educators are proselytising ideologues who are after the production of copy cats. Active learning in teacher education is anchored in reflective thinking on all practices. The teacher education student should be encouraged to embark on action research which makes one to be introspective. Thus action research makes the teacher involved in active life-long learning. The teacher who has been groomed in action research abhors routine and ritualistic methods of teaching. The action research oriented teacher makes learners active in learning episodes.
... Instead, by watching facilitators simulate the emergency, students have time to reflect upon the strengths and weaknesses in the approach taken by the team and critically appraise their communication and cohesion. Critical reflection has been associated with enhanced learning (Paterson & Chapman, 2013). However, further studies evaluating students' experience and learning (e.g., ongoing ONE-Sim evaluation) are required to evaluate this concept. ...
Article
This report describes the Obstetric and Neonatal Simulation (ONE-Sim) workshop run in a remote learning format for medical and midwifery students in an interprofessional setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. It explores the observation of students as participants in the online learning of using Personal Protective Equipment and simulation-based learning of perinatal emergency management. This was followed by their mutual interaction and reflections. This paper aims to understand the role of synchronous remote learning through simulation and its impact on interprofessional interactions. We describe the experience of medical and midwifery students with the ONE-Sim workshop, facilitated by medical (obstetric and neonatal) and midwifery educators. Formal thematic analysis will be performed as part of the ongoing study; however, initial direct observation demonstrated that students reacted positively to the online ONE-Sim workshop and engaged well with facilitators and peers. Students mutually interacted amongst themselves, shared their previous experiences, knowledge of roles as medical and midwifery practitioners and how they see themselves in those roles in a perinatal emergency setting. The initial observations demonstrate that interprofessional education delivered in an e-learning format can be useful and meaningful , and may be utilized across a number of specialties.
... However, many teachers have misconceptions about reflection, for example, that 'reflection' means 'just thinking' and 'simple thinking' about the teaching and learning process. Paterson and Chapman (2013) prepared a precise description of the reflective practice to interpret reflective teaching and learning practices more clearly. They established that reflection not only includes a simple overview and description of a learner's activity, but rather requires cognitive and metacognitive activities in which the learner recognizes what has been learned, mobilizes his/ her prior knowledge, and connects new information to existing information. ...
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The main objective of the paper is to develop a Reflective Teaching Model for Reading Comprehension (RTMRC) in English Language Teaching (ELT). In recent decades, the concept of ‘reflection’ has become widely used in relation to an effective teaching process in various contexts, such as reflective teaching, reflective practices, reflective inquiry, self-observation, self-evaluation, and peer review. Although it is widely accepted in terms of use, the notion of ‘reflection’ is still broad and confusing, since it has different meanings and is used diversely in various areas of education. Thus, the first part provides an overview of the numerous perspectives in different research fields on the concept of reflective teaching in ELT reading comprehension, which contribute to the analysis, synthesis, and summary of RTMRC. In the second part, an evaluation of researchers’ perspectives in teaching methodology and English language teaching is provided. We have concluded that our summary model based on the literature review is suitable as an instructional framework for ELT practitioners during the teaching process. Moreover, our review indicates that the stages of RTMRC that have been identified are appropriate for use in teaching and learning reading comprehension.
... The reflective thinking process is a higher-order thinking skill (Suharna, 2013;Edwards, 2017). Reflective thinking is used to facilitate self-development and effective learning facilities (Paterson and Chapman, 2013). ...
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The research aims to describe the need for reflective modules in building literacy skills of primary school students. The research used a quantitative descriptive method. The population was the fifth-grade primary school students that implement the 2013 curriculum with A accreditation—the data collection technique used non-test with observation instruments, questionnaires, interview guidelines, and literature review. The sample was taken using a purposive random sampling technique. The sample in this study was 126 students. The results showed that students and teachers need a reflective module to build numeracy literacy. The reflective module has the potential to build numeracy literacy skills. Literacy skill is closely related to reflective thinking processes, in which reflective thinking is a critical thinking process for making an assessment. Self-assessment aims to measure the extent of an individual's abilities to encourage the individual to develop self-potential.
... 24 Reflective practice is essential to maintain and improve course development standards and teaching practice. 25 Reflection allows educators to critically evaluate their teaching practice and assess the effects that their teaching philosophies and information and the forms of learning that they use are having on student engagement and student learning outcomes. Furthermore, reflective practice allows teachers to evaluate whether they are current in both their knowledge base and Pharmacognosy Communications, Vol 12, Issue 1, Jan-Mar, 2022 ...
... [33] Integrating reflective learning into one's own practice enhances patient care, bridges the theory-practice gap, helps in the resolution of practice-related problems and stimulation of critical thinking to foster changes in practice. [34] The medical practice and health policies are facing rapid changes from time to time. The medical education has to simultaneously absorb the new processes keeping in the pace of changes in standards, thereby leading to change in assessment methods. ...
