Production of Tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis Strains in Water-Boiled Salted Duck
The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 Lactococcus lactis and 15 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. The production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. None of the L. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of E. faecalis produced tyramine and b -phenylethylamine. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of tyrosine decarboxylase genes in all of the isolated strains. Only the 12 biogenic amine-producing Enterococcus strains had a 924-bp fragment characteristic for the tyrosine decarboxylase gene. The comparison of the amplified partial tyrDC gene sequences of the 12 positive Enterococcus strains revealed 99% similarity within the same species. The tyramine production of the sterilized water-boiled salted duck inoculated with E. faecalis R612Z1 increased significantly during storage. This study reveals that the isolated E. faecalis strains can produce tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in the medium; however, they can only produce tyramine in water-boiled salted duck.
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