Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

With suicidal behavior serving as a leading cause of injury and death around the world, researchers must expand ongoing efforts to uncover protective factors. In this study, we examined if gratitude mitigated existing risk factors for suicide. Specifically, we predicted that gratitude moderates the relationship between suicidal ideation and (a) hopelessness and (b) depressive symptoms in a sample of 369 diverse undergraduate students. Results indicate that for people who are highly grateful, both hopelessness and depressive symptoms are less likely to be associated with thoughts and intentions to kill oneself. The findings demonstrate the value of integrating protective factors against suicidality, including character strengths such as gratitude, into existing theories that tend to be limited to vulnerability factors. We offer tentative ideas for enhancing the impact of suicide prevention and intervention programs by directly addressing gratitude, which has been shown to be highly modifiable.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Gratitude has positive impact on both intra-and inter-personal well-being (Watkins 2014). In NSSI related research areas of suicidality and depressive symptoms, gratitude has been identified as a critical protective trait (e.g., Kleiman et al. 2013;Wood et al. 2008). For example, Wood et al. (2008) in two longitudinal studies demonstrated that gratitude promoted ones' perceived social support and decreased the levels of stress and depression. ...
... For example, Wood et al. (2008) in two longitudinal studies demonstrated that gratitude promoted ones' perceived social support and decreased the levels of stress and depression. Kleiman et al. (2013) argued gratitude is a "supercharged" resilience factor in reducing the risk of suicidal ideation. Therefore, gratitude might be a trait which is less likely to be compatible with self-injury behaviors, and hence, would be negatively associated with NSSI. ...
... future dimension may jointly affect one's self and contextual experiences. For example, Kleiman et al. (2013) demonstrated that the combination of gratitude and grit (a psychological strength similar to hope; Duckworth et al. 2007) conferred youth more resilience against suicidal ideations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of individuals’ positive characteristics on nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been relatively understudied. This study sought to investigate the relationships between gratitude and hope and NSSI and the mediation of positive experiences towards self and contexts (i.e., family and school) among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 1026 students from a secondary school (447 girls; Mean age = 13.76, SD = 1.27) and completed questionnaires regarding gratitude, hope, self-experience (indexed by self-compassion), family experience (reflected by family functioning, family cohesion, and parent-child relation), school experience (reflected by school engagement, peer relation, and teacher-student relation), and NSSI. The results of structural equation modeling showed that gratitude and hope worked individually but not jointly with each other through self-compassion and family experience to predict adolescent NSSI. Our findings illustrate the positive roles of gratitude and hope as well as the indirect effects of self-compassion and family experience in reducing the risk of engaging in NSSI in adolescents.
... Instead of psychopathology, PP investigates and emphasizes psychological strengths to promote positive emotions and life satisfaction (Gillham and Seligman, 1999). The positive traits are negatively associated with SI and moderate the relationship between depression and SI, including optimism and hope (Davidson et al., 2010;O'Keefe et al., 2011;Tucker et al., 2013), forgiveness (Quintana-Orts and Rey, 2018), meaning in life (Bryan et al., 2013), and gratitude (Kaniuka et al., 2020;Kleiman et al., 2013;Krysinska et al., 2015;Li et al., 2012;Lin, 2015;Lo et al., 2017). Among these positive traits, gratitude has been proven to buffer the relationship among depression, hopelessness, and SI. ...
... Third, gratitude is associated with autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (Wood et al., 2010). Accepting the authentic self and finding the purpose in life can also potentially lessen SI caused by hopelessness and burdensomeness (Kleiman et al., 2013;Pfeiffer et al., 2014). Fourth, from a social perspective, gratitude strengthens relationships and promotes relationship formation and maintenance (Wood et al., 2010), and strong social support has been proven to be a protective factor against suicide (Krysinska et al., 2015;Lemaire and Graham, 2011;Smith et al., 2016). ...
... Findings from study 1 and 2 demonstrated that gratitude was inversely associated with SI in both samples (i.e., veterans with mental illness, student veterans with PTSD symptoms) after accounting for demographic variables and depression. This is consistent with previous research findings on the relationships among gratitude, depressive symptoms, and suicidality (Kleiman et al., 2013;Li et al., 2012;Rey et al., 2019). For example, adolescents who have higher levels of gratitude are less likely to have SI and behaviors (Li et al., 2012;Rey et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is aimed to identify the effect of gratitude as an adaptive regulating mechanism from suicidal ideation (SI) for veterans with mental illness (study 1) and student veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (study 2) in the United States. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to examine sociodemographic characteristics and relationships between gratitude and SI. Our study 1 consisted of 156 veterans with mental illness. The mean age for study 1 was 37.85. Our study 2 consisted of 232 student veterans with PTSD symptoms. The mean age for study 2 was 28.43. Higher gratitude scores in study 1 and study 2 were significantly associated with lower SI scores after adjusting for demographics and depression. This study partially supports the association between gratitude and SI in veterans with mental illness. Based on the results from this study, gratitude interventions may be effective in reducing SI when working with veterans with mental illness.
... Duas forças mais endossadas pelos participantes foram a esperança e a gratidão. A esse respeito, Kleiman et al. (2013) ressaltaram que os baixos níveis de esperança podem ser Seligman, 2009). Além disso, o fator estratégias de enfrentamento da eare-ad se correlacionou significativamente com a força amor pelo aprendizado, possivelmente, porque o indivíduo que possui essa força busca organizar os seus estudos sem muitos incentivos exteriores e, para tal, busca controlar suas emoções e comportamentos, não se permitindo que eventos tristes o desviem do foco do aprendizado (Bortoletto & Botuchovitch, 2013;Peterson & Seligman, 2004). ...
... A hipótese em relação às forças gratidão e esperança era que elas apresentassem correlações significativas com mais fatores da eare-ad, o que se confirmou parcialmente, uma vez que gratidão apresentou correlações significativas com três fatores e esperança com quatro. Em relação à gratidão, o que foi encontrado também pode ser explicado ao se considerar a depressão, posto que a gratidão pode minimizar sentimentos de desesperança que são próprios de pessoas que se encontram em estados depressivos (Kleiman et al., 2013). Uma das formas de ser grato é buscar fazer o bem a outrem por algo de bom recebido, o que pode explicar a associação dessa força com estratégias de enfrentamento adequadas. ...
... A explicação está no fato de a esperança e de o pessimismo indicarem uma expectativa, positiva ou negativa, relacionada ao futuro Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Se o indivíduo possui a força esperança, possivelmente, enfrentará de forma mais adequada as situações que lhe surgirem ao vivenciar emoções tristes (Kleiman et al., 2013;Peterson, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
It is important to research the relation between character strengths and emotional self-regulation because constructs can help reduce psycho-pathologies and contribute to healthy development. The purpose of the study was to analyze the prediction of character strengths in relation to emotional self-regulation in the face of sad events. The sample was made up of 233 university students between the ages of 18 and 52 (M=23.20; DE=5.588). Participants answered the Character Strengths Scale (EFC) and the Adult Emotional Self-Regulation Scale (EARE-AD). Each factor of the EARE-ad was predicted by at least three character strengths (β entre .177 y .375). With the exception of the spirituality strength, all of the strengths were significantly associated with EARE-AD factors (r between .14 and .47). Results show that the character strengths of vitality and self-regulation are those that contribute most to reduce emotional difficulties. We suggest new studies in order to understand some of the findings regarding character strengths.
... The current literature has tended to examine how gratitude and patience protect against external risks of suicidality, such as victimization (Rey et al., 2019), physical health crisis (Hashemi et al., 2018), or stressful life events (Li et al., 2012). Initial evidence suggests gratitude and patience might also buffer against internal risk factors such as depressive symptoms and hopelessness (Kleiman et al., 2013a). The first aim of this study is to test whether gratitude and patience protect against risk of suicidality related to struggles with ultimate meaning (e.g., Currier, McDermott, et al., 2018;Raines et al., 2017). ...
... Extant studies have only examined the buffering effects of gratitude and patience on minimally or moderately distressed populations, such as community samples of adolescents (Li et al., 2012;Rey et al., 2019), college students (Kleiman et al., 2013a(Kleiman et al., , 2013b or cardiovascular outpatients (Hashemi et al., 2018); researchers have not examined the protective effects of gratitude and patience for meaning struggles among participants experiencing acute and/or severe mental illness. Previous theory and research suggest protective factors are most valuable in the presence of risk factors (Kraemer et al., 2001), so gratitude and patience may be more salient during acute distress. ...
... Most closely related to the present study, Kleiman et al. (2013a) found evidence of moderation such that that gratitude attenuated the cross-sectional effects of hopelessness and depressive symptoms on suicidal ideation among U.S. college students. Interestingly, although the interaction terms involving gratitude were significant, the main effects of gratitude on suicidal ideation were not. ...
Article
Objective: Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death, so research identifying protective factors is essential. Research suggests gratitude and life hardships patience are character strengths that might protect against the deleterious association of struggles with ultimate meaning and suicide risk. However, no studies have evaluated their utility among people experiencing acute/severe mental health concerns. Method: We tested the protective function of gratitude and life hardships patience with cross-sectional data from adults (Mage = 31.83 years; SD = 14.84; range = 18-82) hospitalized in a Christian psychiatric inpatient facility (Mstay = 6.37 days, SD = 4.64). Results: Gratitude and life hardships patience moderated the positive relation between meaning struggles and suicide risk. Specifically, gratitude and life hardships patience protected against meaning struggles as a risk factor for suicide through mechanisms separate from ameliorating depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Findings provide initial support for gratitude and patience interventions as an adjunct to standard psychiatric treatment for minimizing suicide risk.
... Duas forças mais endossadas pelos participantes foram a esperança e a gratidão. A esse respeito, Kleiman et al. (2013) ressaltaram que os baixos níveis de esperança podem ser Seligman, 2009). Além disso, o fator estratégias de enfrentamento da eare-ad se correlacionou significativamente com a força amor pelo aprendizado, possivelmente, porque o indivíduo que possui essa força busca organizar os seus estudos sem muitos incentivos exteriores e, para tal, busca controlar suas emoções e comportamentos, não se permitindo que eventos tristes o desviem do foco do aprendizado (Bortoletto & Botuchovitch, 2013;Peterson & Seligman, 2004). ...