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Introduction: Medical education in India is experiencing a paradigm shift from traditional curriculum to competency-based medical education (CBME). It de-emphasizes time-based training and promises greater accountability, flexibility, and learner centeredness. Faculty development is integral in the context of CBME. Considering faculty perceptions toward the new CBME and addressing the difficulties will play a vital role in successful implementation. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 297 teaching faculty in 91 medical colleges across 20 states all over India between February and July 2020. A structured validated questionnaire on CBME was used to collect the responses through Google forms and was exported and analyzed in Microsoft Excel. Results: More than 80% opined that Faculty members in departments are not adequate for successful CBME implementation. Reflective learning, early clinical exposure, and elective posting were accepted by 60.2%, 70.4%, and 45.5% of the faculty, respectively. Around 81.8% welcomed horizontal integration, whereas only 54.2% favored vertical integration during the Phase I MBBS. Conclusion: Few reforms such as curtailing the duration of foundation course, sensitization of all medical teachers through faculty development programs, better synchronized vertical integration, increasing the strength of faculty in each department, and adequate infrastructure for skills laboratory can be undertaken as per faculty suggestions.
... Such an avenue, in the view of Gibbs, adds value to their professional lives. When preservice teachers reflect on their mentorship experiences, they understand themselves (Paterson & Chapman, 2013), the complexities of the profession (Ditchburn, 2015;Ismail & Çavuşoğlu, 2017), and insights that have the potential to better prepare them as future mentors. The process enhances their ability to become more active rather than passive learners (Mazzola, 2019). ...
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Mentor teachers are instrumental in teacher preparation programs during the teaching practice of preservice teachers that involves mentor-mentee relationships. This qualitative paper reports on the mentoring experiences of preservice teachers during eight weeks of teaching practice in 2020 using Gibbs’ experimental learning as a conceptual framework. Forty-five preservice teachers participated in a reflective exercise, sharing their stories through reflective essays guided by open-ended questions. A thematic approach was used in data analysis. Findings indicated that mentors’ experiences and personal characteristics, and abilities to create opportunities for growth influenced the preservice teachers’ experiences during teaching practice. The mentees’ perceptions toward mentor-mentee relationships also influenced their experience. Based on the findings, it is important to upskill mentors to equip them with professional and mentorship ethics to enable preservice teachers to acquire the requisite skills that will better prepare them as future professional teachers. The findings of this study can be useful in the process of developing professional development of mentors prior to teaching practice.
... Innovative and responsive professional practice relies upon practitioners taking responsibility for lifelong learning and, therefore, taking steps to develop a refl ec tive practice that exposes taken-for-granted knowledge and actions (Finlay, 2008;Ganly, 2018). Although the importance of reflection is acknowledged in such fields as evaluation, health, and education (Canadian Evaluation Society, 2018;Kinsella, 2001;Knightbridge, 2019;Mann, Gordon, & MacLeod, 2009;National Physiotherapy Advisory Group, 2017;Paterson & Chapman, 2013;Patton, 2002), ways to develop reflective skills and enact meaningful reflection are few in number and tend to be vague and abstract (Knightbridge, 2019). Most practitioners would say they do reflect, but whether their internal processes result in meaningful and possibly transformative practice change is debatable. ...
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Reflection is a pillar of professional practice and can enable evaluators to expand their assumptions, change behaviour, and align practice with their values and beliefs. Reflective Practice is the first domain in the Canadian Evaluation Society's Competencies for Evaluation Practice, highlighting the importance of professional awareness and growth. However, the literature offers few tools to move refl ective thought into action. The authors developed a personalized reflective approach through a mentoring relationship and the innovative use of a smartphone. Meaningful refl ec tive practice can leverage personal experience, practical tools, and regular dialogue with a significant other to expand assumptions and change behaviour. Résumé : La réflexion est à la base même de la pratique professionnelle et peut per mettre aux évaluateurs et aux évaluatrices de formuler de nouvelles hypothèses, de changer leur comportement et de faire correspondre leur pratique avec leurs valeurs et leurs convictions. La pratique réflexive est la première des compétences recherché par la Société canadienne d' évaluation, ce qui montre bien l'importance de la con science et de la croissance professionnelles. Cependant, il y a peu de documentation offrant des outils permettant de traduire les pensées réflexives en actions concrètes. Les auteures ont mis au point une approche réflexive personnalisée qui fait appel à une relation de mentorat et à une utilisation novatrice d'un téléphone intelligent. Une pratique réflexive judicieuse permet de tirer parti de l' expérience personnelle, d' outils pratiques et d'un dialogue continu avec une autre personne pour modifi er des opinions préconçues et des comportements.
... Paterson and Chapman reference that the purpose of reflection is to build upon what is already known and add newly acquired information to discover new meaning and an elevated level of understanding. 12 is model builds upon previous learning and reflective models. [13][14][15][16] Patterson and Chapman continue to say that based on theory and concepts of learning that reflection is very much a part of developing depth to learning. ...
... Several studies have focused on how self-reflection empowers the individual with a necessary skill set. Student nurses are allocated to the clinical area to integrate the theory they have learned in class to clinical practice (Paterson & Chapman, 2013;Karimi et al., 2017). In clinical practice, student nurses meet real-life situations that may be overwhelming (Mcloughen, Levy, Johnson, Nyunyen & McKenzie, 2020), and possibly do not match what they have seen and read in textbooks or what they have been taught in class. ...
