ArticlePDF Available

Herbs Used In Peptic Ulcer : A Review

Authors:
  • Mata Gujri College of Pharmacy Mata Gujri University
  • Mata Gujri College of Pharmacy

Abstract

Peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is an ulcer (defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater than 0.5 cm) of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful.1 Symptoms include abdominal pain with severity relating to mealtimes, after around 3 hours of taking a meal; bloating and abdominal fullness; nausea, and copious vomiting; loss of appetite and weight loss etc. There are many herbs, nutrients, and plant products that have been found to play a role in protecting or helping to heal stomach and peptic ulcers. Few human trials are available, but many have show good potential in animal or in vitro studies. And the present study was aimed to collect information on various herbs which are used in treating Peptic Ulcer in various parts of the world, depending upon the data’s provided by various researchers. Key Words: Peptic Ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, Gastrin, Herbs
Review Article ISSN 2277-3657
Available online at
www.ijpras.com
Volume 2, issue 2 (2013),9-23
International Journal of
Pharmaceutical Research &
Allied Sciences
9
Herbs Used In Peptic Ulcer: A Review
Saumendu Deb Roy
1*
, Jashabir Chakraborty
2
, Dibyendu Shil
1
, Sumit Das
3
, Narzima Begum
2
.
1. Deptt. Of Pharmacognosy, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam.
2. Deptt. Of Pharmacology, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Guwahati, Assam.
3. Deptt. Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science,
Guwahati, Assam.
E-mail: baharu@rediffmail.com
Subject: Pharmacognosy
Abstract
Peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer disease, is an ulcer (defined as mucosal erosions equal to or greater
than 0.5 cm) of an area of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus extremely painful.
1
Symptoms
include abdominal pain with severity relating to mealtimes, after around 3 hours of taking a meal; bloating and
abdominal fullness; nausea, and copious vomiting; loss of appetite and weight loss etc. There are many herbs,
nutrients, and plant products that have been found to play a role in protecting or helping to heal stomach and peptic
ulcers. Few human trials are available, but many have show good potential in animal or in vitro studies. And the
present study was aimed to collect information on various herbs which are used in treating Peptic Ulcer in various
parts of the world, depending upon the data’s provided by various researchers.
Key Words:
Peptic Ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, Gastrin, Herbs.
Introduction
Peptic ulcer, also known as PUD or peptic ulcer
disease, is an ulcer (defined as mucosal erosions
equal to or greater than 0.5 cm) of an area of the
gastrointestinal tract that is usually acidic and thus
extremely painful.
1
Symptoms includes abdominal
pain, classically epigastric with severity relating to
mealtimes, after around 3 hours of taking a meal
(duodenal ulcers are classically relieved by food,
while gastric ulcers are exacerbated by it); bloating
and abdominal fullness; waterbrash (rush of saliva
after an episode of regurgitation to dilute the acid in
esophagus); nausea, and copious vomiting; loss of
appetite and weight loss; hematemesis (vomiting of
blood); this can occur due to bleeding directly from a
gastric ulcer, or from damage to the esophagus from
severe/continuing vomiting; melena (tarry, foul-
smelling feces due to oxidized iron from
hemoglobin).
Rarely, an ulcer can lead to a gastric or
duodenal perforation, which leads to acute peritonitis.
This is extremely painful and requires immediate
surgery. A history of heartburn, gastroesophageal
reflux disease (GERD) and use of certain forms of
medication can raise the suspicion for peptic ulcer.
Medicines associated with peptic ulcer include
NSAID (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs) that
inhibit cyclooxygenase, and most glucocorticoids
(e.g. dexamethasone and prednisolone).
In patients over 45 with more than two
weeks of the above symptoms, the odds for peptic
ulceration are high enough to warrant rapid
investigation by EGD
2,3
The timing of the symptoms
in relation to the meal may differentiate between
gastric and duodenal ulcers: A gastric ulcer would
give epigastric pain during the meal, as gastric acid
production is increased as food enters the stomach.
Symptoms of duodenal ulcers would initially be
relieved by a meal, as the pyloric sphincter closes to
concentrate the stomach contents, therefore acid is
not reaching the duodenum. Duodenal ulcer pain
Available online at www.ijpras.com
10
would manifest mostly 2-3 hours after the meal,
when the stomach begins to release digested food and
acid into the duodenum. Also, the symptoms of
peptic ulcers may vary with the location of the ulcer
and the patient's age. Furthermore, typical ulcers tend
to heal and recur and as a result the pain may occur
for few days and weeks and then wane or disappear.
Usually, children and the elderly do not develop any
symptoms unless complications have arisen.
Complications
:
4,5
Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common
complication. Sudden large bleeding can be life-
threatening. It occurs when the ulcer erodes one of
the blood vessels, such as the gastroduodenal artery.
Perforation (a hole in the wall) often leads to
catastrophic consequences. Erosion of the gastro-
intestinal wall by the ulcer leads to spillage of
stomach or intestinal content into the abdominal
cavity. Perforation at the anterior surface of the
stomach leads to acute peritonitis, initially chemical
and later bacterial peritonitis. The first sign is often
sudden intense abdominal pain. Posterior wall
perforation leads to pancreatitis; pain in this situation
often radiates to the back.
Penetration is when the ulcer continues into
adjacent organs such as the liver and pancreas.
Scarring and swelling due to ulcers causes narrowing
in the duodenum and gastric outlet obstruction.
Patient often presents with severe vomiting. Cancer is
included in the differential diagnosis (elucidated by
biopsy), Helicobacter pylori as the etiological factor
making it 3 to 6 times more likely to develop
stomach cancer from the ulcer.
Cause of Peptic Ulcer
Helicobacter pylori: A major causative factor (60%
of gastric and up to 90% of duodenal ulcers) is
chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori that
colonizes the antral mucosa. The immune system is
unable to clear the infection, despite the appearance
of antibodies. Thus, the bacterium can cause a
chronic active gastritis (type B gastritis), resulting in
a defect in the regulation of gastrin production by that
part of the stomach, and gastrin secretion can either
be decreased (most cases) resulting in hypo- or
achlorhydria or increased. Gastrin stimulates the
production of gastric acid by parietal cells and, in H.
pylori colonization responses that increase gastrin,
the increase in acid can contribute to the erosion of
the mucosa and therefore ulcer formation.
NSAIDs: Another major cause is the use of
NSAIDs (see above). The gastric mucosa protects
itself from gastric acid with a layer of mucus, the
secretion of which is stimulated by certain
prostaglandins. NSAIDs block the function of
cyclooxygenase 1 (cox-1), which is essential for the
production of these prostaglandins. COX-2 selective
anti-inflammatories (such as celecoxib or the since
withdrawn rofecoxib) preferentially inhibit cox-2,
which is less essential in the gastric mucosa, and
roughly halve the risk of NSAID-related gastric
ulceration. As the prevalence of H. pylori-caused
ulceration declines in the Western world due to
increased medical treatment, a greater proportion of
ulcers will be due to increasing NSAID use among
individuals with pain syndromes as well as the
growth of aging populations that develop arthritis.
The incidence of duodenal ulcers has
dropped significantly during the last 30 years, while
the incidence of gastric ulcers has shown a small
increase, mainly caused by the widespread use of
NSAIDs. The drop in incidence is considered to be a
cohort-phenomenon independent of the progress in
treatment of the disease. The cohort-phenomenon is
probably explained by improved standards of living
which has lowered the incidence of H. pylori
infections
Stress: Researchers also continue to look at stress as a
possible cause, or at least complication, in the
development of ulcers. There is debate as to whether
psychological stress can influence the development
of peptic ulcers. Burns and head trauma, however,
can lead to physiologic stress ulcers, which are
reported in many patients who are on mechanical
ventilation.
An expert panel convened by the Academy of
Behavioral Medicine Research concluded that ulcers
are not purely an infectious disease and that
psychological factors do play a significant
role.Researchers are examining how stress might
promote H. pylori infection. For example,
Helicobacter pylori thrives in an acidic environment,
and stress has been demonstrated to cause the
production of excess stomach acid. This was
supported by a study on mice showing that both long-
term water-immersion-restraint stress and H. pylori
infection were independently associated with the
development of peptic ulcers.