... A hipótese em relação às forças gratidão e esperança era que elas apresentassem correlações significativas com mais fatores da eare-ad, o que se confirmou parcialmente, uma vez que gratidão apresentou correlações significativas com três fatores e esperança com quatro. Em relação à gratidão, o que foi encontrado também pode ser explicado ao se considerar a depressão, posto que a gratidão pode minimizar sentimentos de desesperança que são próprios de pessoas que se encontram em estados depressivos (Kleiman et al., 2013). Uma das formas de ser grato é buscar fazer o bem a outrem por algo de bom recebido, o que pode explicar a associação dessa força com estratégias de enfrentamento adequadas. ...
... A explicação está no fato de a esperança e de o pessimismo indicarem uma expectativa, positiva ou negativa, relacionada ao futuro Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Se o indivíduo possui a força esperança, possivelmente, enfrentará de forma mais adequada as situações que lhe surgirem ao vivenciar emoções tristes (Kleiman et al., 2013;Peterson, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Investigar a relação entre as forças de caráter e a autorregulação emocional faz-se importante, pois os construtos podem auxiliar na diminuição de psicopatologias e contribuir para um desenvolvimento saudável. O estudo teve por objetivo analisar a predição das forças de caráter em relação à autorregulação emocional diante de eventos tristes. A amostra teve 233 universitários, com idades entre 18 e 52 anos (M= 23,20; DP= 5,588). Os participantes responderam a Escala de Forças de Caráter (EFC) e a Escala de Autorregulação Emocional-Adulto (EARE-AD). Cada fator da EARE-AD foi predito por pelo menos três forças de caráter (β entre 0,177 e 0,375). Com exceção da força espiritualidade, todas as forças se associaram significativamente com os fatores da EARE-AD (r entre 0,14 e 0,47). Os resultados parecem indicar que as forças de caráter vitalidade e autorregulação são as que mais contribuem para minimizar dificuldades emocionais. Novos estudos são sugeridos a fim de compreender alguns resultados encontrados nas forças de caráter.
... To support the above model sequence, literature has indicated that grit is a stable characteristic (e.g. personality), which influences an individual's attitudes and behaviours (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Wolter & Hussain, 2015). Returning to the example comparing Chemistry Student A and B, Student A may want to use his/her knowledge in the field to reduce environmental pollution; however, this student may have lower self-efficacy in his/her ability to accomplish this mission. ...
... student achievement goals) is one of the fundamental reasons for building the model. That is, grit is a stable characteristic that influences the development of strategies needed to achieve longterm goals including self-control strategies and achievement goals (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009;Kleiman et al., 2013;Wolter & Hussain, 2014). Furthermore, multiple studies support the mediation role of SE as a mediator between grit and achievement goals (Cooper, 2014;Wolters & Hussain, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the relationships between grit, self-efficacy, achievement orientation goals, and academic performance in parallel and serial mediation models. University student participants (N = 258) responded to an online survey containing demographic items and scales measuring the non-cognitive factors noted above. The results demonstrated that ‘grit’ (i.e. perseverance of effort and consistency of interest) positively associates with academic performance through a sequential pathway of mediators including self-efficacy and achievement orientation goals. Findings supported the positive relationships between mastery, approach goals, and academic performance, as well as the negative association between avoidance goals and academic performance. The model revealed that self-efficacy may play supportive and protective roles by increasing the positive effect of mastery and performance-approach goals and reducing the negative effect of avoidance goals on academic performance, respectively. These novel findings support the contribution of ‘grit’ in predicting various academic outcomes.
... Similarly, in line with the conceptualization of gratitude as a disposition towards noticing and appreciating positives in the world which might be expected to be strongly related to well-being (Wood et al., 2010), our results found that gratitude played a protective role against suicide risk (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Krysinska, Lester, Lyke, & Corveleyn, 2015;Stockton, Tucker, Kleiman, & Wingate, 2016). In line with prior studies (e.g., Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Kleiman et al., 2013), gratitude was also found to be negatively associated with depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. ...
... Similarly, in line with the conceptualization of gratitude as a disposition towards noticing and appreciating positives in the world which might be expected to be strongly related to well-being (Wood et al., 2010), our results found that gratitude played a protective role against suicide risk (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013;Krysinska, Lester, Lyke, & Corveleyn, 2015;Stockton, Tucker, Kleiman, & Wingate, 2016). In line with prior studies (e.g., Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Kleiman et al., 2013), gratitude was also found to be negatively associated with depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Specifically, Spanish adults who are highly grateful were also less likely to experience suicide risk. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. The present study examines the role of optimism and gratitude as predictors of suicide risk, namely depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Beyond their expected predictive role, optimism and gratitude were also hypothesized to interact together to predict both suicide risk outcomes. Methods. A sample of 1,013 Spanish adults (521 females) participated in this study. The average age was 39.63 years old (standard deviation = 16.19; range 16–82). Results. Results indicated that the optimism × gratitude interaction term significantly augmented the prediction of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Specifically, pessimists presented with a higher risk of suicide, but the effect was weaker among those individuals with higher levels of gratitude. Alternatively, optimists with high gratitude showed the highest amount of protection from suicide risk. Conclusions. Our findings are the first to show how optimism and gratitude might interact as a positive psychological variable to confer greater personal resources in protecting individuals against suicide risk.
... In a randomized control trial, three sessions of writing about one's best possible self improved positive affect in four weeks compared to a control group (Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006). There has been more research into the suicide-reducing benefits of gratitude intervention than best possible self-visualization (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, & Riskind, 2013b) though best possible self visualizations can improve optimism (Meevissen, Peters, & Alberts, 2011). These interventions have not been explored in sub-Saharan Africa, though they are inexpensive with potentially large benefits. ...
Article
The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that suicide behavior is driven by two interpersonal dynamics – perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Attachment theory posits that one’s sense of belonging may stem from social attachments during childhood. In this study, we investigate whether these two theories may be meaningfully combined to provide a life course perspective on suicide ideation among young Kenyan men (age 18–34 years). We find that respondents who recalled childhood attachments that were less safe and warm were significantly more likely to report suicide ideation, a pathway that was significantly mediated by present loneliness. Consistent with the interpersonal theory of suicide, the association between loneliness and suicide ideation was significantly mediated by less meaning in life and hope. Suicide ideation in adulthood may be prevented by promoting more secure attachments during childhood.
... People who are grateful also tend to evaluate themselves positively (Toussaint and Friedman, 2009) and report greater happiness (Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003). Research into gratitude and psychopathology supports an inverse relation of gratitude with depressive symptoms Seligman, Steen, Park & Peterson, 2005), suicide ideation (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan, Riskind, 2013), post- traumatic stress disorder (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006) and anxiety (McCullough, Emmons & Tsang, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to determine whether gratitude can work as a protective factor against depressive (pessimistic) attributions that people make about their lives. The study had two hypotheses; one expecting a negative correlation between the two variables and second expecting gratitude to predict lesser depressive attributions. For this purpose a sample of 328 participants (161 men and 167 women), with ages ranging from 17-40 years (̅ =22.88, SD=4.244) was taken from various universities of Karachi city. Depressive Attributions Questionnaire (DAQ) and Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6) along with a demographic information questionnaire were administered. Findings, using IBM SPSS 21, showed that the two variables have significant moderate negative relationship (r (328) =-.293, p<.001) and Gratitude was found to be a significant predictor of reduced Depressive attributions (β=-.45, t =-5.533, p < .001). Gratitude also explained a significant proportion of variance in depressive attribution scores (R2 = .086, F (1, 326) = 30.614, p < .001). It is therefore concluded that the attitude of gratitude or thankfulness does reduce the pessimistic view people develop about their lives.
... Our findings may be particularly important for suicide prevention efforts for unemployed individuals, a specific population that is at high risk for suicidal ideation. For example, unemployed who understand appropriately negative emotions and manage the competing socio-economic demands associated to job loss appear to be protected from adverse psychological outcomes of unemployment, thereby mitigating suicide risk Our investigation also contributes to a growing body of research that investigates how levels of dissatisfaction or stress outcomes vary with regards to suicide risk due to the intervening role of personal resources, such as dispositional optimism [64], gratitude [65] or humour styles [66], between others. ...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research has demonstrated that deficits in well-being may be related to increased suicide risk, but there is only a limited number of studies that have focused on specific protective factors that can serve as a buffer against suicidal ideation and behaviours. Given that unemployment may be a factor leading to increased risk for suicide, this study assessed whether perceived EI might be a potential moderator in the relationship between life satisfaction/happiness and suicidal behaviours in a relatively large sample of unemployed individuals. Participants were 1125 unemployed (506 men and 619 women) who completed satisfaction with life and happiness questionnaires, the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire and the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Test. Consistent with the interaction hypothesis, lower scores in life satisfaction and happiness were associated with higher levels of current suicidal behaviours, and perceived EI scores moderated these relationships. Interventions targeting well-being via the promotion of emotional abilities may be useful in the prevention of suicidal ideation in the unemployed. The implications for these findings for research and practice are discussed.
... La gratitude est associée à de plus faibles tendances suicidaires (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan et Riskind, 2013;Li, Zhang, Li, Li et Ye, 2012), comme avoir l'impression que la vie a un but et un sens (Heisel et Flett, 2004;Kleiman et Beaver, 2013). Des patients hospitalisés qui présentent un risque élevé de passage à l'acte suicidaire peuvent bénéficier des interventions sur le bonheur. ...
Article
Full-text available
L’objectif du présent article est de passer en revue la littérature grandissante portant sur les interventions psychologiques destinées à accroître le bonheur. On discute d’abord de la notion de bonheur et de l’importance de celui-ci pour les individus et les groupes sociaux. Ensuite, on présente une vue d’ensemble des interventions orientées vers le bonheur au moyen d’exercices spécifiques variées en considérant leur efficacité. Une section est consacrée aux implications cliniques des dites interventions pour la santé mentale et physique. Enfin, on fait la promotion de l’usage des technologies sophistiquées pour la diffusion des stratégies favorisant le bonheur.