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Background Self-reflection is a useful tool that can benefit student nurses and patients. It enables the student nurses to develop self-knowledge and awareness of their strengths and weaknesses, and assists them in becoming authentic when providing nursing care to patients. A reflective student nurse is empowered not to dwell on negative experiences and negative thoughts, but to look beyond hurdles and seek positivity and be of value to their patient. Purpose To determine the impact of self-reflection in enhancing student nurses’ authenticity in caring. Design and methods A quantitative, descriptive, and contextual research design with a purposive sampling method was employed. The researcher obtained ethical clearance from a higher education institution in South Africa, and respondents provided voluntary informed consent for their participation in the study. Respondents were student nurses in their third- and fourth-year level of study. Data were collected through a survey method using a self-administered, standardised, five-facet mindfulness questionnaire. Results The results showed that 69.74% of student nurses perceived themselves as able to reflect before reacting. The average mean for this facet was (n = 2.93), and the average standard deviation was (n = 0.949). It was determined that 69.74% of the student nurses found the mindfulness facet ‘non-reaction to inner experiences’ true to them. Conclusions Student nurses’ quality of reflection must be nurtured and cultivated to enhance their caring nature. Reflective learning for student nurses at higher education institutions is recommended to facilitate caring, and self-reflection should be a habitual practice in the clinical area.
... Perception must be interpreted in the knowledge as a tool in order to make a right decision. A person who displays all his practice not only looks at the past actions and events, but obviously looks at the emotions, feelings, actions and reactions and uses this information to add to their existing knowledge base and to reach a higher level of understanding [42]. Reflective practice makes it possible to obtain such knowledge. ...
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The article aims to enhance understanding of how relations, behavior and attitude of the executives and contractors to achieving the objectives by energy supplying companies affect the efficiency of the latter’s overall development. There is offered a factor-reflexive approach to diagnosing the executives’ and contractors’ attitude to realizing the tasks of developing the energy supplying companies. This approach includes models to identify and analyze the factors that influenced the change in contractors’ behavior based on the combination of expert techniques, correlation and regression analysis and evaluation of the personnel response to organizational, resource and staffing projects development, through accumulating sufficient statistical information based on the enterprise’s features, relations and environment. This approach to diagnosing executives’ and contractors’ response to the implementation of tasks and the resulting changes takes into account the subjective component of their response. Practical implementation of this approach in monitoring the conformity of the development tasks has proven the ability to identify problems from the viewpoint of the task executives.
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Objective The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of theater nurses in a multidisciplinary team, understand the factors that have influenced theater nurses’ practice, and improve the authors’ clinical practice ultimately. Methods The author used Smyth’s model to guide the process of reflection on the practice issue. Critical reflection, critical emancipatory theory, reflexivity, and critical social theory were used to help the author analyze the factors that have affected theater nurses’ practice in the organization. Results There are gaps between the espoused and enacted theories. A theater nurse’s practice is determined by multiple factors, such as political, structural, social, historical, cultural issues, and so on. The hierarchy of the health context could hinder possible changes in theater nurses’ practice. To better understand our practice and implement transformation, we should shape a supportive environment, bear in mind the practice motto of “patient-centered” care, and improve our knowledge and reflection skills. Conclusions Reflection plays a significant role in the advancing of practice among theater nurses and needs to be combined with clinical practice. To provide the best service of care to perioperative patients, a theater nurse should have an insightful understanding of the factors that have influenced her/his behaviors historically, socially, and culturally. By improving their critical reflection skills, practitioners could gain knowledge from experience.
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A clinical collaborative learning experience (CCLE) is a viable clinical education model in physical therapy (PT). The purposes of this study were to 1) examine factors perceived to influence a successful CCLE, and 2) examine processes that make it successful. Factors contributing to a successful CCLE, including teaching strategies, student characteristics, and environment, have been reported. The processes that occur during a CCLE that influence its success have not been studied. Twenty-nine students and 18 clinical instructors (CIs) involved in CCLEs. Using a grounded theory approach, phase 1 examined perceived factors contributing to efficacy of the CCLE through surveys and focus groups. Phase 2 examined the processes involved in team building, leading to an effective CCLE through journals and focus groups. Student and clinic factors were perceived to affect the success of the CCLE. The evolution of an effective team that depended on effective communication was deemed the cornerstone of a successful CCLE. The student strategies of self-reflection, idea sharing, and active observation along with clinic-driven strategies of role assignment and a positive learning environment fostered team development. All students in the CCLE were successful as measured by the Clinical Performance Instrument (full-time experiences) and the integrated clinical experience evaluation supporting the trustworthiness of the qualitative findings. These findings expand the considerations for an effective CCLE and provide a basis for understanding the processes involved in a successful CCLE. This process is focused on developing an effective student–CI team. Preparation and training of students and CIs in the importance of team development and strategies to achieve this are warranted. The CCLE may address the shortage of clinical placements in PT and enhance the learning that occurs in PT clinical education.