A study of peptic ulcer patients in a Thai hospital
showed that chronic stress was strongly associated
with an increased risk of peptic ulcer, and a
Available online at www.ijpras.com
11
combination of chronic stress and irregular mealtimes
was a significant risk factor.
Gastrinomas (Zollinger Ellison syndrome): it is a
rare gastrin-secreting tumors, also cause multiple and
difficult to heal ulcers.
Smoking: Studies show that cigarette smoking can
increase a person's chance of getting an ulcer.
Smoking also slows the healing of existing ulcers and
contributes to ulcer recurrence.
Caffeine: Beverages and foods that contain caffeine
can stimulate acid secretion in the stomach. This can
aggravate an existing ulcer, but the stimulation of
stomach acid can't be attributed solely to caffeine.
Alcohol: While a link hasn't been found between
alcohol consumption and peptic ulcers, ulcers are
more common in people who have cirrhosis of the
liver, a disease often linked to heavy alcohol
consumption.
Genetic factor: People with blood group O appear to
be more prone to develope peptic ulcer than those
with other blood groups. Genetic influences appear
to have greater role in duodenal ulcers as evidence by
their occurrence in families monozygotic twins and
association with HLB-B5 antigen.
Plant Used for Treating Peptic Ulcer
6
There are many herbs, nutrients, and plant products
that have been found to play a role in protecting or
helping to heal stomach and peptic ulcers. Few
human trials are available, but many have show good
potential in animal or in vitro studies.
A variety of botanical products have been reported to
possess antiulcer activity but the documented
literature has centered primarily on pharmacological
action in experimental animals. Except for a few
phytogenic compounds (i.e. aloe, liquorice and
chilly), limited clinical data are available to support
the use of herbs as gastro-protective agents and thus,
the data on efficacy and safety are limited. Despite
this, there are several botanical products with
potential therapeutic applications because of their
high efficacy and low toxicity. Finally, it should be
noted that substances such as Flavonoids, aescin, aloe
gel and many others, that possess antiulcer activity
are of particular therapeutic importance as most of
the anti-inflammatory drugs used in modern
medicine are ulcerogenic. Active principles of
antiulcer activity are Flavonoids, terpenoids and
tannins.
Some medicinal plants used in the treatment of ulcer:
Ficus arnottiana , Gymnosporia motana
Alstonia Scholari Azadirachta indica,
Asparagus racemosus, Berberis asiatica
Bauhinia variegata Aloe vera
Butea frondosa, Hibiscus rosa sinensis,
Carica papaya Astragalus membranaceus,
Annona squamoza, Rheum emodi,
Benincasa hispida Curcuma longa
Eruca sativa, Uncaria tomentosa,
Angelica sinensis Ulmus rubra
Emblica officinalis, Althaea officinalis,
Tinospora cordifolia Brassica oleracea
Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhiza glabra
Centella asiatica Crataeva nurvala,
Moringa oleifera, Musa paradisca
Garcinia cambogia Panax ginseng,
PLANT PROFILES
ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS
Synonyms
:
Satavar ,Satavari, Shatamuli
Family:Asparagaceae
Available online at www.ijpras.com
12
Geographical source
:
It is found distributed throughout topical Asia, Africa
and Australia .In India , it is found in Himalayas upto
an altitude of 1300 to 1400m and all tropical part of
India .It occurs as wild plant in dry and deciduous
forests of Maharashtra.
Morphology:
Satavar has small pine-needle-like leaves that are
uniform and shiny green. In July, it produces minute,
white flowers on short, spiky stems, and in
September it fruits blackish-purple, globular berries.
It has an adventitious root system with tuberous roots
that measures about one meter in length, tapering at
both ends, and for each plant number roughly a
hundred
7
Chemical constituent:
Shatavari roots contain 4 steroid saponin, shatavarin
I-IV (0.2%). Shatavarin I is the major glycoside with
3 glucose and rhamnose moieties attached to
sarsapogenin ,whereas in shatavarin IV 2 glucose and
1 rhamnose moieties are attached.Flowers and fruits
contain quercetin ,rutin and hyperoside ,while leaves
contain diosgenin and hyperoside,while leaves
contain diosgenin and quercetin.
7
Use:
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in
Ayurvedic texts for prevention and treatment of
gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a galactogogue.
Generally the root is employed in diarrhoea as well as
in chronic colic and dysentery problems. Root boiled
with some bland oil, is applied in various skin
diseases. Root is boiled in milk and the milk is
administered to relieve bilious dyspepsia and
diarrhoea and to promote appetite; root is also used in
rheumatism. Tubers are candied and taken as a
sweetmeat.Fresh root juice is given with honey as a
demulcent. Boiled leaves smeared with ghee are
applied to boils, smallpox, etc., in order to prevent
their confluence. Juice of this drug taken with milk is
useful in gonorrhea.
8
Pharmacological review:
Asparagus racemosus has been shown to mitigate the
discomfort due to Amlapitta (Acid dyspepsia with or
without ulcer) on 109 cases in a clinical Study at
Central Research Institute for Ayurveda, New-Delhi.
TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA
Synonyms
:
Guduchi,Amrutobali
9
Family : Menispermaceae
Distribution : Guduchi is a climber found throughout
tropical regions of India. In Himachal Pradesh,it is
easily found as a robust climber mainly in areas like
Una,Paonta,Hamirpur,and Kangra etc.It climbs over
the highest trees and throws out aerial roots which
reach the length of 30 feet.It grows up to the height
of 1000 feet inIndia
10
Morphology: Tinospora is a glabrous , climbing
shrub with corky grey dotted bark.It is a perennial
deciduous twinter with succulent stem and papery
bark.The leaves are 10-20 cm in diameter,broadly
ovate,deeply cordaye and shortly acuminate.The
flowers are smalland greenish yellow on the old
wood in 7.5-15cm long racemes;slender,usualiy
solitary in the female and clustered in male . fruits are
red in colour and to shape of pea.
10
Constituent:
11,12
The active adaptogenic constituents
are diterpene compounds including tinosporone,
tinosporic acid, cordifolisides A to E, syringen, the
yellow alkaloid, berberine, Giloin, crude Giloininand,
a glucosidal bitter principle as well as
polysaccharides,
including arabinogalactan polysaccharide
(TSP).Picrotene and bergenin were also found in the
plant.
Use: Tinospora cordifolia and similar species
like Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii.
They are used in Ayurvedic and herbal medicine as a
hepatoprotectant, protecting the liver from damage
that may occur following exposure to toxins, as well
as in Thailand, Philippines. Recent research has
demonstrated that a combination of T.
cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in
Available online at www.ijpras.com
13
preventing the hepatotoxicity which is otherwise
produced as a side effect of conventional
pharmaceutical treatments for tuberculosis using
drugs such as isoniazid andrifampicin.
According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory,
the plant has a long history of use in India as a
medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as
Giloe-ka-sat or as Palo.
Pharmacological review:
10
Pahadiya S et al has
evaluated the radioprotective effect of an aqueous
extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) against Co(60)
gamma radiation in the dose of 5 mg/kg body wt to
Swiss albino mice. It has shown significant
protection in terms of survival percentage.
Grover JK et al has evaluated the extract of M.
charantia (200 mg/kg), E. jambolana (200 mg/kg), M.
pruriens (200 mg/kg) and T. cordifolia (400 mg/kg)
was administered for 50 days in STZ induced
diabetic mice, the plasma glucose concentration was
reduced by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07% respectively.
Mary NK et al has evaluated T. cordifolia as
antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory,
lipoprotein lipase releasing, anti-inflammatory and
hypolipidaemic activity in rats in the dose of 5
mg/kg. The extract has significantly (p<0.001)
enhanced release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme.
ERUCA SATIVA
Synonyms: Rocket(roquette) or Arugula,
Family : Brassicaceae
Distribution: It is a species of Eruca native to
the Mediterranean region,
from Morocco andPortugal east
to Lebanon and Turkey.
Morphology: It is an annual plant growing 20–100
centimetres (8–39 in) in height. The leaves are deeply
pinnately lobed with four to ten small lateral lobes
and a large terminal lobe. The flowers are 2–4 cm
(0.8–1.6 in) in diameter, arranged in a corymb, with
the typical Brassicaceae flower structure; the petals
are creamy white with purple veins, and the stamens
yellow; the sepals are shed soon after the flower
opens. The fruit is a siliqua(pod) 12–35 millimetres
(0.5–1.4 in) long with an apical beak, and containing
several seeds (which are edible).