... Making suicide illegal may aggravate the further stigmatization of an already stigmatized phenomenon. This in turn may function as an obstacle against help seeking and a hinder for social connectedness which are both shown to be associated with lower propensity for suicidal behavior [2,46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a scarcity of research on suicidal phenomena in the Muslim world. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the self-reported prevalence of suicidal thoughts, attempts and motives in 12 Muslim countries. A total of 8417 (54.4% women) university students were surveyed by means of a self-report questionnaire. Overall, 22% of the participants reported suicidal ideation and 8.6% reported attempting suicide. The odds of suicidal thoughts were elevated in Azerbaijan, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, while reduced ORs were recorded in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Malaysia. While odds of suicide attempts were high in Azerbaijan, Palestine and Saudi Arabia reduced odds ratios (OR) were detected in Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia and Tunisia. Taking drugs and using a sharp instrument were the two most frequently used methods to attempt suicide. Only 32.7% of attempts required medical attention. Escape motives were endorsed more than social motives by participants who attempted suicide. Suicidal behaviors were more frequent in women than in men. Compered to men, fewer attempts by women required medical attention. Moreover, our results show that making suicide illegal does not reduce the frequency of suicidal behavior. Results from this comparative study show that suicidal thoughts and attempts are frequent events in young adults in countries where religious scripture explicitly prohibit suicide and the frequencies of nonfatal suicidal behavior show large variation in nations adhering to the same religion.
... Specific character strengths have been targeted and shown to buffer against a wide range of problems. For example, high levels of perseverance/grit buffered the relationship between negative life events and suicidal ideation (Blalock et al. 2015); kindness (as self-compassion/self-kindness) buffered against negative social comparison and negative self-consciousness (Neff and Vonk 2009); fairness buffered against the negative correlates of job insecurity (Silla et al. 2010); humility against death anxiety (Kesebir 2014) and against marital stress (Goddard et al. 2016); gratitude buffered Six Functions of Character Strengths for Thriving at Times of... hopelessness and depressive symptoms (Kleiman et al. 2013), and hope buffered negative affect and emotional exhaustion (Littman-Ovadia and Nir 2014). Other character strengths have been found to be protective against psychological distress such as forgiveness (Orcutt 2006), religiousness/spirituality (Braam et al. 1997), and humor (Nezu et al. 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
... They are often perceived as likeable, with a tendency to frequently engage in prosocial activities, often with no assumption of reciprocity (Gallup, 1998;Grant & Gino, 2010;Schwartz & Ward, 2004;Tsang & Martin, 2017). When faced with difficulties, grateful people report an ability to remain positively focused, reduced likelihood of exhibiting symptoms of physical illness and less inclination towards suicidal tendencies (Emmons & Stern, 2013;Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan & Riskind, 2013). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research suggests that whether as an asylum seeker, refugee or through choice, immigration poses psychological challenges, the effects of which may continue long after physical relocation. The word Aliyah references the unique global phenomenon of Jewish immigration to Israel, either to escape anti-Semitism and discrimination or to fulfil a sense of returning to one's ancestral, spiritual homeland. Israel is a culturally and politically complex society. Though theoretically gender equal, women often adopt traditional gender roles and frequently face marginalisation within the workforce, particularly later in their working lives. For immigrant women over fifty, entry into the Israeli workforce can be particularly challenging, yet this demographic is rarely considered in current literature. Employing the qualitative methodology, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) the current study explored the lived experience of lone female immigrants to Israel aged between fifty and sixty-five, having relocated in the last two years, from the UK or the USA. Three semi-structured interviews comprising open-ended questions were conducted, with pertinent points followed up. Analysis revealed five superordinate themes, common to all participants; Life Journey, Acculturation, Transcendence, Intrinsic Identity and Meaning and Purpose, with subthemes common to all participants, to varying degrees. Despite sociocultural challenges, findings indicated that Aliyah may be considered a positive psychological intervention, facilitating reconnection with the self, resilient, positively focused coping, a sense of newfound freedom, belonging and meaning in life. Further studies considering other demographics are suggested, since findings could inform the development of support programmes aiding successful societal integration, benefiting this and other immigrant communities.
... It could be related to their ability to perceive and appreciate other aspects of life not involved directly in their beliefs and their relationship with God. Other studies (Kleiman et al. 2013) demonstrate that a higher level of gratitude and appreciation is a protective factor against harmful symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
An extensive review of the psychological literature shows that interactions between religious/spiritual (R/S) struggles and other aspects of human functioning are complex and affected by "third" factors. Still, we have only a few studies that confirm R/S struggles as a source of well-being and indicate the ways in which it happens. In the present study, we aimed to verify whether the relationship between R/S struggles and life satisfaction was mediated by dispositional gratitude that seems to offer protection in times of adversity and turmoil. The sample consisted of 440 Roman Catholics (331 women) from Poland aged between 18 and 40. We applied the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire. In line with our hypotheses, it was confirmed that respondents with higher life satisfaction were more likely to display a higher sense of trust in God. They also declared a lower fear/guilt and perception of God as abandoning people. Gratitude correlated positively and significantly with religious comfort, and negatively with emotions towards God and social interactions surrounding religion. Moreover, it can be affirmed that dispositional gratitude mediated the relationship between three of four dimensions of religious strain and life satisfaction: religious comfort, negative emotions towards God, and negative social interactions surrounding religion.
... Grateful people are less likely to be suicidal and more likely to appreciate life, even when facing hardship (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan and Riskind, 2013). Psychological research has begun to focus on introducing the idea of a more positive healthcare focus for CD patients, which may also be further enhanced by promoting positive psychological approaches by specialist IBD nurses, who are the front-line resource in healthcare for many CD patients (Worth, 2012). ...
Research
Full-text available
Happiness is one of the most desired of all human emotional states (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon and Schkade, 2005) which research suggests is attained by experiencing greater pleasure than pain and living a purposeful and meaningful life (Keyes and Annas, 2009). Historically the focus for psychological research has been on correcting negative behaviours, rather than emulating positive behaviours which lead to increased happiness, such as the experience of gratitude and frequent positive affect (Fredrickson, 2001). However, since the relatively recent development of Positive Psychology, studies increasingly support an acceptance of the benefits of positive behavioural interventions, particularly when applied to Health Psychology (Seligman, 2000). Utilising a self-selecting sample of 160 participants over the age of 18, with a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's Disease, a remitting and relapsing chronic illness categorised under the heading of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, this study controlled for multiple factors previously considered influential to happiness, proposing that despite living with chronic illness, gratitude and positive affect would be the strongest predictors of happiness in Crohn's patients. Participants responded via online links and forums, to a survey incorporating seven previously published measures, with additional questions regarding socioeconomic status and Crohn's related health history. Results confirmed that gratitude and positive affect were the strongest predictors of subjective happiness scores, suggesting a need for further research into interventions and mechanisms supporting the expansion of Gratitude and PA to promote happiness in Crohn's patients.
... In addition, studies have shown that higher levels of trait gratitude were predictive of reduced risk for suicidality over a 1-6 month period (Kleiman et al. 2013a, b;Li et al. 2012); interestingly, however, Kleiman et al. (2013b) also found that this predictive relationship was mediated by a third cognitive variable: greater perceived meaning of life. This therefore further suggests that gratitude may reduce depressive symptoms by promoting positive cognitions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gratitude, the experience of appreciating the positive aspects in life, has been associated with increased subjective wellbeing (SWB). This paper proposes two causal frameworks (i.e., a cognitive and a psycho-social framework) that highlight the possible mechanisms by which gratitude influences SWB. This paper provides support for these two frameworks by reviewing research conducted to date on the relationship between the experience of gratitude and SWB, in terms of reduced symptoms of psychopathology, better interpersonal relationships, and improved physical health. In addition, the promising potential of gratitude interventions to improve SWB in healthy individuals and those with symptoms of psychopathology are reviewed. While gratitude interventions represent a relatively new approach, the limited evidence suggests that they may eventually provide an effective form of intervention that can be used to complement current therapy aprroaches for improving SWB. Therefore its potential application in clinical populations and the underlying mechanisms that might be driving the positive effects of gratitude interventions in improving SWB deserve further research attention.
... Making suicide illegal may aggravate the further stigmatization of an already stigmatized phenomenon. This in turn may function as an obstacle against help seeking and a hinder for social connectedness which are both shown to be associated with lower propensity for suicidal behavior [2,46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
... For example, correlational studies have shown that individuals who report high levels of trait gratitude report greater life satisfaction, happiness, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as better physical health (e.g., less pain) and better sleep quality (Hill et al. 2013;McCullough et al. 2004;Ng and Wong 2013). Longitudinal studies have also shown that higher levels of trait gratitude can predict greater future subjective wellbeing (SWB) in terms of lower depressive symptoms, lower perceived stress, and reduced risk for suicidality one to six months later (Kleiman et al. 2013a, b;Lambert et al. 2012;Wood et al. 2008). These findings suggest a directional relationship whereby higher gratitude leads to lower psychological distress and improved SWB. ...
Article
Full-text available
High levels of trait gratitude are associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, but the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been extensively studied. One potential explanation for this relationship is that individuals with higher levels of trait gratitude may have a more positive cognitive style, such that they interpret, attend to, and remember events in a more positive rather than negative manner. This study aimed to explore whether one aspect of a positive cognitive style, a positive interpretation bias, is a mediator in the relationship between trait gratitude and depressive symptoms. During a single visit to the lab, we asked eighty-eight individuals (41 females) to complete a measure of trait gratitude (the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test [GRAT]), two measures of interpretation bias (the Sentence Completion Test for Depression [SCD], and the Ambiguous Scenarios Test for Depression [ASTD]), and a measure of depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]). The results of the mediation analyses indicated that a positive interpretation bias partially explained the relationship between trait gratitude and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that trait gratitude may reduce depressive symptoms in part through its effects on positive thinking patterns. Future longitudinal studies will be needed to elucidate the causal relationship between these variables in greater detail.
... For example, Wood et al. (2008) indicated that gratitude is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, even naturally over time leads to a decrease (or prevented an increase) in levels of stress and depression (Lambert et al. 2012), and experimental findings further lend credibility to the notion that gratitude can reduce depressive symptoms (Seligman et al. 2005). Specifically, individuals high in gratitude displayed a decreased relationship between both depressive symptoms and hopelessness with suicidal ideation (Kleiman et al. 2013b). Along this line, gratitude may decrease depressive feelings and syndromes, which may in turn protect against suicidal ideation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined both the mediation effects of basic psychological needs and depression on the relationship between gratitude and suicidal ideation in late adolescence. Two hundred and eighty-seven Taiwanese university students completed measures of gratitude, basic psychological needs, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. A cross-sectional design was conducted in the present study. Path analyses indicated that basic psychological needs and depression acted as full mediators of the association between gratitude and suicidal ideation. The identified model revealed a significant and sequential mediational path from gratitude through basic psychological needs, depression, and suicidal ideation. The current work is an incremental advancement in understanding the complex relationship between selected resiliency and risk factors of suicidal thinking.