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This article is a response to Michael Vogel’s article, “Transitioning Integration: The Case of Regan.” This response highlights Vogel’s ideas on cultural-linguistic models that center culture in understanding religious and spiritual traditions. In addition, this article captures Vogel’s therapeutic sensibilities throughout his work which enabled him to engage with his client’s multiplicity, fluidity, and permeability. This response riffs off of Vogel’s work and attempts to further his ideas of cultural-linguistic models of integration that encompass the Cultural Third and the conscious and unconscious reactions of clients and clinicians. Furthermore, guidelines are provided in how one might become a culturally informed integrative practitioner.
Technical Report
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The most common transition a leader will experience is a move into a new job or role. Indeed, a leadership transition is one of the most challenging times in a leader’s professional career - for one standout reason: Failure. Over half of all leaders fail to meet the expectations set by their employers. So, how does a leader effectively integrate to their new executive role? What accelerates the leadership transition process? Finally, what does mean in the eyes of leaders in transition, organizations supporting leadership integration and leadership development practitioners? This report reveals the findings of an 18-month study on the practices that enable leaders to successfully transition up and into VP roles. Read this report if you want to: - learn about the factors that can obstruct and support a leadership transition - consider how you can better prepare for, manage and support leadership transitions This research is aimed at leaders experiencing a significant leadership transition, organizations working to support the integration of their senior leaders, and leadership development practitioners.
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This research investigated the implementation of a constructivist teaching perspective in a primary school mathematics classroom. Through an interpretive case study I explored the impact of transformative pedagogical change on my professional practice. Behaviourist/positivist tendencies impacted my interpretive research methods and implementation of a constructivist teaching perspective. Development of my understanding of learning theory and use of critical reflexivity enabled me to implement a more constructivist teaching perspective with my students.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the kinds of experiences beginning teachers face as they commence in the profession and the significance of professional learning as a critical support during the transition from initial teacher education. Larsen and Allen discuss contemporary conceptualisations of professional learning as both educative and transformative, with a focus on teacher agency. The authors point to the diverse kinds of professional learning contexts in which beginning teachers are commonly located, the features of which may impact on their professional learning work in various ways. Drawing on teacher identity research, the importance of professional learner identity development to meaningful engagement with professional learning is highlighted.
Chapter
In this concluding chapter, Larsen and Allen consider the implications of their work for the kinds of policy and practice that may empower beginning teachers to develop productive ways of thinking about professional learning. They argue the need to think beyond the provision of quality professional learning opportunities to supporting beginning teachers’ identity work as professional learners. While making professional learning available to beginning teachers is extremely important, such action alone by policy makers and those working alongside beginning teachers in schools will fall short of developing the kinds of motivated and purposeful professional learners that are required in today’s schools. In this chapter, the authors consider the ways in which support for beginning teachers may be strengthened and deepened through a focus on professional learner identity.
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Background The nation’s demographics and health care needs are changing, concurrent with the demand to double the number of doctorally prepared nurses by 2020. This combination has intensified challenges associated with finding quality clinical placements and appropriate preceptors for nurse practitioner (NP) students. Purposefully integrated simulations offer alternate experiences and expose students to deliberately crafted and consistent learning opportunities. Methods Scaffolded simulations were integrated within an Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Program over the course of six semesters. Results Analysis is currently underway, but preliminary data show that simulation experiences helped to develop assessment, critical thinking, and decision-making skills. The students also felt better prepared to communicate with other health care providers in this new role. Conclusion Although resource intensive, simulation provides an unparalleled opportunity for NP students to independently perform, without direct supervision, as an NP. Presenting an example of simulation integration can aid other educators seeking to develop a similar program.
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This is the first of a two-part article on the communication process in health care. The interactive process of effective communication is crucial to enabling healthcare organisations to deliver compassionate, high-quality nursing care to patients, in facilitating interactions between the organisation and its employees and between team members. Poor communication can generate negativity; for instance, misperception and misinterpretation of the messages relayed can result in poor understanding, patient dissatisfaction and lead to complaints. Reflection is a highly beneficial tool. In nursing, it enables nurses to examine their practice, identify problems or concerns, and take appropriate action to initiate improvements. This two-part article examines the role of a uro-oncology clinical nurse specialist (UCNS). Ongoing observations and reflections on the UCNS's practice had identified some pertinent issues in the communication process, specifically those relating to clinical practice and the management of practice-related issues and complaints. Part 1 examines the inherent problems in the communication process, with explanation of their pertinence to delivering optimal health care to patients, as demonstrated in four case studies related to breaking bad news to patients and one scenario related to communicating in teams. Part 2 will focus on the management of complaints.
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It is often believed that ‘teacher professional development’ is propagated, researched and implemented by western researchers in 19th century. Contrary to these beliefs, a study of ancient Indian text Upanishads (c.800 BCE - c.500 BCE) reveal that teacher professional development practices were a part and parcel of ancient Indian education system. Present research traces a number of evidences from three Upanishads namely Chhandogya Upanishad, Prasna Upanishad, and Taittiriya Upanishad to prove that a majority of modern day teacher professional development practices were prevalent in ancient India and rishis and munis (teachers in an ancient India) were apt practitioners and beneficiaries of these practices.