13
Chemical constituent: Phytochemical investigations
of the aqueous extract of Eruca sativa fresh leaves,
afforded the presence of nine natural flavonoid
compounds which were isolated and identified as
kaempferol 3-O-(2''-O-malonyl-β-D-glucopy-
ranoside)-4'-O-β-D-glucopy-ranoside (1), kaempferol
3,4'-O-diglucopyranoside (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-(2''-
O-methylmalonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside (3), 3-O-glucopyranoside (4), 4'-O-
glucopyranoside (5), rhamnocitrin 3-O-
glucopyranoside (6), 4'-O-glucopyranoside (7),
kaempferol (8) and rhamnocitrin (9). Compounds (1)
and (3) appear to be novel. Elucidation of the
chemical structures of all the isolated compounds was
determined by different spectroscopic methods in
addition to the chemical and physical methods of
analysis.
14
Use: Rocket extract possesses anti-secretary,
cytoprotective, and anti-ulcer activities against
experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcer
effect is possibly through prostaglandin-mediated
activity and/or through its anti-secretory and
antioxidant properties.
It has a rich, peppery taste, and has an exceptionally
strong flavour for a leafy green. It is generally used
in salads, often mixed with other greens , but is also
cooked as a vegetable or used raw with pasta or
meats in northern Italy and in coastal Slovenia.
Pharmacological review: A research team led by Dr
Syed Rafatullah from Saudi Arabia validated the
gastric anti-ulcer properties of EER on
experimentally-induced gastric secretion and
ulceration in albino rats. In this study, gastric acid
secretion studies were undertaken using pylorus-
ligated rats. Gastric lesions in the rats were induced
by noxious chemicals including ethanol, strong
alkalis, indomethacin and hypothermic restraint
stress. The levels of gastric wall mucus (GWM),
nonprotein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and
malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in the
glandular stomach of rats following ethanol
administration. The gastric tissue was also examined
histologically. The extract was used in two doses
(250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in all experiments.
Available online at www.ijpras.com
14
They found that the ethanolic extract of EER
significantly and dose-dependently reduced the basal
gastric acid secretion, titratable acidity and ruminal
ulceration. Rocket extract significantly attenuated
gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents (80%
ethanol, 0.2 mol/L NaOH, 25% NaCl), indomethacin
and hypothermic restraint stress. The anti-ulcer effect
was further confirmed histologically. On the other
hand, the extract significantly replenished GWM and
NP-SH levels, as well as the MDA level significantly
reduced by extract pretreatment.
They concluded that EER extract possesses
antisecretory, cytoprotective, and anti-ulcer activities
against experimentally-induced gastric lesions. The
anti-ulcer effect is possibly through
prostaglandinmediated activity and/or through its
anti-secretory and antioxidant properties.
15
PANAX GINSENG
Synonyms
:
Kanji,Hangul Ren Shen, Asiatic ginseng
,Red ginseng
Family
:
Araliaceae
Distribution: China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan.
Morphology :The panax ginseng plant grows best in
cooler regions of the northern hemishphere and
reaches a height of about one foot .The ginseng plant
has yellowish-green umbrella shaped flowers that
grow in a circle around a straight stem, with its 5
leaflets joined together at one point, it blooms in
midsummer. The fruit is a bright crimson
berrycontaining1-3 wrinkled seeds the size of small
peas.
Chemical constituent: The main active ingredient in
the Panax species are a group of dammarrane-type
triterpenoid glycosides.They are referred to as
saponins and termed as ginsenosides.In Russia they
termed as panaxosidess.These are in the ginseng root.
There are more than 30 ginsenoside.One of them is
an oleanolic acid derivative. It is the type and
composition of the ginsenosides which give their
different qualities.There are 8 main ginsenosides and
the composition in American and Asian is quite
different.There are many more ginsenosides in
American ginseng than there are in Asian
ginseng.The most abundant ginsenoside in both
species is ginsenoside Rb1.This ginsenosides is
reported to have sedative effect.Ginsenoside Rg1 is
said to have a stimulant effect.The levels of Rg1 in
Asian ginseng are much higher than in American
ginseng.Asian ginseng also contains ginsenosides Rf
and Rg2,whereas American ginseng is virtually
devoid of these ginsenosides.Pseudoginsenosides F11
is noted in American ginseng ,but it is almost absent
from Asian ginseng. The root of ginseng contain
resin ,sugar,starch,mucilage,a saponin ,a volatile oil
and several steroids compound.It contain strong anti
oxident and a another compound germanium.
16
Use:Ginseng shows anti ulcer activity due to the
presence of ginsenoside Rb1. Both American ginseng
(Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax
ginseng) roots are taken orally
as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs,
nourishing stimulants and in the treatment of type II
diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men.
The root is most often available in dried form, either
whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly
prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root, it is
most often available in dried form.
This ingredient may also be found in some
popular energy drinks, often the "tea" varieties; in
these products, ginseng is usually present in
subclinical doses and does not have measurable
medicinal effects. It can be found in cosmetic
preparations as well, but has not been shown to have
clinically effective results.
17
Pharmacological review: A polysaccharide fraction
of the leaves from Panax ginseng prevented gastric
ulcer formation in rats after administration of
necrotizing agents (HCl-ethanol, ethanol) and after
pylorus ligation. This effect was observed not only
after oral, but also after systemic administration,
suggesting a non-local effect. Rats administered
tissue cultured and cultivated ginseng had reduced
gastric secretion and acid output. However, pepsin
activity was not affected. Specifically, the cultivated
ginseng blocked histamine induced acid secretion.
17
Available online at www.ijpras.com
15
CARICA PAPAYA
Synonym: Papaya, Melon tree, Pawpaw, papaya,
Tree melon
Family
:
Caricaceae
Distribution
:18
Though the exact area of origin is
unknown, the papaya is believed native to tropical
America, perhaps in southern Mexico and
neighboring Central America. It is recorded that
seeds were taken to Panama and then the Dominican
Republic before 1525 and cultivation spread to warm
elevations throughout South and Central America,
southern Mexico, the West Indies and Bahamas, and
to Bermuda in 1616. Spaniards carried seeds to the
Philippines about 1550 and the papaya traveled from
there to Malacca and India. Seeds were sent from
India to Naples in 1626. Now the papaya is familiar
in nearly all tropical regions of the Old World and the
Pacific Islands and has become naturalized in many
areas. Seeds were probably brought to Florida from
the Bahamas. Up to about 1959, the papaya was
commonly grown in southern and central Florida in
home gardens and on a small commercial scale.
Thereafter, natural enemies seriously reduced the
plantings. There was a similar decline in Puerto Rico
about 10 years prior to the setback of the industry in
Florida. While isolated plants and a few commercial
plots may be fruitful and long-lived, plants in some
fields may reach 5 or 6 ft, yield one picking of
undersized and misshapen fruits and then are so
affected by virus and other diseases that they must be
destroyed.
Morphology
19:
Commonly and erroneously referred
to as a "tree", the plant is properly a large herb
growing at the rate of 6 to 10 ft (1.8-3 m) the first
year and reaching 20 or even 30 ft (6-9 m) in height,
with a hollow green or deep-purple stem becoming
12 to 16 in (30-40 cm) or more thick at the base and
roughened by leaf scars. The leaves emerge directly
from the upper part of the stem in a spiral on nearly
horizontal petioles 1 to 3 1/2 ft (30-105 cm) long,
hollow, succulent, green or more or less dark purple.
The blade, deeply divided into 5 to 9 main segments,
each irregularly subdivided, varies from 1 to 2 ft (30-
60 cm) in width and has prominent yellowish ribs and
veins. The life of a leaf is 4 to 6 months. Both the
stem and leaves contain copious white milky latex.