... Many students incompletely experience the meaning of life, even some of them experience existential crisis and extreme suicidal ideation. Psychological problems and suicidal behaviors of college students originate from the lack of sense of life meaning, which is an indicator of mental health (Kleiman et al., 2013a). Therefore, it is very important to explore the source of sense of life meaning, and to explore ways and measures to enhance it. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to explore the mechanism of college students’ meaning of life. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Gratitude Questionnaire Six-Item Form, the General Wellbeing Schedule, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as measurement instruments. In total, 1,312 valid responses were obtained. The results showed that the cognitive reappraisal and expression suppression strategies were significantly positively and negatively correlated with gratitude, subjective wellbeing, and the sense of life meaning, respectively. Further, Emotion regulation strategies can affect college students’ sense of life meaning through three paths: the mediating effect of gratitude; the mediating effect of subjective wellbeing; the chain mediating effect of gratitude and subjective wellbeing. This study illuminated the roles of gratitude, and subjective wellbeing in influencing the sense of life meaning among the Chinese college students. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
... One factor that has been studied as a protective factor for suicide is character strength. The character strength most studied to date as a protective factor for suicide is gratitude (Kleiman et al., 2013a(Kleiman et al., , 2013bKrysinska et al., 2015;Li et al., 2012;Lo et al., 2017;Stockton et al., 2016). It has been repeatedly shown that there is a relationship between a high gratitude tendency and low risk for suicide (Krysinska et al., 2015;Li et al., 2012;Stockton et al., 2016). ...
Article
One factor that has been studied as a protective factor for suicide is character strength and there are many studies that examined the relationship between gratitude and suicide. The problem of character strength research on suicide prevention is that the link between various character strengths and suicide has not been comprehensively examined. We explored which character strength is associated with suicidal ideation. The study is a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire survey. Participants were 2,000 Internet users in Japan aged 20 years or older. The online survey covered suicidal ideation, character strengths and demographic details. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed with the suicidal ideation as the dependent variable and character strengths as the independent variable. A significant regression equation was found (F (22, 1977) = 64.65, P < 0.001), with an R² of 0.42. ‘Engagement’ (B = −0.38, P < 0.001), ‘Love’ (B = −0.33, P = 0.001), and ‘Risk-taking’ (B = 0.40, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. The positive trait of being able to actively engage with people and build a loving relationship could be a protective factor for suicide.
... Maddi et al. (2012), for instance, found that a singular indicator of grit was a strong predictor of retention and performance in sample of military cadets. Higher levels of a general measure of grit have also been linked to increased intensity of exercise (Reed et al. 2013) and reduced suicide ideation (Kleiman et al. 2013). In a sample of high school students, MacCann and Roberts (2010) found that both dimensions of grit, but especially the perseverance of effort, were positively correlated with life satisfaction, multiple aspects of conscientiousness and teacher's rating of social behavior, but not to grades or academic readiness. ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated grit and its relations with students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and academic achievement. An ethnically diverse sample of 213 college students completed an online self-report survey that included the Grit Short scale (Duckworth and Quinn Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166–174, 2009), seven indicators of SRL and their past and present academic achievement. Results indicated that one aspect of grit, perseverance of effort, was a consistent and adaptive predictor for all indicators of SRL including value, self-efficacy, cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, time and study environment management strategies, and procrastination. A second aspect of grit, consistency of interest, was associated only with the latter two facets of SRL. Perseverance of effort predicted achievement before, but not after, accounting for SRL; hence, students’ engagement in SRL may serve as a mediating pathway through which this aspect of grit is associated with improved academic outcomes. In contrast, consistency of interest showed no relation to achievement. Implications of the findings for additional research and instruction are discussed.
... Indeed, qualitative studies indicate that sense of purpose is central to the recovery needs of veterans with prior suicide attempts (Denneson et al., 2021). Dispositional gratitude has similarly been found to bolster subjective well-being (Killen and Macaskill, 2015) and buffer the effects of hopelessness and depression on suicide risk (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan and Riskind, 2013a); and may indirectly confer resilience to suicide risk by bolstering a sense of meaning or purpose in life (Kleiman, Adams, Kashdan and Riskind, 2013b). Conscientiousness, which refers to the propensity to be goal-directed and fastidious, is associated with more adaptive health behaviors (Bogg and Roberts, 2004), including lower likelihood of suicide attempts. ...
Article
Suicide is a major public health problem in U.S. military veterans, but little is known about factors associated with remission from suicide attempts in this population. We aimed to identify risk and protective correlates of remission from suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in U.S. veterans with a prior suicide attempt. Data were analyzed from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study survey. A broad range of sociodemographic, military, physical and mental health, and psychosocial variable were assessed. Purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness emerged as independent correlates of STB remission (24.3%-40.3% of explained variance), even after accounting for other relevant risk and protective factors. While the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes the ability to determine whether the identified protective factors are causally related to STB remission, results suggest three potentially modifiable targets for suicide prevention efforts in veterans. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness in promoting remission from STBs in veterans and other populations at risk for suicide.
... Grateful individuals are likely to feel more frequent and intense positive emotions, have a more positive perspective of their surroundings, and adopt optimistic coping strategies, consequently achieving a better physical condition and mental integration [43][44][45]. Previous research has found that gratitude plays a moderating role in contextual and individual behavioral development [46,47]. In accordance with this empirical finding, we postulate that gratitude may moderate the process of parental autonomy support that affects PIU through filial piety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Applying an integrated theoretical model consisting of the socioecological theory, the self-determination theory, and the broaden-and-build theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of parental autonomy support, filial piety, and gratitude to study how these factors are jointly related to pathological Internet use (PIU) in Chinese undergraduate students. A total of 1054 Chinese undergraduate students (M age = 20.35, SD = 1.00, 34.7% females) aged between 16 and 24 years participated in this study. They were instructed to complete self-reported questionnaires on parental autonomy support, filial piety, gratitude, and PIU. The results showed that parental autonomy support was negatively associated with PIU, and filial piety partially mediated this relation. Specifically, parental autonomy support was positively related to filial piety, which, in turn, was negatively associated with PIU. In addition, gratitude moderated the first path of the indirect relation and the direct relation of this mediation effect. To be specific, undergraduate students with higher gratitude showed high filial piety and low PIU, in the context of low parental autonomy support, than those with lower gratitude. Taken together, the current study contributes to extant research by highlighting the vital role of parental autonomy support in mitigating undergraduate students’ PIU and illustrating how filial piety explains the underlying mechanism of this association. This study also provides novel insights into intervention or prevention programs by demonstrating that gratitude alleviates the adverse effect of low parental autonomy support on students’ PIU.
... Individuals higher in gratitude tend to mindfully focus on the present, experience more positive affect, and engage in more social and adaptive activities, all of which may help survivors cope with trauma-related distress (Kashdan et al., 2006). Indeed, empirical findings outside the area of trauma suggest both optimism (Hirsch et al., 2007) and gratitude (Kleiman et al., 2013) are generally associated with lower risk for suicidal ideation. As applied to the understanding of trauma recovery, the build-andbroaden theory of positive emotions suggests that optimism and gratitude as personal strengths might promote resilience in response to sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress and suicidal ideation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to sexual assault have been linked to greater suicidal ideation, yet little is known about protective factors that may weaken this link and reduce thoughts of suicide in the context of posttraumatic stress. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and prior research, psychological strengths associated with resilience, such as optimism and gratitude, have the potential to be associated with attenuated suicidal ideation among sexual assault survivors. Method: We tested this possibility in a sample of 425 undergraduate women who reported unwanted sexual experiences during adolescence or adulthood. Results: A linear regression analysis revealed that greater sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress symptoms in the past month were associated with greater concurrent suicidal ideation. However, moderation analyses revealed the link between assault-related posttraumatic stress and suicidal ideation was attenuated for individuals higher in optimism and gratitude. Further, at the highest levels of optimism and gratitude, there was no longer a significant association between posttraumatic stress and suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Given optimism and gratitude are modifiable strengths that individuals can develop and grow over time, these results suggest boosting optimism and gratitude may be a valuable way to attenuate thoughts of suicide in interventions for college women who have experienced sexual assault. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Existing behavioral studies have found that positive emotions can improve an individual's sense of presence of meaning (Hicks et al., 2012). Furthermore, both Chinese and Western studies have found presence of meaning to be significantly positively correlated with positive mental health indicators, such as positive emotions, and negatively correlated with negative mental health indicators, such as anxiety, depression, and negative emotions (Bailey & Phillips, 2015;Kleiman et al., 2013;Park et al., 2010;Steger et al., 2009;Steger & Kashdan, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: People can be categorized into one of four meaning-in-life profiles: High Presence High Search (HPHS), High Presence Low Search (HPLS), Low Presence High Search (LPHS), and Low Presence Low Search (LPLS). The main goal of this study is to provide a theoretical explanation for why Chinese people with different meaning-in-life profiles have different mental health levels than Western people, based on their emotional-cognitive-processing ability. Method: We adopted an eye-movement analysis and recognition-judgment experimental paradigm concerning absolute-recognition judgment and relative-recognition judgment in our study. Moreover, we applied a multifactor and multilevel mixed- experimental design. We selected 118 participants for the experiments from the 788 Chinese college students who responded. Results: Our results showed that HPHS individuals preferred positive-emotion pictures, LPLS individuals preferred negative-emotion pictures, HPLS individuals preferred positive- and neutral-emotion pictures, and LPHS individuals preferred neutral-emotion pictures. Moreover, HPHS individuals were better at accurately processing facial expression from pictures, while LPLS individuals lacked such ability. The fine-processing ability of HPLS and LPHS individuals was lower than that of HPHS yet higher than that of LPLS individuals. Moreover, the features of HPLS individuals were closer to HPHS, while those of LPHS individuals were closer to LPLS. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that meaning-in-life profiles have different immediate processing abilities and preferences regarding facial expression recognition and different emotional-cognitive-processing ability.