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Introduction: One of the two major crises modern medicine is confronting with is the quality-of-care crisis (QCC); The QCC is the result of the ignorance of the existential and psychological needs of patients by doctors, nurses, and caregivers. In this paper, we aim to review this crisis and the importance of taking it into consideration by caregivers. We also develop a framework, called The Phronetic Model for Care, for an ideal care practice that can be used as a basis for training caregivers and this could be a major step to overcome QCC. Methods: This study has been written using the Critical Review method and the proposed steps by Carnwell & Daly to design a conceptual model. The concepts and resources related to the QCC have been searched for in databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, ERIC, Elsevier, and PhilPapers with the keywords medical practice, healthcare practice, critical reflection, empathy, phronesis, practical wisdom, reflective practice and the latest and most cited papers and books have been selected and read. Results: This study has been written using the Critical Review method and the proposed steps by Carnwell & Daly to design a conceptual model. The concepts and resources related to the QCC have been searched for in databases including Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, ERIC, Elsevier, and PhilPapers with the keywords medical practice, healthcare practice, critical reflection, empathy, phronesis, practical wisdom, reflective practice and the latest and most cited papers and books have been selected and read. Conclusion: Regarding that one of the most important steps to alleviate QCC is rethinking the concept of QCC and its various components, the proposed framework for practicing care can be used as a basis for teaching the skills required by caregivers and their proper training in order to emancipate from QCC.
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The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) model of statutory supervision for midwives ceased in 2017 following a change in UK legislation. In response, the Scottish Government and NHS Education for Scotland (NES) worked with NHS Health Boards to develop a new employer-led model of clinical supervision. The aim of this model is to help midwives provide improved services, safer care and improved outcomes for women and infants in keeping with professional regulation. The new Scottish Clinical Supervision Model is also designed to increase midwives' personal wellbeing and help them deal with the everyday challenges of clinical practice. The design is a radical departure from the previous NMC model because it incorporates facilitation and coaching methods which teach midwives to respond, reflect and restore self, and reduce stress and increase resilience. In an attempt to improve nurturing leadership, the key components of this new model are underpinned by a person-centred approach, during which the supervisor provides unconditional positive regard and empathy towards the supervisee. Equipping midwives to develop contemporary supervision is supported by NES through online education.
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تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى التعرف إلى مستوى امتلاك أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في كلية علوم الرياضة في جامعة مؤتة للمهارات المهنية الحياتية في ضوء الجودة الشاملة تبعاً لمتغيرات (الجنس، الرتبة، الخبرة). واستخدم الباحث المنهج الوصفي على عينة تكونت من (19) تسعة عشر عضواً من أعضاء هيئة التدريس في كلية علوم الرياضة في جامعة مؤتة، واستخدم الباحث المعالجات الإحصائية لاستخراج النتائج، حيث أظهرت هذه النتائج ما يلي: أن مستوى امتلاك أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في جامعة مؤتة للمهارات المهنية الحياتية في ضوء الجودة الشاملة قد جاء مرتفعاً. وعدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مستوى امتلاك أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في كلية علوم الرياضة في جامعة مؤتة للمهارات المهنية الحياتية في ضوء الجودة الشاملة تعزى للجنس. وعدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مستوى امتلاك أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في جامعة مؤتة للمهارات المهنية الحياتية في ضوء الجودة الشاملة تعزى لمتغير الرتبة. وعدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مستوى امتلاك أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية في كلية علوم الرياضة في جامعة مؤتة للمهارات المهنية الحياتية في ضوء الجودة الشاملة حيث تعزى لمتغير للخبرة. وأوصت الدراسة بضرورة تعزيز أساليب التدريس الحديثة لدى أعضاء هيئة التدريس من خلال عقد دورات متخصصة لهم بالتعاون مع كليات التربية الرياضية في الجامعات الأردنية الأخرى.
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Objective To identify how a flipped approach to cardiorespiratory teaching can help undergraduate Physiotherapy students to contextualise their knowledge and prepare them for clinical placement. Research design An action research approach was used, taking mixed methods approach. Novel learning objects and environments were created based around a flipped classroom approach for undergraduate physiotherapy students in year 2 of a 4 year physiotherapy course (n=78). This allowed class time to be spent carrying out clinical reasoning panels and application of skills linked to case studies. The student’s performance and feedback in exams was compared to the previous cohort and analysed for trends. A focus group was held to gather student’s opinions on the changes to the module and preparedness for placement. Results There was increased number of students who passed the coursework component (91% compared to 87.7%), practical exam pass rate remained the same however more students achieved an improved grade. The marker feedback showed that there appears to be improved evidence of clinical reasoning skills across the year group. Themes were identified from the focus group and highlighted a positive attitude regarding the flipped classroom and they felt clinical reasoning panels and case studies better prepared them for the exam and placement. Students reported that being able to write a set of clinical notes was useful and transferable to other subjects. Conclusion Overall a flipped classroom approach improved performance of clinical reasoning in practical exams and was well evaluated by students
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Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) is taught to cultivate compassion and teach midwives how to care for themselves. The need to build midwives' resilience is recognised by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), who advocate that mental health coping strategies be embedded into the midwifery curriculum. In this respect, CMT can be used as a resilience-building method to help midwives respond to self-criticism and threat-based emotions with compassion. The underpinnings of CMT involve understanding that people can develop cognitive biases or unhelpful thinking patterns, co-driven by an interplay between genetics and the environment. Within this paper, the underpinning theory of CMT and how it can be used to balance psychological threat, drive, and soothing systems are outlined. To contextualise the application to midwifery practice, a traumatic incident has been discussed. Teaching CMT has the potential to improve professional quality of life, and reduce midwife absence rates and potential attrition from the profession.