The 5-petalled flowers are fleshy, waxy and slightly
fragrant. Some plants bear only short-stalked
pistillate (female) flowers, waxy and ivory-white; or
hermaprodite (perfect) flowers (having female and
male organs), ivory-white with bright-yellow anthers
and borne on short stalks; while others may bear only
staminate (male) flowers, clustered on panicles to 5
or 6 ft (1.5-1.8 m) long. There may even be
monoecious plants having both male and female
flowers. Some plants at certain seasons produce
short-stalked male flowers, at other times perfect
flowers. This change of sex may occur temporarily
during high temperatures in midsummer. Some "all-
male" plants occasionally bear, at the tip of the spray,
small flowers with perfect pistils and these produce
abnormally slender fruits. Male or hermaphrodite
plants may change completely to female plants after
being beheaded.
Generally, the fruit is melon-like, oval to nearly
round, somewhat pyriform, or elongated club-shaped,
6 to 20 in (15-50 cm) long and 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm)
thick; weighing up to 20 lbs (9 kg). Semi-wild
(naturalized) plants bear miniature fruits 1 to 6 in
(2.5-15 cm) long. The skin is waxy and thin but fairly
tough. When the fruit is green and hard it is rich in
white latex. As it ripens, it becomes light- or deep-
yellow externally and the thick wall of succulent
flesh becomes aromatic, yellow, orange or various
shades of salmon or red. It is then juicy, sweetish and
somewhat like a cantaloupe in flavor; in some types
quite musky. Attached lightly to the wall by soft,
white, fibrous tissue, are usually numerous small,
black, ovoid, corrugated, peppery seeds about 3/16 in
(5 mm) long, each coated with a transparent,
gelatinous aril.
Chemical constituent
18:
Enzyme:papya is rich in
enzyme called papin. It also contains Carotinoids
namely β –carotene, cryptoxanthin and zeaxa in the
fruits, alkaloids from the leaves are
carpaine,carpinine. Monoterpenoids includes 4-
terpiniol, linalool and linalool oxides. Whereas
Flavonoids marks their presence via
quercetin,myrecetin and kaemferol in the shoot. The
fruits also contain potassium, calcium ,magnesium,
cupper,zink, iron
Available online at www.ijpras.com
16
Use
18
: Papaya has been used for digestion
problems.This product should not be used for
intestinal parasite infections because it may be
ineffective. The effects of Carica papaya Linn on
exogenous ulcer and histamine-induced acid
secretion were studied in rats. The latex of the
unripened fruit of C. papaya was effective in
protecting the exogenous ulcer. It significantly
lessened the acid secretion induced by intravenous
infusion of histamine in chronic gastric fistulated
rats. Crystalline papain was also effective in
protecting the exogenous ulcer and in decreasing the
histamine-induced acid secretion in rats. The
conclusion is that papain is the active principle in C.
papaya that exerts the ulcer-protective effect.
Papaya is cultivated for its ripe fruits, favored by
tropical people, as breakfast fruit, and as an
ingredient in jellies, preserves, or cooked in various
ways; juice makes a popular beverage; young leaves,
shoots, and fruits cooked as a vegetable. Latex used
to remove freckles. Bark used for making rope.
Leaves used as a soap substitute, are supposed to
remove stains. Flowers are eaten in Java. Papain, the
proteolytic enzyme, has a wealth of industrial uses. It
has milk-clotting (rennet) and protein digesting
properties. Active over a wide pH range, papain is
useful in medicine, combatting dyspepsia and other
digestive orders. In liquid preparations it has been
used for reducing enlarged tonsils. Nearly 80% of
American beer is treated with papain, which digests
the precipitable protein fragments and then the beer
remains clear on cooling. Papain is also used for
degumming natural silk. But most of the papain
imported in the U.S. is used for meat-tenderizers and
chewing gums. Also used to extract the oil from tuna
liver. Cosmetically it is used in some dentifrices,
shampoos, and face-lifting preparations. Used to
clean silks and wools before dying, and to remove
hair from hides during tanning (Duke, 1984b). It is
also used in the manufacture of rubber from Hevea
(Morton, 1977). Recently, the FDA has cleared
chymopapain for intradiscal injection in patients with
documented herniated lumbar intervertebral discs
whose signs and symptoms have not responded to
conservative therapy over an adequate period of time
(FDA Drug Bull. 12(3): 17-18). Fruit and seed
extracts have pronounced bactericidal activity
against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus,
Escherischia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and
Shigella flexneri (Emeruwa, 1982).
Pharmacological review:
20:
The effects of Carica
papaya Linn on exogenous ulcer and histamine-
induced acid secretion were studied in rats. The latex
of the unripened fruit of C. papaya was effective in
protecting the exogenous ulcer. It significantly
lessened the acid secretion induced by intravenous
infusion of histamine in chronic gastric fistulated
rats. Crystalline papain was also effective in
protecting the exogenous ulcer and in decreasing the
histamine-induced acid secretion in rats. The
conclusion is that papain is the active principle in C.
papaya that exerts the ulcer-protective effect
The studies were made in 31 patient with gastric and
duodenal peptic ulcer aged from 60 to 82 years. It has
been ascertained that exacerbation of the condition is
accompanied by decline in the lysis of azoalbumin
(low-molecular proteins), by a decrease in the blood
serum concentration of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the
presence of an increased lysis of azocol
(colagenolytic activity of the blood) and the blood
serum content of aldehyde- and ketone derivatives.
Administration of wobenzym and erbisol against the
background of a differentiated basic therapy makes
for improvement of the condition of the blood
proteinase-inhibitory system, with the protein
oxidative modification processes being on the
decrease.
EMBILICA OFFICINALIS
Synonyms
:
Indian goosber, Arab. Amlaj.; Assam.
Amluki.; Ayurvedic: Amalaki; Beng. Amia, Amlaki,
Amla, Arnloki.
Family
:
Euphorbiaceae
Distribution
21
: The Deccan, the sea-coast districts
and Kashmir [Nadkarni and Nadkarni]. It is common
all over tropical and sub-tropical India and also found
in Burma [Dey], it is abundant in deciduous forests of
Madhya Pradesh]. Grows in tropical and subtropical
parts of Ceylon, Malay Peninsula and China. In
Ceylon, it is very common in exposed places of
patana land in the moist regions up to 4000 feet
altitude.
Morphology
21
: Tree; leaves alternate, bifarious,
pinnate, flower -'bearing; leaflets numerous,
alternate,linear-obtuse, entire; petioles striated,
round; calyx 6-parted; flowers in the male very
Available online at www.ijpras.com
17
numerous in the axils of the lower leaflets, and round
the common petiole below the leaflets; in the female
few, solitary, sessile, mixed with some males in the
mostexteriorfloriferous axils; stigmas 3; drupe
globular, fleshy, smooth, 6-striated; nut obovate-
triangular, 3-celled; seeds 2 in each cell; flowers
small, greenish yellow. Flowers during October.
Chemical constituent
21
: The fruit is a very rich
source of vitamin C according to most if not nearly
all references, this is probably not the case. It was
proposed that superior effect of the mistaken "vitamin
C" component is actually the more stable and potent
anti-oxidant effect of the tannins that appeared to be
the vitamin. A repeated laboratory test showed that
every 100g of fresh fruit provides 470 - 680mg of
vitamin C. The vitamin value of amla increased
further when the juice was extracted from the fruit.