... , many studies have shown that life meaning is inversely correlated to depression(Hedayati & Khazaei, 2014;Kleftaras & Psarra, 2013;Steger et al., 2006;Thomsen et al., 2016) and life meaning is known to counter anhedonia while it is the common symptom of depression and to encourage intrinsically motivated behavior(McKnight & Kashdan, 2009).Besides, studies have reported that life meaning performs a decisive role in preventing suicide and improving mental illness(Kleiman et al., 2013;. Besides, a longitudinal study conducted across forty-three countries(Rosa et al., 2017) showed that gratitude and meaning in life have brought about an increase in reallife events. ...
Thesis
Integrating the ecological model and the wellness theory, this study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and personal factors (hopelessness, body image, social problem solving, emotional competence, life meaning, equanimity), peer factor (peer alienation) and family factor (childhood abuse and trauma) among college students in Hong Kong. Adopting a cross-sectional survey design, a total of 786 self-administered questionnaires based on convenience sampling (male= 67.2 %, female= 32.8%) were collected from eight youth colleges on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and the New Territories. Among them, 352 (44.8%) respondents reported having depressive symptoms (The Beck Depression Inventory scores 14 or above). The participants, with a mean age of 19.16, were Year 1 and Year 3 diploma students in the youth colleges in Hong Kong. Analysis shows that college students with special education needs had a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms. Pearson correlation analysis shows that social problem solving and equanimity were negatively related to college student's depressive symptoms. At the same time, childhood abuse and trauma, peer alienation, and hopelessness were positively related to the student's depressive symptoms. The mediation models, sequential mediation model, and moderated mediation models were tested in the study. In the mediation models, results show that peer alienation and hopelessness mediated the relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms independently. In the sequential mediation model, peer alienation and hopelessness sequentially mediated the relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms. In the moderated mediation model, social problem solving, and i equanimity moderated the indirect relation between the experience of childhood abuse and trauma and depressive symptoms via hopelessness and the sequential mediating effect of peer alienation and hopelessness. The theoretical implications of the findings are that social problem solving, equanimity, childhood abuse and trauma, peer alienation, hopelessness can be considered as crucial building blocks in the models of college students' depressive symptoms. Practically speaking, to reduce the tendency for depressive symptoms among abused adolescents, it is important to strengthen peer relationships, reduce peer alienation, alleviate hopelessness, prevent childhood abuse and trauma, enhance social problem abilities, promote equanimity, and prevent mental health problems with reference to the integrated ecological and wellness model, which is proven to be important for reducing a tendency for depressive symptoms among abused adolescents. More longitudinal research with multiple informants, such as parents and teachers, is called for to explain how wellness factors may comprise additional moderation and mediating effects for the relationship between abused adolescents and their development.
... Another interesting topic involves the boundaries of gratitude: Are there any conditions that facilitate or suppress the effect of gratitude on well-being? For example, Kleiman et al. (2013a) found that both hopelessness and depressive symptoms are less likely to be related to thoughts and suicide intentions when people are grateful. Similarly, it was found that gratitude protects older adults from dwelling on fi nancial strain, thus resulting in fewer depressive symptoms (Krause, 2009). ...
... Less meaning in life was associated with more suicidal behaviours. Interestingly, meaning in life-a sense of purpose to life-has been shown as a factor in decreased suicidal ideation [150] and gratefulness towards life has been shown as a buffer between suicidal ideation and hopelessness [151]. Perhaps a sense of hopelessness may reflect low meaning in life and a disconnection from life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Chronic feelings of emptiness is an under-researched symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD), despite indications it may be central to the conceptualisation, course, and outcome of BPD treatment. This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of chronic feelings of emptiness in BPD, identify key findings, and clarify differences between chronic feelings of emptiness and related constructs like depression, hopelessness, and loneliness. Method A PRISMA guided systematic search of the literature identified empirical studies with a focus on BPD or BPD symptoms that discussed chronic feelings of emptiness or a related construct. Results Ninety-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Key findings identified there were significant difficulties in defining and measuring chronic emptiness. However, based on the studies reviewed, chronic emptiness is a sense of disconnection from both self and others. When experienced at frequent and severe levels, it is associated with low remission for people with BPD. Emptiness as a construct can be separated from hopelessness, loneliness and intolerance of aloneness, however more research is needed to explicitly investigate these experiences. Chronic emptiness may be related to depressive experiences unique to people with BPD, and was associated with self-harm, suicidality, and lower social and vocational function. Conclusions and implications We conclude that understanding chronic feelings of emptiness is central to the experience of people with BPD and treatment focusing on connecting with self and others may help alleviate a sense of emptiness. Further research is required to provide a better understanding of the nature of chronic emptiness in BPD in order to develop ways to quantify the experience and target treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42018075602.
... However, the role of resilience factors that may disrupt the negative developmental cascade from depression to suicidality has rarely been examined longitudinally. Several cross-sectional studies have explored resilience to suicidality in the context of depression and found that positive cognitive interpretations of the world, self, and future [9], hope [2], subjective well-being [10], and gratitude [11] buffered the association between depression and suicidality in adolescents or adults. One longitudinal study found that the impact of depression on subsequent suicidal ideation was attenuated among young adults with higher subjective wellbeing [12]. ...
Article
Purpose To investigate whether life satisfaction and optimism might reduce the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents with depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 1,904 youth from the NEXT Generation Health Study, a national sample of U.S. adolescents, followed over 7 years from 2009/2010 to 2015/2016. Longitudinal latent profile analysis and logistic regressions were conducted. Results We identified three subgroups of adolescents with different patterns of depressive symptoms across the first six waves: “Low” (40%), “Mild” (42%), and “Moderate to Severe” (18%). The Moderate to Severe (OR = 14.47, 95% CI [6.61, 31.66]) and Mild (OR = 3.90, 95% CI [2.22, 6.86]) depression profiles had significantly higher odds of developing suicidality than the Low depression profile. Both life satisfaction and optimism moderated the association between depressive symptom profile and suicidality. The difference in suicidality risk between the Mild and Low depression profiles was significantly attenuated at high versus low levels of life satisfaction, with a difference of −.08, 95% CI [−.14, −.03]. In addition, the difference in suicidality risk between the Moderate to Severe and Low depression profiles was attenuated at high versus low levels of optimism, with a difference of −.11, 95% CI [−.21, −.01]. Conclusions For adolescents transitioning to young adulthood, resilience factors such as life satisfaction and optimism may buffer against suicidality risk in the face of mild or moderate to severe depressive symptoms.
Article
Full-text available
50 P sikoterapilerde amaç, bireyin kendini gerçekleştirmesine, başka bir deyişle dü-şüncelerindekileri sağlıklı yoldan, gerçekliğe dönüştürmesine destek olmaktır. 1 Bu bağlamda, birey ile çevresi arasındaki etkileşim, hem mutluluğu hem de psi-kopatolojiyi barındırır. Bu etkileşimi ve bu ikisi arasında geçişleri keşfetme yolunda, Martin E.P. Seligman yeni bir ruh sağlığı kuramı inşa etmiştir. 2 Bu kuram pozitif psi-koloji kuramıdır. Pozitif psikoloji bireyin optimal işlevselliğinin bilimsel çalışmalar bütünüdür. Amacı bireylerin ve toplumların daha iyiye gitmelerini, gelişmelerine yar-dım eden, işlevsel kılan faktörleri ortaya çıkarmak ve bu faktörlerin gelişmesine kat-Pozitif Psikoterapi: Ruh Sağlığına Yeni Bir Bakış Açısı Ö ÖZ ZE ET T Psikoterapilerde amaç, gerek normal gerekse klinik populasyonda bireyin kendini gerçek-leştirmesine, başka bir deyişle düşüncelerindekileri sağlıklı yollardan, gerçeğe dönüştürmesine des-tek olmaktır. Birey düşüncelerindekileri, gerçek yaşamına aktarırken, çevresi ile kendi arasında çoklu bir ilişki oluşur. Martin E.P. Seligman, bu ilişkinin doğasını keşfetme yolunda ruh sağlığı ve hastalıklarına bakış açısını temelden değiştiren yeni bir kuram inşa etmiştir. Bu kuram Pozitif Psi-koloji'dir. Bu kuramın sağaltım yöntemleri ise pozitif psikolojik müdahale yöntemleri ve terapi yöntemi de Pozitif Psikoterapidir. Martin Seligman, Tayyap Rashid ile birlikte modeli hem birey-sel hemde grup terapi oturumları şeklinde oluşturmuştur. Model olumlu duygu duyguları, olumlu bireysel özellikleri, kişiliğin güçlü yanlarını ve erdemler gibi özelliklerin gelişmesi sağlar, inşa eder. Bugün Amerika başta olmak üzere Avrupa, Avrasya, Çin, Avustralya ve ülkemizde kullanılan, bir yaklaşım modeli halini almıştır. Bu makaledeKanıta dayalı deneysel çalışmalarla, depresyon ve diğer ruh sağlığı hastalıklarında modelin ana hatları anlatılmıştır. A An na ah h t ta ar r K Ke e l li i m me e l le er r: : Pozitif psikoterapi; grup terapi; ruh sağlığı hastalıkları A AB BS S T TR RA AC CT T The main purpose of the psychotherapies both in clinical settings and normal population is to help the individual's self-actualization process. Martin E.P. Seligman has found a new scientific approach in the road on exploring the interconnections between the individual and social context. The name of the approach is positive psychology. Positive psychotherapy is the terapeuti-cal method of the approach. Martin Seligman, and Tayyap Rashid created the therapy for both individual and group settings, session by session. It builds the positive emotions, positive individual traits, character strengths and virtues. It critically differs from the other psychotherapies in the understanding of the mental health problems and also the diseases. Recently, beginning from Amer-ica, the approach has been widely applied by the mental health professionals working in our country, Turkey, Europe, Euroasia, China, Australia and Pasific Countries. The positive psychotherapy was explained with it's hypothesis, the evidence-based measures for the mental health professionals working not only in clinical settings but also in normal populations in this review. K Ke ey y W Wo or rd ds s: : Positive psychotherapy; group therapy; mental disorders T Tu ur rk ki iy ye e K Kl li in ni ik kl le er ri i J J P Ps sy yc ch hi ia at tr ry y-S Sp pe ec ci ia al l T To op pi ic cs s 2 20 01 15 5; ;8 8((2 2)): :5 50 0-5 5
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal ideation is defined as the thoughts about engaging in suicidal-related behaviors. Very few studies have been conducted on children’s suicidal ideation as there is a biased perception that suicidal behavior under the age of 12 is scarce. However, suicide is the leading cause of death among young children. Child suicidal ideation is predictive of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adulthood. Association between certain parenting styles and suicidal ideation have been found in empirical studies. However, little is known about the role of parenting and suicidal ideation in Chinese young children. We examined whether gratitude can reduce the risk of suicide by moderating the association between parenting styles and child suicidal ideation. We recruited 447 Chinese children (53.3% female; mean age = 10.06, SD = 1.76) to participate in a survey. Perceived parenting style (warmth/accepting, dominating, and autonomy granting), gratitude, and suicidal ideation were assessed using self-reported measures. We found that all three perceived parental styles were significantly associated with child suicidal ideation. Further, gratitude was found to have a significant moderating effect on suicidal ideation, across the analysis of the three perceived parenting styles. This suggests that gratitude may be adopted in preventive and clinical interventions so that children at risk can benefit from reducing the negative effects of ineffective parenting styles and suicidal ideation.