Chapter
There are opportunities for children’s palliative care (CPC) teams to expand their skills and knowledge through ongoing learning and commitment to support the care needs of children living with life-limiting (LLC) and life-threatening conditions (LTCs) and their families.Each member of the team plays a vital role in the interdependent nature of service delivery which requires that each member assumes responsibility for their own learning and development so as to promote team confidence and competence.There are a range of CPC educational programmes available worldwide: learners may choose from face-to-face, online and blended training options. Clinical placement is recommended.The importance of reflective practice and its role as an intrinsic tool to self-care.There is an essential need for ongoing mentoring and supervision of individuals and teams working in the field of CPC. There are opportunities for children’s palliative care (CPC) teams to expand their skills and knowledge through ongoing learning and commitment to support the care needs of children living with life-limiting (LLC) and life-threatening conditions (LTCs) and their families. Each member of the team plays a vital role in the interdependent nature of service delivery which requires that each member assumes responsibility for their own learning and development so as to promote team confidence and competence. There are a range of CPC educational programmes available worldwide: learners may choose from face-to-face, online and blended training options. Clinical placement is recommended. The importance of reflective practice and its role as an intrinsic tool to self-care. There is an essential need for ongoing mentoring and supervision of individuals and teams working in the field of CPC.
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This paper reviews 36 papers that investigate on the criteria and aspects of the reflection that has been done after the classroom instruction by the teacher or educator. Past researches have shown that reflection is one of the important things that the teacher always do in order to reflect back on their actions and discourses that have been used in the classroom. This paper review focuses on a few aspects and elements in the reflection as well as other aspects to be considered when implementing a study involving this kind of framework in the future.
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The purpose of this study is to highlight the significant differences emerging from a comparison between the perceptions of teachers and first-year students of the SVT license regarding the characteristics of the effective teacher and the teaching. 41 teachers and 290 students, from the Biology department of the Dhar El Mehraz faculty of Science, were asked to rank 60 items according to their degree of importance on a Likert scale. It has been found that students are mainly vulnerable to university entrance, opt for academic and emotional support characteristics. On their part, teachers, aware of the problems and constraints that these students face, strive to provide remedies for their affiliation and their fulfillment.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between increasing mastery wave concepts and optics with habits of mind of physics prospective teacher students. This study involved 46 students who programed the Wave and Optics courses in one of the LPTK Physics Education Study Programs in Banjarmasin. The method used is mixed method with an embedded experimental model. Data analysis techniques used N Gain to determine the increase in mastery of concepts and habits of mind, then carried out normalization tests, and correlation tests to determine the relationship between the two. Analysis of the results of the study of increasing the mastery of wave concepts and optics with habits of mind of prospective physics teacher students showed a positive, strong, and very significant relationship with r (46) = 0.64; p = 0.01. This explains that the better the mastery of the concepts held by prospective teacher students, the better habits of mind of prospective teacher students, or vice versa.
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Reflection on the process of learning is believed to be an essential ingredient in the development of expert learners. By employing reflective thinking skills to evaluate the results of one's own learning efforts, awareness of effective learning strategies can be increased and ways to use these strategies in other learning situations can be understood. This article describes how expert learners use the knowledge they have gained of themselves as learners, of task requirements, and of specific strategy use to deliberately select, control, and monitor strategies needed to achieve desired learning goals. We present a model of expert learning which illustrates how learners' metacognitive knowledge of cognitive, motivational, and environmental strategies is translated into regulatory control of the learning process through ongoing reflective thinking. Finally, we discuss the implications that the concept of expert learning has for instructional practices.
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The importance of reflection and reflective practice are frequently noted in the literature; indeed, reflective capacity is regarded by many as an essential characteristic for professional competence. Educators assert that the emergence of reflective practice is part of a change that acknowledges the need for students to act and to think professionally as an integral part of learning throughout their courses of study, integrating theory and practice from the outset. Activities to promote reflection are now being incorporated into undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, and across a variety of health professions. The evidence to support and inform these curricular interventions and innovations remains largely theoretical. Further, the literature is dispersed across several fields, and it is unclear which approaches may have efficacy or impact. We, therefore, designed a literature review to evaluate the existing evidence about reflection and reflective practice and their utility in health professional education. Our aim was to understand the key variables influencing this educational process, identify gaps in the evidence, and to explore any implications for educational practice and research.