The dehydrated berry provided 2428 - 3470mg of
vitamin C per 100g. Its mineral and vitamin contents
include calcium, phosphorous, iron, carotene,
thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. The seeds of the
Indian gooseberry contains a fixed oil, phosphatides,
and an essential oil. The fruits, bark, and the leaves of
this tree are rich in tannin. The fruits, leaves and
bark are rich in tannins. The root contains ellagic acid
and lupeol and bark contains leucodelphinidin. The
seeds yield a fixed oil (16%) which is brownish-
yellow in colour. It has the following fatty acids:
linolenic (8.8%), linoleic (44.0%), oleic (28.4%),
stearic (2.15%), palmitic (3.0%) and myristic (1.0%)
. The ethanol soluble fraction contains free sugars, D-
glucose, D-fructose, D-myo-inositol. The acidic
water soluble fraction contains a pectin with D-
galacturonic acid, D-arabinosyI, Drhamnosyl, D-
xylosyI, DglucosyI, D-mannosyl and DgalactosyI
residues . The low molecular weight hydrolyzable
tannins (<1,000), namely Emblica nin A and Emblica
nin B, along with pedunculagin and punigluconin are
the key ingredients in Emblica . Figure shows
structure of pedunculagin, one of the ellagitannins of
emblica. Each of the ring structures is a phenol, gallic
acid di-o-galloyl-glucose (Fruit), 3-6-di-o-galloyl-
glucose (Shoot), Alanine (Fruit), Amlaicacid (Leaf),
Arginine (Fruit), Ascorbic-acid (Fruit), Ascorbic-acid
(Plant), Ash (Fruit), Aspartic-acid (Fruit), Astragalin
(Leaf), β-carotene (Fruit), β-sitosterol (Bark, Seed
Oil, Tissue Culture, Shoot), Boron (Fruit), Calcium
(Fruit), Carbohydrates (Fruit), Chebulagic acid
(Fruit), Chebulagic acid (Shoot), Chebulaginic acid
(Fruit), Chebulic acid (Fruit), Chibulinic acid
Chebulagic acid (Shoot), Chebulaginic acid (Fruit),
Chebulic acid (Fruit), Chibulinic acid (Fruit),
Chibulinic acid (Shoot), Chloride (Fruit), Copper
(Fruit), Corilagic acid (Fruit), Corilagin (Fruit,
Shoot), Cystine (Fruit), D-fructose (Fruit), D-glucose
(Fruit), Ellagic acid (Fruit, Shoot, Root, Pericarp and
Leaf), Emblicol (Fruit, Pericarp), Ethyl gallate
(Fruit), Fat (Fruit and Seed), Fibre (Fruit), Gallic acid
(Fruit, Shoot, Pericarp), Gallic acid ethyl ester (Fruit,
Tissue Culture), Gallo-tannin (Leaf), Gibberellin-a-1
(Fruit), Gibberellin-a-3 (Fruit), Gibberellin-a-4
(Fruit), Gibberellin-a-7 (Fruit), Gibberellin-a-9
(Fruit), Glucogallin (Fruit), Glucogallin (Shoot),
Glucose (Fruit), Glutamic acid (Fruit), Glycine
(Fruit), Histidine (Fruit), Iron (Fruit), Isoleucine
(Fruit), Kaempferol (Leaf), Kaempferol-3-o-
glucoside (Leaf), Leucine (Fruit), Leucodelphinidin
(Bark), Linoleic acid (Seed, Seed Oil, Linolenic acid
(Seed, Seed Oil), Lupenone (Plant), Lupeol (Bark,
Root, Shoot), Lysine (Fruit), Magnesium (Fruit),
Manganese (Fruit), Methionine (Fruit), Myo-inositol
(Fruit), Myristic acid (Fruit, Seed Oil), Niacin (Fruit),
Nitrogen (Fruit), Oleic acid (Seed, Seed Oil),
Palmitic acid (Seed, Seed Oil), Pectin (Fruit),
Phenylalanine (Fruit), Phosphorus (Fruit),
Phyllantidine (Fruit, Tissue Culture, Leaf),
Phyllantine (Fruit, Leaf, Tissue Culture), Phyllemblic
acid (Fruit, Pericarp), Phyllemblin (Fruit),
Phyllemblinic acid (Fruit), Polysaccharide (Fruit),
Potassium (Fruit), Proline (Fruit), Protein (Fruit),
Quercetin (Tissue Culture), Riboflavin (Fruit), Rutin
(Fruit, Leaf), Selenium (Fruit), Serine (Fruit), Silica
(Fruit), Sodium (Fruit), Starch (Fruit), Stearic acid
(Seed, Seed Oil), Sucrose (Fruit), Sulfur (Fruit),
Tannin (Bark, Fruit, Twig, Leaf), Terchebin (Fruit),
Thiamin (Fruit), Threonine (Fruit), Trigalloyl glucose
(Fruit), Tryptophan
Uses
21
: Indian gooseberry has been used as a
valuable ingredient of various medicines in India and
Middle East from time immemorial. Aperient The
green fruits are made into pickles and preserves to
stimulate the appetite.Antibacterial, antifungal,
antiviral Medical studies conducted on Amla fruit
suggest that it has antiviral properties and also
functions as an antibacterial and anti-fungal agent.
Antioxidant The use of amla as an antioxidant has
been examined by a number of authors. Experiments
conducted at the Niwa Institute of Immunology in
Japan have shown Amla to be a potent scavenger of
free radicals. The studies showed that Amla
preparations contained high levels of the free-radical
scavenger, superoxide dimutase (SOD), in the
experimental subjects. Aphrodisiac Amla is believed
to increase ojas, and is considered to be one of the
strongest rejuvenative herbs in Ayurvedic medicine.
It is the primary ingredient used in one of the
renowned Ayurvedic herbal formulae, called
Chayavanprasha which has great respect as a tonic.
Available online at www.ijpras.com
18
Photoaging of the skin is a complex biologic process
affecting various layers of the skin with major
changes seen in the connective tissue within the
dermis. Emblica was shown to reduce UV-induced
erythema and had excellent free-radical quenching
ability, chelating ability to iron and copper as well as
MMP-1 and MMP-3 inhibitory activity. The fruit is
occasionally pickled or preserved in sugar. When dry
it is said to be gently laxative , according to some
sources the fresh fruit is also laxative . The fresh ripe
fruits are used extensively in India as a laxative, one
or two fruits being sufficient for a dose. They have
been exported to Europe, preserved in sugar, and are
valued as a pleasant laxative for children and made
into a confection consisting of the pulp of the de-
seeded fruit. Fruits along with those of Terminalia
bellirica and T. chebula are the constituents of
"Triphala" which are used as a laxative.
Pharmacological review:
22
An ethanol extract of
'Amla' Emblica officinalis Gaertn. was examined for
its antisecretory and antiulcer activities employing
different experimental models in rats, including
pylorus ligation Shay rats, indomethacin,
hypothermic restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and
necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and
25% NaCl). Oral administration of Amla extract at
doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly
inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test
models used. It also caused significant decrease of
the pyloric-ligation induced basal gastric secretion,
titratable acidity and gastric mucosal injury. Besides,
Amla extract offered protection against ethanol-
induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and
reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration.
Histopathological analyses are in good agreement
with pharmacological and biochemical findings. The
results indicate that Amla extract possesses
antisecretory, antiulcer, and cytoprotective properties.
ALOE VERA
Synonyms: Aloe, Musabber, kumara
Family
:
Liliaceae
Distribution
23:
The natural range of Aloe vera is
unclear, as the species has been widely cultivated
throughout the world. Naturalised stands of the
species occur in the southern half of the Arabian
peninsula, through North Africa
(Morocco, Mauritania, Egypt) as well as Sudan and
neighbouring countries, along with the Canary, Cape
Verde, and Madeira Islands. This distribution is
somewhat similar to the one of Euphorbia
balsamifera, Pistacia atlantica, and a few others,
suggesting that a dry sclerophyl forest once covered
large areas, but has been dramatically reduced due to
desertification in the Sahara, leaving these few
patches isolated. Several closely related species (or
sometimes identical) can be found on the two
extreme sides of the Sahara: Dragon
trees and Aeonium being some of the most
representative examples.
The species was introduced to China and various
parts of southern Europe in the 17th century. The
species is widely naturalised elsewhere, occurring in
temperate and tropical regions
of Australia, Barbados, Belize, Nigeria, Paraguay and
the US.It has been suggested that the actual species'
distribution is the result of human cultivation and that
the taxonomy could be doubtful too.
Morphology
23
: Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-
stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–
39 in) tall,spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick
and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties
showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem
surfaces. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has
small white teeth. The flowers are produced in
summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each
flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–
3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Like other Aloe species, Aloe
vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that
allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in
soil.
Chemical constituent
24
: Scientists have discovered
over 150 nutritional ingredients in Aloe vera. There
seems to be no single magic ingredient. They all
work together in a synergistic way to create healing
and health giving benefits. The ten main areas of
chemical constituents of Aloe vera include: amino
acids, anthraquinones, enzymes, minerals, vitamins,
lignins, monosaccharide, polysaccharides, salicylic
acid, saponins, and sterols.33
The amino acids in Aloe vera are the
building blocks of protein and influence our brain
Available online at www.ijpras.com
19
function. Humans require 22 amino acids and the
body will make all of them except for eight essential
amino acids which our body gets from the
food/drinks that we take in. Every one of the
essential amino acids are available in Aloe vera and
they include isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,
phenylalanine, threonine, valine,and tryptophan.