Article
Background Dispositional gratitude has been implicated as a psychological characteristic that may modulate risk for mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample of U.S. military veterans, this study evaluated the association between dispositional gratitude and the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors over a 7-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans was surveyed at four timepoints across seven years. Analyses were restricted to veterans without incident outcomes at baseline. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relation between baseline levels of dispositional gratitude and risk of developing (a) major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (b) suicidal ideation; and (c) suicide attempts. Results A total 9.6% of veterans developed MDD, GAD, and/or PTSD, 9.5% developed suicidal ideation, and 2.8% reported having attempted suicide over the 7-year follow-up period. Among veterans with high levels of dispositional gratitude, incidence was lower for MDD/GAD/PTSD (8.0%), suicidal ideation (6.8%), and suicide attempts (1.5%). Conversely, veterans with low dispositional gratitude were at substantially higher risk of developing MDD/GAD/PTSD (27.7%), suicidal ideation (33.6%), and suicide attempts (20.3%). Conclusions High dispositional gratitude may help protect against the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors in U.S. military veterans, whereas low gratitude may increase risk of developing these outcomes. Collectively, these results support the potential utility of enhancing gratitude as part of primary prevention efforts for veterans, service members, and other populations at heightened risk for adverse mental health outcomes.
Article
Background : Although prior research has explored the role of gratitude in individuals with disabilities, there is relatively limited research examining the positive influence of gratitude in decreasing psychological distress, promoting mental health, and ultimately improving well-being in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. The study aimed to examine the cumulative mediating effect of perceived stress and mental health between gratitude and life satisfaction among people with MS. Methods : This study was cross-sectional. Participants were 373 individuals with MS. Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and a serial mediation analysis were performed in this study. Results : Gratitude was negatively associated with perceived stress and mental health symptoms, and was positively associated with life satisfaction. Perceived stress was positively associated with mental health symptoms and negatively associated with life satisfaction. Mental health symptoms were negatively associated with life satisfaction. The findings demonstrated that the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction was partially mediated by perceived stress and mental health symptoms in individuals with MS. Conclusions : Findings provided implications on integrating gratitude interventions when working with people with MS. By increasing gratitude levels in people with MS, this may in turn lead to reduced perceived stress and mental health symptoms, which in turn may enhance their life satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies focused on gratitude as a suicide prevention strategy that strengthens protective factors are increasing. However, previous studies did not examine the relationship between the actual occurrence of gratitude behavior and its suicide prevention effect. Aim: We examined whether the occurrence of gratitude behavior is related to suicide prevention. Methods: An advertisement inviting viewers to use free email-based psychological consultation services was placed on web pages that displayed the results of searches using suicide-related keywords. All emails received replies as part of gatekeeping activities, and the data obtained (responses to an online questionnaire and the content of the emails received) were analyzed. Results: In total, 197 consultation service users were analyzed; 33.3% were male and the median age range was 20–29 years. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between service users’ expression of gratitude to the gatekeeper in their second consultation email and successful online gatekeeping (odds ratio = 4.62, 95% confidence interval = 2.52–8.48). There were no statistically significant associations with other independent variables. Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that gratitude functions as a protective factor for suicide.
Article
Full-text available
Research on the association between childhood attachment and depressive symptoms has primarily focused on the role of risk factors. This resulted in a lack of research on the role of potential resilience factors. In the current study, we suggest that middle childhood secure attachment is linked to adolescents’ trait gratitude, which is linked to the enhanced resilience against the development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. In a longitudinal study, we measured 157 children’s (9–12 years old, 48% boys) attachment appraisals (anxiety, avoidance, and trust), attachment representations (secure base script knowledge, and coherence) and depressive symptoms at baseline, and gratitude and depressive symptoms at follow-up two years later. Results supported our hypotheses that middle childhood attachment was robustly linked with adolescent trait gratitude. Moreover, trait gratitude indirectly linked middle childhood attachment avoidance, trust, and secure base script knowledge to change in depressive symptoms over time. These findings may help explain why more securely attached children are less likely to develop depressive symptoms.
Chapter
The current chapter presents an overview of psychological conceptualizations of gratitude, and the existing evidence base regarding the association between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The text discusses the possible mechanisms of the beneficial effects of gratitude on psychosocial and physical well-being, and presents research on the effectiveness of gratitude interventions and activities in clinical and non-clinical populations, including individuals at risk for suicide. It also explores stumbling blocks to experiencing and cultivating gratitude, and factors which contribute to effective engagement in gratitude interventions. The chapter concludes with possible directions in future research on gratitude as a protective factor against suicidality.
Article
Objective: Gratitude plays an important role for individual and social well-being. However, less is known about the link between gratitude and experiences of interpersonal stressors. The current research examined the associations between gratitude and interpersonal transgressions. Method: One cross-sectional study with a broad age range and two daily diary studies (total N = 2,348; total age range: 18-91) were used to test the associations on the between- and within-person level. Results: A consistent result across all studies was that dispositionally grateful individuals tended to report fewer interpersonal transgressions than less grateful people. In turn, people who generally reported more interpersonal transgressions were less grateful in daily life. Moreover, higher gratitude on one specific day was associated with fewer reported transgressions on the same day. However, the results from the daily diary studies indicated differences between the samples. Whereas gratitude was consistently associated with interpersonal transgressions in one daily diary sample, the findings in the second daily diary sample were less consistent. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that grateful people tend to perceive their social exchanges differently and/or actually experience fewer interpersonal transgressions. Future work is needed to test the underlying mechanisms of this negative association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
This study examined both the mediation effects of self-esteem and meaning in life for the relationship between gratitude and suicidal ideation in late adolescence. A total of 276 Taiwanese university students completed measures of gratitude, self-esteem, meaning in life, and suicidal ideation. Path analyses indicated that self-esteem and meaning in life acted as full mediators of the association between gratitude and suicidal ideation. The identified model also revealed a significant path from gratitude through self-esteem and meaning in life to suicidal ideation. A multigroup analysis found that the paths did not differ by genders. Implications for future research and limitations of the present findings are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
La investigación que se informa tuvo como objetivos: 1) estudiar las 24 fortalezas de carácter en pacientes adultos que se encuentran en diferentes etapas de un tratamiento cognitivo conductual psicoterapéutico naturalista; y 2) analizar la relación de las fortalezas con algunas del progreso durante el tratamiento, la alianza terapéutica y la adherencia al tratamiento desde la perspectiva del terapeuta. Se contó con una muestra intencional de 85 pacientes adultos de ambos sexos en tratamiento psicoterapéutico ambulatorio y sus respectivos terapeutas. Se utilizaron: una hoja de datos demográficos y del tratamiento, el Inventario de Fortalezas y Virtudes y una encuesta de opinión para el terapeuta. Los resultados mostraron que los pacientes en la etapa final presentan una mayor fortaleza de Autorregulación. Los pacientes con depresión presentaban menores fortalezas de apertura mental y capacidad de perdonar, en comparación con pacientes con trastornos de ansiedad y con trastornos comórbidos ansioso-depresivos. Aquellos pacientes que habían tenido un tratamiento psiquiátrico previo presentaban menores niveles de la fortaleza persistencia. Un mayor tiempo de tratamiento se asoció con mayores niveles de las fortalezas Liderazgo y curiosidad, en tanto que un mayor malestar psicológico se vinculó con una disminución de una alta cantidad de fortalezas. La fortaleza espiritualidad se halló significativamente asociada al progreso en el tratamiento según su terapeuta. Una mayor apertura mental se halló vinculada a mayor adherencia a horarios, sugerencias y mejor vínculo terapéutico según la opinión del terapeuta. El estudio del funcionamiento positivo en pacientes permitirá enriquecer la psicología clínica para convertirse en una disciplina más integradora.
Article
Based on the cognitive model of suicide and broaden-and-build theory of gratitude, this study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine whether hopelessness mediated the relationship between brooding and Chinese college students’ suicidal ideation and whether this mediating process was moderated by gratitude, from the positive psychology perspective. A total of 1191 college students were investigated using four scales. The results were as follows: (1) Brooding significantly contributed to suicidal ideation; (2) Hopelessness played a mediating role in the relationship between brooding and suicidal ideation; and (3) Gratitude moderated the mediated path through hopelessness, such that this mediating effect was only significant in individuals with low gratitude. This study may shed light on how brooding influences Chinese college students’ suicidal ideation theoretically and on their prevention practically.
Article
This study aimed at examining the roles of self-esteem and depression in the relationship between gratitude and suicidal ideation. A total of 814 Taiwanese college students ranging in age from 18 to 22 years completed measures of gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and suicidal ideation. Structural equation modeling showed partial mediation effects of self-esteem and depression between gratitude and suicidal ideation. Moreover, a multigroup analysis found that males with higher levels of self-esteem could protect themselves from depression more easily than their female counterparts. Implications for future research and limitations of the present findings are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
【Abstract】 The traditional suicide approach treats suicide behavior as a unitary construct, having conflated the question of why people feel suicidal with the question of why people act on suicidal thoughts without differentiating the predictors of ideation with the predictors of the progression from ideation to attempts. The ideation-to-action framework views the devel• opment of suicide ideation and the progression from ideation to attempts as distinct processes with distinct explanations and predictors. The Three-Step Theory (3ST) is one of the representative theories based on the framework. In this review, the proposed background, the theoretical content and future prospects of the 3ST will be systematically introduced. The aim is to acquire a better understanding of the 3ST and promote the development of psychological theory based on the ideation-to-action framework.