Book
This comprehensive text examines what it takes to progress toward - and ultimately become - an expert in physical therapy. It explores multiple dimensions of expertise: how expert practitioners develop, what knowledge they use, where they acquire that knowledge, how they think and reason, how they make decisions, and how they perform in practice to demonstrate what it takes to progress and ultimately become an expert in physical therapy. Introduces the four core concepts that comprise the model of expertise: Knowledge, Clinical Reasoning, Movement, and Virtue A Data Collection Tools Appendix provides a step-by-step description of the process that the authors used to select, interview, and collect data from the experts in each case study to demonstrates the use of critical thinking and research-based analysis Contributed chapters on Expert Practice and Clinical Outcomes, Clinical Reasoning and Expert Practice, and Implications for Practice Implications for Practice chapter covers the implementation and results of this model of expertise in a staff development program A Postscript "The Voices of our Experts 10 Years Later" where clinicians share the evolution of their expertise Two chapters on Inquiry into Expertise and Implications for Doctoral Level Education in Physical Therapy provide insights into the practical application of the core concepts of the physical therapy model of expertise and facilitate the continued development of expertise in physical therapy.
Article
Now in its second edition, Teaching and Learning through Reflective Practice is a practical guide to enable all those involved in educational activities to learn through the practices of reflection. The book highlights the power that those responsible for teaching and learning have to appraise, understand and positively transform their teaching. Seeing the teacher as a reflective learner, the book emphasises a strengths-based approach in which positivity, resilience, optimism and high performance can help invigorate teaching, enhance learning and allow the teacher to reach their full potential. This approach busts the myth that reflection on problems and deficits is the only way to better performance. The approach of this new edition is an 'appreciative' one. At its heart is the exploration and illustration of four reflective questions: What's working well?. What needs changing?. What are we learning?. Where do we go from here?. With examples drawn from UK primary teacher education, the book reveals how appreciative reflective conversations can be initiated and sustained. It also sets out a range of practical processes for amplifying success. This book will be a must have for undergraduate and PGCE students on initial teacher training programmes. It will also interest practising teachers, teacher educators and those on continuing professional development courses.
Article
This study compares the diagnostic reasoning of a group of 5 physiotherapists who have undertaken a formal specialist training programme and gained a qualification in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and a group of 5 equally experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapists who have not undertaken specialist training. Subjects were audiotaped as they worked through a dynamic case history and reached a clinical diagnosis. There were differences in their use of pattern recognition and self-monitoring reasoning skills. The study concludes that for this small group of physiotherapists, formal postgraduate specialist education appeared to have fundamentally changed their approach to a diagnostic task.
Book
A practical text covering the theory and the practice of clinical reasoning skills for all physical therapists. Provides readers with activities to improve their own clinical reasoning within their own clinical setting. With a range of very high-caliber international contributors in the field of physiotherapy practice, this book gives the answers to the practitioners question of how does one apply the theoretical knowledge involved in clinical reasoning to practice and how can one become a better practitioner as a result.
Article
The intention of this paper is to establish the importance for sociology of genealogy. Genealogy has been a practice in many cultures and throws light upon the way in which families have conducted themselves in the past. It additionally demonstrates the cultural and ideological importance of the establishment of pedigrees and descents for particular families, subcultures and societies. Further, genealogy is becoming an increasingly popular and highly time consuming recreational activity and as such is a phenomenon worthy of sociological research. It is also to be noted that a number of important historical works utilising genealogical research have been much under-used by sociologists. They provide a useful source for sociologists seeking to explain the extent and consequences of family life and kin relations in periods of particularly marked social change.
Article
This short discussion paper is inspired by the belief that continuing education is an essential catalyst for advancing professional practice. It proposes that reflection on practice is an essential component of continuing professional education and that experienced practitioners must reflect on practice in order both to develop personally and to move the profession forward. Inevitably, this entails questioning the status quo, facing conflict and initiating change. These processes are discussed here and the discussion concludes by considering some strategies for incorporating reflection through continuing professional education.
Article
This paper describes a process of guided reflection that aims to facilitate and structure reflection and provide a framework for the assessment of reflective practice within the discipline of physiotherapy. Arguments are presented for moving away from an approach which encourages reflecting on beliefs, values, and attitudes to an approach that is linked more closely to systematic critical enquiry, problem solving, and clinical reasoning. The importance of linking reflection to higher order cognitive processes, specifically the development of memory schema, "illness scripts", and clinical knowledge, are stressed. Emphasis is placed on gathering evidence of reflection to allow knowledge that is normally tacit to become more explicit and available for critical appraisal. Therefore, the framework, which is intended to facilitate reflection in clinical practice, asks students to write a personal reflective account, supported by evidence. The framework builds on the thinking and the decision-making process associated with the physiotherapy student's examination of the patient and as such it is embedded within clinical reasoning.
Critical and autonomous thinking must take precedence over the uncritical assimilation of knowledge. Transformative learning is a route to the development of critical thinking.
Article
In this article I ask whether it is possible to make a distinction between education and socialisation. Whereas socialisation is understood as the process of inserting newcomers into an existing order, education is characterised in terms of a concern for the individuality or uniqueness of the human person. In the Enlightenment it was argued that we could distinguish education from socialisation with the help of the idea of rational autonomy which was considered to be a universal potential of all human beings that could help them to make themselves independent from tradition. The critique of philosophical humanism has shown why rational autonomy should no longer be understood as itself beyond tradition. As a result education for rational autonomy becomes another form of socialisation. It is suggested that an orientation towards the future and, more specifically towards what comes to us from the future, might help us to maintain a distinction between education and socialisation.