Some of the other non-essential amino acids found in
Aloe vera include alanine, arginine, asparagine,
cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, proline,
serine, tyrosine, glutamine, and aspartic acid.
Located in the sap of the leaves you will find twelve
anthraquinones, a phenolic compound that has
stimulating effects on the bowels and antibiotic
properties. The most important anthraquinones are
aloin and emodin. They are anti-bacterial, anti-viral,
and analgesic. The anthraquinones in Aloe vera
breakup residue, pus and lifeless cells, bring blood to
the region and flush out material from the wound and
ulcer.
“The main enzymes found in Aloe vera
include Amylase (breaks down sugars and starches),
Bradykinase (stimulates immune system, analgesic,
anti-inflammatory), Catalase (prevents accumulation
of water in the body), Cellulase (aids digestion -
cellulose), Lipase (aids digestion - fats), Oxidase,
Alkaline Phosphatase, Proteolytiase (hydrolyses
proteins into their constituent elements), Creatine
Phosphokinase(aidsmetabolism),andCarboxypeptidas
e. Because of the healing properties of Aloe vera and
its synergistic action, the body receives what it needs
to work properly. Aloe vera, an anti-oxidant rich
plant, contains vitamins such as A, C, and E plus the
minerals, zinc, and selenium. Anti-oxidants help
boost the immune system and combat free radicals in
the body. It also contains Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5,
B6, and B12 along with choline, calcium (teeth and
bone formation, muscle contractions and heart
health), magnesium(strengthens teeth and bones,
maintains healthy muscles and nervous system,
activates enzymes), zinc (speeds up wound healing,
mental quickness assists with healthy teeth, bones,
skin, immune system, and digestive aid), manganese
(activates enzymes, builds healthy bones, nerves and
tissues), chromium (assists with protein metabolism
and balancing of blood sugars), selenium which a
influenceourbrainperformance. Additional minerals
found in Aloe vera include copper (important for red
blood cells, skin and hair pigment), iron (involved in
oxygen transportation and making of hemoglobin in
red blood cells), potassium (helps with fluid balance),
phosphorus (helps build bones and teeth, assists with
metabolism and body pH), and sodium (regulates
body liquids, helps with nerve and muscle
performance, and helps deliver nutrients into body
cells). Aloe vera also contains the trace minerals of
rhodium and iridium used in cancer and tumor
research experiments. One polysaccharide,
acemannan, is known for its ability to restore and
boost the immune system by stimulating the
production of macrophages and improving the
activity of T-Lymphocytes by up to 50 %.
Acemannan produces immune agents such as
interferon and interleukin which help to destroy
viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells. Acemannan
improves cellular metabolism by normalizing cellular
function and regulating the flow of nutrients and
wastes in and out of the cells. It knows how to
destroy parasites and fungus. In some AIDS patients,
it even protected the immune system from the toxic
side effects of AZT. Carrington Laboratories in the
United States have separated the acemannan from
Aloe vera. Many sources stated that Aloe vera has
mucopolysaccharides, nitrogen containing
polysaccharides, found in animals and bacteria. A
regulation and testing board for Aloe vera products
known as the International Aloe Science Council
concludes that some people are misinformed and
confused on terminology. The Aloe has
polysaccharides but not mucopolysaccharides. Aloe
vera contains salicylic acid which is an aspirin-like
compound with anti -inflammatory, analgesic, and
anti-bacterial properties. It has anti-pyretic properties
for reducing fevers. Other constituents of Aloe vera
would include prostaglandins, tannins, magnesium
lactate, resins, mannins, proteins such as lectins,
monosulfonic acid and gibberlin. Another
constituent of Aloe vera includes saponins. These are
soapy substances from the gel that is capable of
cleansing and having antiseptic properties. The
saponins perform strongly as anti-microbial against
bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeasts.51 The plant
sterols or phyto-steroids in Aloe vera include
Cholesterol, Campesterol, Lupeol, and B
Sitosterol.52 The plant steroids have fatty acids in
them that have antiseptic, analgesic, and anti-
inflammatory properties.
Uses
23:
Aloe vera juice is used for consumption and
relief of digestive issues such
as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome, although
it bears significant potential to be toxic when taken
orally, It is common practice for cosmetic companies
to add sap or other derivatives. Other uses for
extracts of aloe vera include the dilution of semen for
the artificial fertilization of sheep, use as fresh food
preservative, and use inwater conservation in small
farms. The supposed therapeutic uses of aloe vera are
not exclusive to the species and may be found to a
Available online at www.ijpras.com
20
lesser or greater degree in the gels of all aloes, and
indeed are shared with large numbers of plants
belonging to the family Asphodelaceae. Bulbine
frutescens, for example, is used widely for the
treatment of burns and a host of skin afflictions.
WITHANIA SOMNIFERA
Synonyms: Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, Winter
cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi, Amukkara in
Tamil .
Family
:
Solanaceae
Distribution : Withania Somnifera grows abundantly
in India (especially Madhya Pradesh), Pakistan,
Bangla Desh, Sri Lanka and parts of northern Africa.
Morphology:
25
Height: usually 30-60 cm but can grow up
to 170 cm.
Shape: upright and stout shrub with central
stem.
Branches: star-shaped branching; branches
are covered in fine hairs.
Leaves: alternate and ovate, up to 10 cm
long and up to 5 cm wide.
Flowers: yellow petals on the inside but with
a green outer-covering layer.
Fruit: red berries in papery protective
covering (calyx).
Roots: long, fleshy tubers.
Chemical constituent
25:
The main constituents
of ashwagandha are alkaloids and steroidal lactones.
Among the various alkaloids, withanine is the main
constituent. The other alkaloids are somniferine,
somnine, somniferinine, withananine, pseudo-
withanine, tropine, pseudo-tropine, cuscohygrine,
anferine and anhydrine. Two acyl steryl glucoside
viz. sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII have been
isolated from root. The leaves contain steroidal
lactones, which are commonly called withanolides.
The withanolides have C28 steroidal nucleus with C9
side chain, having six membered lactone ring.
Use
26
: Ashwagandha is considered to be one of the
best rejuvenating agents in Ayurveda. Its roots, seeds
and leaves are used in Ayurvedic and Unani
medicines. Ashwagandha root drug finds an
important place in treatment of rheumatic pain,
inflammation of joints, nervous disorders and
epilepsy. Dried roots are used as tonic for hiccup,
cold, cough, female disorders, as a sedative, in care
of senile debility, ulcers, etc. Leaves are applied for
carbuncles, inflammation and swellings. Leaf juice is
useful in conjunctivitis. Bark decoction is taken for
asthma and applied locally to bed sores.
Ashwagandha and its extracts are used in preparation
of herbal tea, powders, tablets and syrups.
Ashwagandha has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor,
anti-stress, antioxidant, mind-boosting, immune-
enhancing, and rejuvenating properties.
Ashwagandha root has also been noted to have sex-
enhancing properties. Ashwagandha is mentioned in
the ancient Kama Sutra as an herb to be used for
heightening sexual experience. Ashwagandha has the
ability to restore sexual health and improve overall
vitality while promoting a calm state of mind. A 2002
laboratory study indicates ashwagandha stimulates
the growth of axons and dendrites. A 2001 study in
rodents showed ashwagandha had memory boosting
ability. A 2000 study with rodents showed
ashwagandha to have anti-anxiety and anti-
depression effects.
The plant has been used as an aphrodisiac, liver tonic,
anti-inflammatory agent, and more recently to treat
asthma, ulcers, insomnia, and senile dementia.
Clinical trials and animal research support the use of
ashwagandha for anxiety, cognitive and neurological
disorders, inflammation, in providing progressive,
long lasting results for various health concerns like
aging, anemia and slow growth, arthritis, fatigue,
waning memory, sports fitness and stress-disorders.
Pharmacological studies and research so far have
indicated that Ashwagandha has anti-tumour, anti-
stress, antioxid boosting, haemopoeitic and
rejuvenating properties. It is also an exceptional
nerve tonic and nourishes the nerves and improves
nerve function to maintain calm during stressful
conditions. It also nourishes crucial mind and body
connection and psychological immune response.