Article
Full-text available
50 P sikoterapilerde amaç, bireyin kendini gerçekleştirmesine, başka bir deyişle dü-şüncelerindekileri sağlıklı yoldan, gerçekliğe dönüştürmesine destek olmaktır. 1 Bu bağlamda, birey ile çevresi arasındaki etkileşim, hem mutluluğu hem de psi-kopatolojiyi barındırır. Bu etkileşimi ve bu ikisi arasında geçişleri keşfetme yolunda, Martin E.P. Seligman yeni bir ruh sağlığı kuramı inşa etmiştir. 2 Bu kuram pozitif psi-koloji kuramıdır. Pozitif psikoloji bireyin optimal işlevselliğinin bilimsel çalışmalar bütünüdür. Amacı bireylerin ve toplumların daha iyiye gitmelerini, gelişmelerine yar-dım eden, işlevsel kılan faktörleri ortaya çıkarmak ve bu faktörlerin gelişmesine kat-Pozitif Psikoterapi: Ruh Sağlığına Yeni Bir Bakış Açısı Ö ÖZ ZE ET T Psikoterapilerde amaç, gerek normal gerekse klinik populasyonda bireyin kendini gerçek-leştirmesine, başka bir deyişle düşüncelerindekileri sağlıklı yollardan, gerçeğe dönüştürmesine des-tek olmaktır. Birey düşüncelerindekileri, gerçek yaşamına aktarırken, çevresi ile kendi arasında çoklu bir ilişki oluşur. Martin E.P. Seligman, bu ilişkinin doğasını keşfetme yolunda ruh sağlığı ve hastalıklarına bakış açısını temelden değiştiren yeni bir kuram inşa etmiştir. Bu kuram Pozitif Psi-koloji'dir. Bu kuramın sağaltım yöntemleri ise pozitif psikolojik müdahale yöntemleri ve terapi yöntemi de Pozitif Psikoterapidir. Martin Seligman, Tayyap Rashid ile birlikte modeli hem birey-sel hemde grup terapi oturumları şeklinde oluşturmuştur. Model olumlu duygu duyguları, olumlu bireysel özellikleri, kişiliğin güçlü yanlarını ve erdemler gibi özelliklerin gelişmesi sağlar, inşa eder. Bugün Amerika başta olmak üzere Avrupa, Avrasya, Çin, Avustralya ve ülkemizde kullanılan, bir yaklaşım modeli halini almıştır. Bu makaledeKanıta dayalı deneysel çalışmalarla, depresyon ve diğer ruh sağlığı hastalıklarında modelin ana hatları anlatılmıştır. A An na ah h t ta ar r K Ke e l li i m me e l le er r: : Pozitif psikoterapi; grup terapi; ruh sağlığı hastalıkları A AB BS S T TR RA AC CT T The main purpose of the psychotherapies both in clinical settings and normal population is to help the individual's self-actualization process. Martin E.P. Seligman has found a new scientific approach in the road on exploring the interconnections between the individual and social context. The name of the approach is positive psychology. Positive psychotherapy is the terapeuti-cal method of the approach. Martin Seligman, and Tayyap Rashid created the therapy for both individual and group settings, session by session. It builds the positive emotions, positive individual traits, character strengths and virtues. It critically differs from the other psychotherapies in the understanding of the mental health problems and also the diseases. Recently, beginning from Amer-ica, the approach has been widely applied by the mental health professionals working in our country, Turkey, Europe, Euroasia, China, Australia and Pasific Countries. The positive psychotherapy was explained with it's hypothesis, the evidence-based measures for the mental health professionals working not only in clinical settings but also in normal populations in this review. K Ke ey y W Wo or rd ds s: : Positive psychotherapy; group therapy; mental disorders T Tu ur rk ki iy ye e K Kl li in ni ik kl le er ri i J J P Ps sy yc ch hi ia at tr ry y-S Sp pe ec ci ia al l T To op pi ic cs s 2 20 01 15 5; ;8 8((2 2)): :5 50 0-5 5
Article
Full-text available
Several literatures converge on the idea that approach and positive affect related to goal pursuit are managed by one self-regulatory system and that avoidance (or withdrawal) and negative affect related to threats are managed by a second self-regulatory system. After briefly reviewing these literatures, the authors consider the relation of these themes to the broader domain of personality. In particular, they map individual differences in the responsivity of the approach system onto the personality dimension of extraversion and map individual differences in the responsivity of the withdrawal system onto the dimension of neuroticism. This mapping requires a slight refocusing of current conceptions of extraversion and neuroticism. However, such a refocusing brings a gain as well as a cost: In particular, it would embed these dimensions more explicitly in a process-oriented conceptualization of action control.
Article
Full-text available
Background Suicide is a problem of worldwide concern and research on possible protective factors is needed. We explored the role of social support as one such factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that increased social support would be associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt in two nationally representative samples as well as a high-risk subsample. Methods We analyzed the relationship between social support and lifetime history of a suicide attempt, controlling for a variety of related psychopathology and demographic variables, in the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), a United States sample and the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study (APMS), an English sample. Results Results indicate that social support is associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt controlling for a variety of related predictors in both the full US sample (OR=0.68, p<.001) and the full English sample (OR=0.93, p<.01). Limitations The cross-sectional data do not allow true cause and effect analyses. Conclusions Our findings suggest social support is associated with decreased likelihood of a lifetime suicide attempt. Social support is a highly modifiable factor that can be used to improve existing suicide prevention programs worldwide.
Article
Full-text available
Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among college students. There has been considerable research into risk factors for suicide, such as impulsivity, but considerably less research on protective factors. The present study examines the role that social support plays in the relationship between impulsivity and suicide risk. Participants were 169 undergraduates who completed self-report measures of impulsivity and social support. Suicide risk was assessed using an interview measure. Social support moderates the relationship between impulsivity and suicide risk, such that those who are highly impulsive are less likely to be at risk for suicide if they also have high levels of social support. Social support can be a useful buffer to suicide risk for at-risk individuals who are highly impulsive.
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.
Article
Full-text available
Positive psychology has led to an increasing emphasis on the promotion of positive functioning in clinical psychology research and practice, raising issues of how to assess the positive in clinical setting. Three key considerations are presented. First, existing clinical measures may already be assessing positive functioning, if positive and negative functioning exist on a single continuum (such as on bipolar dimensions from happiness to depression, and from anxiety to relaxation). Second, specific measures of positive functioning (e.g., eudemonic well-being) could be used in conjunction with existing clinical scales. Third, completely different measures would be needed depending on whether well-being is defined as emotional or medical functioning, or as humanistically orientated growth (e.g., authenticity). It is important that clinical psychologists introduce positive functioning into their research and practice in order to widen their armoury of therapeutic interventions, but in doing so researchers and practitioners need also to be aware that they are shifting the agenda of clinical psychology. As such, progress in clinical psychology moving toward the adoption of positive functioning requires reflection on epistemological foundations.
Article
Full-text available
Administered a scale designed to quantify hopelessness to 294 hospitalized suicide attempters, 23 general medical outpatients, 62 additional hospitalized suicide attempters, and 59 depressed psychiatric patients. The scale had a Kuder-Richardson-20 internal consistency coefficient of .93 and correlated well with the Stuart Future Test (SFT) and the pessimism item of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; .60 and .63, respectively). The scale was also sensitive to changes in the patient's state of depression over time, as evidenced by a correlation of .49 with change scores on the SFT and .49 with the change scores on the BDI. Findings also indicate that depressed patients have an unrealistically negative attitude toward the future and that seriousness of suicidal intent is more highly correlated with negative expectancies than with depression. A principal-components factor analysis revealed 3 factors which tapped affective, motivational, and cognitive aspects of hopelessness. (16 ref)
Article
Full-text available
To determine the risk factors for suicide, 6,891 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated in a prospective study. Subsequent deaths for the sample were identified through the National Death Index. Forty-nine (1%) suicides were determined from death certificates obtained from state vital statistics offices. Specific psychological variables that could be modified by clinical intervention were measured using standardized scales. Univariate survival analyses revealed that the severity of depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideation were significant risk factors for eventual suicide. A multivariate survival analysis indicated that several modifiable variables were significant and unique risk factors for suicide, including suicide ideation, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and unemployment status.
Article
Full-text available
A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
Article
Full-text available
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were conducted to explore gratitude in daily mood and the relationships among various affective manifestations of gratitude. In Study 1, spiritual transcendence and a variety of positive affective traits were related to higher mean levels of gratitude across 21 days. Study 2 replicated these findings and revealed that on days when people had more grateful moods than was typical for them, they also reported more frequent daily episodes of grateful emotions, more intense gratitude per episode, and more people to whom they were grateful than was typical for them. In addition, gratitude as an affective trait appeared to render participants' grateful moods somewhat resistant to the effects of discrete emotional episodes of gratitude.
Article
Full-text available
T. E. Joiner's (2004, in press) theory of suicidal behavior suggests that past suicidal behavior plays an important role in future suicidality. However, the mechanism by which this risk is transferred and the causal implications have not been well studied. The current study provides evaluation of the nature and limits of this relationship across 4 populations, with varying degrees of suicidal behavior. Across settings, age groups, and impairment levels, the association between past suicidal behavior and current suicidal symptoms held, even when controlling for strong covariates like hopelessness and symptoms of various Axis I and II syndromes. Results provide additional support for the importance of past suicidality as a substantive risk factor for later suicidal behavior.
Article
Full-text available
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day or greater work cutbacks, the healthiest psychosocial functioning (i.e., low helplessness, clear goals in life, high resilience, and high intimacy), the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, the lowest number of chronic physical diseases with age, the fewest health limitations of activities of daily living, and lower health care utilization. However, the prevalence of flourishing is barely 20% in the adult population, indicating the need for a national program on mental health promotion to complement ongoing efforts to prevent and treat mental illness. Findings reveal a Black advantage in mental health as flourishing and no gender disparity in flourishing among Whites.