Article
Building on the concepts of professional competence that he introduced in his classic The Reflective Practitioner, Schon offers an approach for educating professional in all areas that will prepare them to handle the complex and unpredictable problems of actual practice with confidence, skill, and care.
Article
Carper's fundamental ways of knowing have been utilized as a framework for the practitioner to consider what he or she has learnt through reflection on experience. The purpose of this paper is to consider, through an interpretation of Carper's writings and through analysing one practitioner's experience shared in a supervision milieu, whether this use of Carper's work can be reasonably justified on a theoretical and practical level.
Article
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the dimensions of clinical expertise in physical therapy practice across 4 clinical specialty areas: geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Subjects were 12 peer-designated expert physical therapists nominated by the leaders of the American Physical Therapy Association sections for geriatrics, neurology, orthopedics, and pediatrics. Guided by a grounded theory approach, a multiple case study research design was used with each of the 4 investigators studying 3 therapists working in one clinical area. Data were obtained through nonparticipant observation, interviews, review of documents, and analysis of structured tasks. Videotapes made during selected therapist-patient treatment sessions were used as a stimulus for the expert therapist interviews. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed through the development of 12 case reports and 4 composite case studies, one for each specialty area. A theoretical model of expert practice in physical therapy was developed that included 4 dimensions: (1) a dynamic, multidimensional knowledge base that is patient-centered and evolves through therapist reflection, (2) a clinical reasoning process that is embedded in a collaborative, problem-solving venture with the patient, (3) a central focus on movement assessment linked to patient function, and (4) consistent virtues seen in caring and commitment to patients. These findings build on previous research in physical therapy on expertise. The dimensions of expert practice in physical therapy have implications for physical therapy practice, education, and continued research.
Article
Aim This study explores and extends some recent Foucauldian critiques of reflection and clinical supervision in nursing. Background Although reflection is often accepted uncritically, several writers have claimed that it is being employed (albeit perhaps unwittingly) as a management tool to facilitate the governmentality of the workforce by establishing conditions whereby so-called reflective practitioners monitor and regulate their own practice in an essentially self-repressive way. Evaluation/examination We evaluated these critiques and extended them with reference to Foucault's later writing, particularly on the ‘care of self’. Key issues and conclusions Our exploration of these critiques prompted us to distinguish between two different projects of reflection, which we term the ontological and the epistemological. The ontological project regards the aim of reflection as personal growth under the direction of an enlightened guide, and we argue that there is a real danger that such an approach might degenerate into what one critic has termed ‘a subtle but persuasive exercise of power’. The epistemological project, on the other hand, is concerned with an exploration by practitioners of their own methods of thinking about their practice, and as such, has the potential to become truly emancipatory.
Article
Reflective practice has been welcomed into nursing education with open arms. However, practitioners are cautious of its perceived benefits and limitations considering the evidence-based literature has not been adequately tested. Concepts are well established as the building blocks of theory. It therefore follows that a primary step in building a theoretical base is undertaking a concept analysis. While there is an abundance of anecdotal literature available on reflective practice, it was deemed necessary to analyse the concept, define the attributes, antecedents and consequences, in order to identify a model case of reflective practice for clinical practice. This article uses Rodgers' (1989) methodology to gain a better understanding of what reflective practice actually is, and whether the concept is in fact useful to the practising nurse.
Life in quest of narrative On Paul Ricoeur: Narrative and interpretation (pp. 20e34)
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Ricoeur, P. (1991). Life in quest of narrative. In D. Wood (Ed.), On Paul Ricoeur: Narrative and interpretation (pp. 20e34). London: Routledge.
How general can Bildung be? Reflections on the future of a modern educational ideal The education-socialisation conundrum or 'Who is afraid of ed-ucation?'. Utbildning & Demokrati Reflection: Turning experience into learning) Sports physiotherapy competencies and standards
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Biesta, G. (2002). How general can Bildung be? Reflections on the future of a modern educational ideal. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 36(3), 377e390. Biesta, G. (2007). The education-socialisation conundrum or 'Who is afraid of ed-ucation?'. Utbildning & Demokrati, 16(3), 25e36. Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (Eds.). (1985). Reflection: Turning experience into learning). London: Kogan Page. Bulley, C., Donaghy, M., Coppoolse, R., Bizzini, M., van Cingel, R., DeCarlo, M., et al. (2005). Sports physiotherapy competencies and standards. Sports physiotherapy for all project. www.sportsphysiotherapyforall.org/publications.
Thoughts and feelings that occurred at the time and subsequently are explored
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Feelings. Thoughts and feelings that occurred at the time and subsequently are explored.
Sports physiotherapy competencies and standards. Sports physiotherapy for all project
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Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further education unit
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C. Paterson, J. Chapman / Physical Therapy in Sport xxx (2013) 1e6