Available online at www.ijpras.com
21
MUSA PARADISCA
Synonym : Banana, Kela
.
Family: Musaceae
Distribution
27:
Original home of banana is believed
to be India and Malaya. The fruit as well as its plant
is considered to be a very auspicious in all the
religious and social ceremonies in India. In the
mythological ages in Europe it was called the 'apple
of paradise'. The Greek and Arabian writers referred
to it as a wonderful fruit of India. The Malayan
soldiers probably took them to Madagascar about the
fifth century AD and from there it spread to east
coast and mainland of Africa. Later, it was intro-
duced in Western countries and other parts of the
world. In India, there are three important banana
producing areas South India, Western India and
Eastern India from Bihar to Assam.
Morphology
28:
Musa paradisiaca is a tall herb,
Stoloniferous, cylindric plant reaching 25 ft. Oblong,
green leaves 8 ft long, and 2 ft broad, Pendulous
inflorescence reaching 4 ft long. Male flowers and
bracts sub-persistent. Cylindric fruits are berries in
several clusters, golden yellow or yellowish green in
colour when ripe pulpy.
Chemical constituent
29:
Plant contains glycoside
sitoindoside IV, 14-methyl-9Beta, 19-cyclo-5-ergost-
24(28)-en-3Beta-ol(I). Flowers contain diglycosides
of delphinidin and cyanidin . Unripe fruit contains
starch. Fruit contains sugars, proteins albumin and
globulin. Flesh of mature fruit contains tannin, also
contain serotonin and norepinephrine in addition to
dopamine and an unidentified catecholamine. Peel
contains tannin
Uses
27
- The roots and stems are astringent and
anthelmintic. Juice of the sheaths and stem is useful
in otaglia and haemoptysis. Ripe fruits are demulcent,
nutritive and mildly laxative. Fruit nutritious, and
contipative if ripened totally, used in bleeding
disorders, unripe fruit is used in diabetes with other
medicines, flower is used in menorrhagia, stem juice
is given in epilepsy and other neurological disorders.
Root is used in tumors.
RHEUM EMODI
Synonyms : Variyattu, Rhubarb, Tursak, amla-vetasa,
Rhubarb de Perse, Rheuchini, aml parni, Rhabarber,
revand-chini, Reval-chini, archu, Nattu ireval-chinni,
Chinese Rhubarb, Ladakirevanda-chini, Turkey
rhubarb, Indian rhubarb, Da huang, Himalayan
rhubarb, Bangla Revanchini.
Family
:
Poligonaceae
Distribution
30
: Rhubarb occurs in commerce under
various names: Russian, Turkey, East Indian and
Chinese; but the geographical source of all species is
the same, the commercial names of the drug
indicating only the route by which it formerly
reached the European market. Previous to 1842,
Canton being the only port of the Chinese Empire
holding direct communication with Europe, Rhubarb
mostly came by overland routes: the Russian
Rhubarb used to be brought by the Chinese to the
Russian frontier town of Kiachta; the Turkey
Rhubarb received its name because it came to us by
way of Asiatic Turkey, through the Levant; East
Indian came by way of Singapore and other East
Indian ports, and Chinese Rhubarb was shipped from
Canton. At the present day practically all is conveyed
to Europe via Shanghai.
Morphology
30
:The drug coming to market is called
as either Flats or Round.Round drug is barrel shaped
,cylindrical and conical with 8-10 cm length and 4
cm thickness.Flats are 7-10 cm in length and 3-6 cm
in thickness towards middle portion. The surface is
covered with yellow powder and pale brown to red in
colour. The pieces also shows holes, through which
they are threaded.
Chemical constituent:
30
Available online at www.ijpras.com
22
Elements derived from athraquinone, like
reidin C, chrysophanol, sennosides A-E,
emodin, chrysophanein, glucoemodin;
glucorhein, and other O-glycosides,
physcion, rhein, and more. Chinese Rhubarb
includes epicatechin gallate and d-catechin,
as well as golloyl, coumaroyl, cinnamoyl
fructoses and glucosides; tannins.
Stilbene glycosides can be found in other
species, together with stilbene derivates;
Other: volatile oil, which includes calcium
oxalate, fatty acids, rutin, ferulic and
cinnamic acids; diisobutyl phthalate, and so
on.
Uses: The plant is widely applied due to its ability to
reduce constipations, boost one’s metabolism,
stimulate blood circulation, cure stomach diseases,
and rid the bowel of helminthes.
It’s additionally applied to treat diarrhea, dysentery,
liver diseases and jaundice.
Rhubarb Root has a purgative action for use in the
treatment of constipation, but also has an astringent
effect following this. It therefore has a truly cleansing
action upon the gut, removing debris and then
astringing with antiseptic properties as well.
Rhubarb is widely known for its ability to purify the
bowel, fighting the problems like constipation,
accompanied with fevers, infections, as well as
stomach ulcers. It is referred to as an effective
remedy for diarrhea, as well. The plant is also known
to fight bacterial infections.
You should also remember that taking rhubarb root
you may have deep-yellow or red-colored urine.
Plant’s action depends on the quantity you take.
Applied in small doses, it produces a positive effect
on the liver, but used in large quantities, it produces a
purgative effect.
In Ayurvedic medicine the plant has several
applications. It is used to fight stomach diseases,
stimulate the digestive system and treat liver
disorders. The plant is applied in mild cases of
diarrhea; however, it’s not used for constipation,
especially in case where one needs a permanent
purgative effect. The stimulative capacity of the herb
is applied for treating atonic dyspepsia.
Due to its mild effect on the system, the plant is in
popular use among aged people and children. When
bowel muscles are week, the plant may serve a good
remedy if used in combination with Grey Powder.
The dose is 10 grains on average.
In some cases the root may be chewed. Rhurbarb has
a wide range of application in complex herbal
remedies. Colon irritation, characteristic for the
period of teeth eruption in children, duodenal catarrh,
jaundice, and skin inflammations are also cases of
plant application.
To keep the bowel muscles functional, the remedy is
applied together with psyllium or licorice for aged
people (to eliminate the possibility of spasms fennel
or ginger is added in a proportion of 4:1
(rhubarb:ginger). The plant is also applied to
stumulate metabolism, blood and bile circulation. If
mixed with epsom salt, acts more effective.
In Chinese medicine the plant is considered potent of
eliminating constipation, treating infections, induced
by microorganisms, reduce tumors, stimulates bile
movement, reduces blood pressure and bad holesterol
amount in blood, as well as eliminates inflammations.
Chinese herbalists consider rhubarb one of the most
effective medical remedies. The plant is potent of
reducing fevers, which are associated with
constipation. It is known to increase blood circulation
which is essential in case of bruises and sharp pain.
Both local and oral application is suitable, with the
former being an anti-inflammatory means.
Rhubarb is applied for cases of dysentery
accompanied with bloody feces. Additionally the
plant is used for bloody vomiting. Applied orally and
locally to treat infections. Serves as a remedy for
helminthes(esp. flukes). Used externally to eliminate
skin diseases like blisters and boils, accompanied
with inflammations; in this case the remedy is mixed
with honey or water, and aided by similar herbal
medicines.
Conclusion
The present study was aimed at the medicinal plants
for the treatment of Gastric Ulcer. Some of them are
already reported as anti ulcer drug, but for some still
no work has been done and these are only used
traditionally. It is high time efforts should be made to
use the vast ethno-pharmacological knowledge our
traditional practitioners have to develop safer herbal
preparations, for the people which will be less toxic
and cheaper than the Modern day Medicaments.
In view of increasing popularity of alternative system
of medicine, it is necessary to conduct research to
support the therapeutic claim and also to ensure that
the plants are given importance according to their
therapeutic value, in modern herbal medicines. Safety
is not a matter of concern for these plants as it has
been proved over the years by their traditional use.
The point where more study is needed is to develop
Standard Procedures for Standardization of Herbals.
Available online at www.ijpras.com
23
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
The Authors are very much thankful to The
Management and Principal of Girijananda
Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science,
Guwahati for providing with the facilities to carry out
the Review work.