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a significant public health problem for older adults. Identification of protective factors associated with reduced risk is important. The authors examined the association of positive affect and suicide ideation in 462 primary care patients ages 65 and older. Positive affect distinguished suicide ideators from nonideators, after controlling for age, gender, depression, negative affect, illness burden, activity, sociability, cognitive functioning, and physical functioning. There was a trend toward age moderation of this relationship. Clinical and theoretical formulations of late-life suicide should consider the role of positive affect, including the possibility that its protective effects grow more pronounced with age.
Article
Full-text available
Three studies tested a new model of gratitude, which specified the generative mechanisms linking individual differences (trait gratitude) and objective situations with the amount of gratitude people experience after receiving aid (state gratitude). In Study 1, all participants (N = 253) read identical vignettes describing a situation in which they received help. People higher in trait gratitude made more positive beneficial appraisals (seeing the help as more valuable, more costly to provide, and more altruistically intended), which fully mediated the relationship between trait and state levels of gratitude. Study 2 (N = 113) replicated the findings using a daily process study in which participants reported on real events each day for up to 14 days. In Study 3, participants (N = 200) read vignettes experimentally manipulating objective situations to be either high or low in benefit. Benefit appraisals were shown to have a causal effect on state gratitude and to mediate the relationship between different prosocial situations and state gratitude. The 3 studies demonstrate the critical role of benefit appraisals in linking state gratitude with trait gratitude and the objective situation.
Article
The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N = 479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18–76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n = 130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n = 118) or a waitlist control (n = 231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n = 40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n = 22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n = 120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article provides psychometric information on the second edition of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI–II; A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), with respect to internal consistency, factorial validity, and gender differences. Both measures demonstrated high internal reliability in the full student sample. Significant differences between the mean BDI and BDI-II scores necessitated the development of new cutoffs for analogue research on the BDI–II. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a 2-factor solution optimally summarized the data for both versions of the inventory and accounted for a cumulative 41% and 46% of the common variance in BDI and BDI–II responses, respectively. These factor solutions were reliably cross-validated, although the importance of each factor varied by gender. The authors conclude that the BDI–II is a stronger instrument than the BDI in terms of its factor structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A 4-week experimental study (N = 67) examined the motivational predictors and positive emotion outcomes of regularly practicing two mental exercises: counting one's blessings (“gratitude”) and visualizing best possible selves (“BPS”). In a control exercise, participants attended to the details of their day. Undergraduates performed one of the three exercises during Session I and were asked to continue performing it at home until Session II (in 2 weeks) and again until Session III (in a further 2 weeks). Following previous theory and research, the practices of gratitude and BPS were expected to boost immediate positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, we hypothesized that continuing effortful performance of these exercises would be necessary to maintain the boosts (Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005a22. Lyubomirsky , S , Sheldon , KM and Schkade , D . 2005a. Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9: 111–131. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131). Finally, initial self-concordant motivation to perform the exercise was expected to predict actual performance and to moderate the effects of performance on increased mood. Results generally supported these hypotheses, and suggested that the BPS exercise may be most beneficial for raising and maintaining positive mood. Implications of the results for understanding the critical factors involved in increasing and sustaining positive affect are discussed.
Article
This study assessed whether stress, social support, and interpersonal problem-solving appraisal/skills were predictive of level of suicidality within a chronic suicidal college sample. Stepwise regression analyses were used to assess whether stress, social support, and problem-solving were independently predictive of severity of suicide ideation. In addition, hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the mediational nature of social support and problem-solving in the stress-suicidality relationship. Problem-solving confidence was found to be a significant predictor of severity of suicide ideation. In addition, both perceived problem-solving skills and social support mediated the relationship between stress and level of suicide ideation. However, only one of the two perceived problem-solving skills interactions was in the expected direction. This study provided support for the importance of problem-solving confidence and the interaction of stress and social support in the prediction of suicide severity. Unlike previous studies, this study did not find problem-solving skills/deficits to mediate the stress-suicidality relationship.
Article
The psychometric properties of the Scale for Suicide Ideation—Current (SSI-C; Beck, Kovacs & Weissman, 1979, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 343–352) and the Scale for Suicide Ideation—Worst (SSI-W; Beck, Brown, Steer, Dahlsgaard & Grisham, 1997, in press) were explored. These 19-item clinician-administered scales measure current suicide ideation (SSI-C) as well as suicide ideation at its worst point in the patient's life (SSI-W). For a sample of 4063 outpatients, both scales were positively correlated with a diagnosis of a principal mood disorder, a diagnosis of a personality disorder, and measures of depression and hopelessness. The relationship between the SSI-W and a history of suicide attempts was stronger (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) than the relationship between the SSI-C and previous suicide attempts (r = 0.31, P < 0.001). For 444 current and 1764 past suicide ideators, the SSI-C and the SSI-W had high internal consistencies (coefficient αs = 0.84 and 0.89, respectively). The SSI-C and the SSI-W were moderatedly correlated with each other (r = 0.51, P < 0.001). Iterated maximum-likelihood principal-factor analyses identified comparable Preparation and Motivation dimensions underlying both scales.
Article
Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates yielded a mean coefficient alpha of 0.86 for psychiatric patients and 0.81 for nonpsychiatric subjects. The concurrent validitus of the BDI with respect to clinical ratings and the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were also high. The mean correlations of the BDI samples with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0. 72 and 0.73, respectively, for psychiatric patients. With nonpsychiatric subjects, the mean correlations of the BDI with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0.60 and 0.74, respectively. Recent evidence indicates that the BDI discriminates subtypes of depression and differentiates depression from anxiety.
Article
In two longitudinal studies, the authors examined the direction of the relationships between trait gratitude, perceived social support, stress, and depression during a life transition. Both studies used a full cross-lagged panel design, with participants completing all measures at the start and end of their first semester at college. Structural equation modeling was used to compare models of direct, reverse, and reciprocal models of directionality. Both studies supported a direct model whereby gratitude led to higher levels of perceived social support, and lower levels of stress and depression. In contrast, no variable led to gratitude, and most models of mediation were discounted. Study 2 additionally showed that gratitude leads to the other variables independently of the Big Five factors of personality. Overall gratitude seems to directly foster social support, and to protect people from stress and depression, which has implications for clinical interventions.
Article
A 9-point clinical rating scale was used to assess the severity of hopelessness in 141 patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation. The patients were followed from 5 to 10 years, and 10 (7.1%) eventually committed suicide. The mean hopelessness rating for the patients committing suicide was significantly higher than that for the patients not committing suicide. A cutoff score of 6 or above successfully predicted 9 (90.0%) of those committing suicide. The results supported previous findings in which self-reported hopelessness on the Beck Hopelessness Scale was reported to predict suicide in both psychiatric outpatients and inpatients.
Article
Moderated multiple regression (MMR) is frequently employed to analyse interaction effects between continuous predictor variables. The procedure of mean centring is commonly recommended to mitigate the potential threat of multicollinearity between predictor variables and the constructed cross-product term. Also, centring does typically provide more straightforward interpretation of the lower-order terms. This paper attempts to clarify two methodological issues of potential confusion. First, the positive and negative effects of mean centring on multicollinearity diagnostics are explored. It is illustrated that the mean centring method is, depending on the characteristics of the data, capable of either increasing or decreasing various measures of multicollinearity. Second, the exact reason why mean centring does not affect the detection of interaction effects is given. The explication shows the symmetrical influence of mean centring on the corrected sum of squares and variance inflation factor of the product variable while maintaining the equivalence between the two residual sums of squares for the regression of the product term on the two predictor variables. Thus the resulting test statistic remains unchanged regardless of the obvious modification of multicollinearity with mean centring. These findings provide a clear understanding and demonstration on the diverse impact of mean centring in MMR applications.
Article
In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem. Finally, this study examined the extent to which stressful life events moderated the direct and indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were lower among adolescents who scored higher on gratitude, after controlling for demographic variables. Self-esteem mediated the relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, while the mediating role of coping efficacy was not significant. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the mediated path through self-esteem. This indirect effect was stronger for adolescents low on stressful life events than that for those high on stressful life events. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Article
This research was conducted to examine the hypothesis that expressing gratitude to a relationship partner enhances one's perception of the relationship's communal strength. In Study 1 (N = 137), a cross-sectional survey, expressing gratitude to a relationship partner was positively associated with the expresser's perception of the communal strength of the relationship. In Study 2 (N = 218), expressing gratitude predicted increases in the expresser's perceptions of the communal strength of the relationship across time. In Study 3 (N = 75), participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition, in which they expressed gratitude to a friend, or to one of three control conditions, in which they thought grateful thoughts about a friend, thought about daily activities, or had positive interactions with a friend. At the end of the study, perceived communal strength was higher among participants in the expression-of-gratitude condition than among those in all three control conditions. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these findings and suggest directions for future research.
Article
The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N=479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18-76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n=130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n=118) or a waitlist control (n=231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n=40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n=22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n=120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables.
Article
Previous work suggests women might possess an advantage over men in experiencing and benefiting from gratitude. We examined whether women perceive and react to gratitude differently than men. In Study 1, women, compared with men, evaluated gratitude expression to be less complex, uncertain, conflicting, and more interesting and exciting. In Study 2, college students and older adults described and evaluated a recent episode when they received a gift. Women, compared with men, reported less burden and obligation and greater gratitude. Upon gift receipt, older men reported the least positive affect when their benefactors were men. In Studies 2 and 3, women endorsed higher trait gratitude compared with men. In Study 3, over 3 months, women with greater gratitude were more likely to satisfy needs to belong and feel autonomous; gratitude had the opposite effect in men. The willingness to openly express emotions partially mediated gender differences, and effects could not be attributed to global trait affect. Results demonstrated that men were less likely to feel and express gratitude, made more critical evaluations of gratitude, and derived fewer benefits. Implications for the study and therapeutic enhancement of gratitude are discussed.
Article
People are often profoundly moved by the virtue or skill of others, yet psychology has little to say about the 'other-praising' family of emotions. Here we demonstrate that emotions such as elevation, gratitude, and admiration differ from more commonly studied forms of positive affect (joy and amusement) in many ways, and from each other in a few ways. The results of studies using recall, video induction, event-contingent diary, and letter-writing methods to induce other-praising emotions suggest that: elevation (a response to moral excellence) motivates prosocial and affiliative behavior, gratitude motivates improved relationships with benefactors, and admiration motivates self-improvement. Mediation analyses highlight the role of conscious emotion between appraisals and motivations. Discussion focuses on implications for emotion research, interpersonal relationships, and morality.
Article
Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.