“Cite this article”
S. D. Roy, J.Chakraborty, D.Shil, S.Das, N. Begum
“Herbs Used In Peptic Ulcer: A Review” Int. J. of Pharm.
Res. & All.
Sci.2013; Volume 2, I
ssue
2
,
9
-
23
REFERENCE:
1. "GI Consult: Perforated Peptic Ulcer".
Retrieved (2007)-08-26.
2. "Peptic ulcer". Retrieved (2010)-06-18.
3. "Ulcer Disease Facts and Myths". Retrieved
(2010)-06-18
4. Cullen D.J., Hawkey G.M., Greenwood
D.C., et al.; 1997; "Peptic ulcer bleeding in
the elderly: relative roles of Helicobacter
pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs".Gut ; 41 (4): 459–62
5. "Peptic Ulcer: Peptic Disorders: Merck
Manual Home Edition". Retrieved (2007)-
10-10.
6. Gadekar R., Singour P.K., Chaurasiya P.K.,
Pawar R.S., Patil U.K.; Phcog Rev.mht. E/A
potential of some medicinal plants as an
antiulcer.
7. "Asparagus racemosus information from
NPGS/GRIN". Germplasm Resources
Information Network. USDA. August 6,
2002. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-
bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?5540. Retrieved
April 25, 2009.
8. Asparagus racemosus--
ethnopharmacological evaluation and
conservation needs. [Review] [77 refs]
Bopana N. Saxena S.; 2007; Journal of
Ethnopharmacology. 110(1):1-15.
9. Wagner, Hildebert; 1999;
Immunomodulatory agents from plants.
Birkhäuser; 294. ISBN 9783764358488.
10. www.doyouknowArticles/pharmaceutica/Re
view-on-Tinospora-cordifolia.aspx
11. Winston D. & Maimes S.; 2007;
“Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina,
and Stress Relief,” Healing Arts Press.
12. Singh S.S., Pandey S., Srivastava V.S.,
Gupta B., Patro A.C.; 2003; Ghoshchemistry
And Medicinal Properties Of Tinospora
Cordifolia (Guduchi) Indian Journal Of
Pharmacology; 35: 83-91
13. Blamey M. & Grey-Wilson C.; 1989; Flora
of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-
340-40170-2.
14. http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/abstr
acts/abstracts/abstracts2011/4April/Michael
%20et%20al.htm
15. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/
05/090507101824.htm
16. Heffern, Richard; Complete Book of
Ginseng by Heffern.; 98.
17. Sun X. B., Matsumoto T., and Yamada H.;
1992;Anti-ulcer activity and mode of action
of the polysaccharide fraction from the
leaves of Panax ginseng. Planta Med ;
58(5):432-435.
18. http://www.medicinenet.com/papaya_carica
_papaya-oral/article.htm
19. http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides
/Papaya.html
20. http://www.enzymetherapy.at/cms/?p=136
21. http://www.dweckdata.com/published_paper
s/emblica_officinalis.pdf
22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllanthus_em
blica
23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera
24. http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_Che
mical.html
25. http://www.gits4u.com/agri/agri5d.htm
26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Withania_somn
ifera
27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantain
28. http://www.liveandfeel.com/medicinalplants
/banana.html
29. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j
sfa.2740240610/abstract
30. http://www.oshims.com/herb-
directory/r/rhubarb
... Furthermore, few ingredients of Ayucid capsule possess carminative, antispasmodic, digestive, and appetizer properties. [10][11][12][13][14] Looking at the various activities of the ingredients present in Ayucid capsule, a hypothesis was postulated that Ayucid capsule may be helpful in the management of GERD. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a clinical study was conducted. ...
... These ingredients help neutralize excess acidity, reduce inflammation, and prevent heartburn and heal ulcers. [10][11][12][13][14] The ingredients also help in relieving flatulence, nausea, and vomiting. It was observed from the results of the present clinical study that the synergistic effect of the standardized herbal extracts in the formulation contributed to the overall effect in the management of heartburn and other symptoms of GERD. ...
... It was observed from the results of the present clinical study that the synergistic effect of the standardized herbal extracts in the formulation contributed to the overall effect in the management of heartburn and other symptoms of GERD. [10][11][12][13][14] A total of 39 AEs (26 in Ayucid and 13 in Omeprazole group) were reported. No treatment or procedure or interruption of study drug was required in both groups to resolve these episodes. ...
... Scratch area of duodenal mucosa and gastric mucosa is peptic ulcer which caused by gastric juice. 3 Stomach and first few centimeters of duodenum are most ordinary sites for the formation of an ulcer. The Interruption of the mucosa of duodenum and stomach continuously break off by the pepsin, gastric acid and some medication like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) finally causing lesions. ...
... Pectin (polysaccharide) and rutin (glycoside) have been used in treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as for reduction of permeability and friability of capillaries respectively [7]. The anti-ulcer formulation plantaglucide owes its beneficial effect to its content of pectin [8]. Pectin acts with rutin to form hydrophobic barrier on gastric mucosal membranes [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flunoxaprofen (FLP) and piroxicam (PIM), acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as floctafenine (FLN), basic NSAIDs, were coated with anionic and cationic polyacrylic resins adopting the fluidized bed technique. The bioavailability of the uncoated and coated drugs as well as the effect of the coat on the histopathological features of gastric mucosa were determined using male albino rats. Coating the particles largely affected the drug bioavailability as reflected on the peak heights, peak times and AUC0-24. FLP coated with cationic polymer showed increase in the peak height from 140.61 (uncoated drug) to 160.70 μg/ml. Peak time decreased from 4 hrs. to 2 hrs. AUC 0-24 increased from 2306.51 to 2835.21 μg/ml. hrs. The same parameters of the other two drugs PIM and FLN showed different behaviors according to their physicochemical characteristics as well as the nature of the coating polymer. Different histopathological changes were observed in animals' stomachs which ranged between: no effect, deficiency of epithelial cells, necrosis, degeneration and hemorrhage. The changes wereobserved in rats administered PIM daily for 30 days as well as those administered FLP and FLN in single doses. Drugs coated with Eudragit-E100 showed significant decrease in ulcers obtained with uncoated drugs or drugs coated with the anionic type.
... Scratch area of duodenal mucosa and gastric mucosa is peptic ulcer which caused by gastric juice. 3 Stomach and first few centimeters of duodenum are most ordinary sites for the formation of an ulcer. The Interruption of the mucosa of duodenum and stomach continuously break off by the pepsin, gastric acid and some medication like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) finally causing lesions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to an imbalance between aggressive factors known as hydrochloric acid (HCl), pepsin, leukotrienes, refluxed bile, defensive factors and reactive oxygen species, the peptic ulcer is formed in the stomach and duodenum which mostly include the function of prostaglandins, mucus bicarbonate barrier, enzymatic antioxidants, and some growth factors. H. pylori infection remained one of the considerable causes of peptic ulcer as it caused hypochlorhydria and struck off the defense mechanism of the stomach. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and stress are the most prevailing causes of peptic ulcer disease. Lack of physical exercise, little rest and due to poor leisure cause the peptic ulcer disease. Candies, chocolate, coffee, cigarettes, stress, and alcohol are the cause of peptic ulceration and suppression of acid in the stomach due to the utilization of antacid medication. Most of the ancient medical practices in the traditional alternative medicinal system include Unani, Ayurveda, Siddha, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Chinese customary medicine, African conventional medicine, and Native American medicine. Without a hostile effect, the rate of curing the disease is the significance of natural products research. Peptic ulcer disease is the widespread nature of peptic ulcer in all class of population, which mostly may be due to rapidly changing the food habits and stress, causing the imbalance between gastric offensive and defensive factors. Curcuma longa is the most effective plant for the cure of peptic ulcer. Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Curcuma longa remarkably reduces the level of inflammatory mediator (IL1) and (TNF) which was increased during the formation of an ulcer. In the rhizome of Curcuma longa , yellow pigment is present and widely used for the treatment of ulcer and decrease the inflammatory response. Symptoms include abdominal pain after taking a meal, nausea, vomiting, Anorexia and lose weight.
... Extracts from medicinal plants, containing active compounds such as curcumin, polyphenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and tannins, have been used for ulcer treatment [26][27][28]. There is an abundance of medicinal plants worldwide that are used in this way, including those frequently used in Thailand to protect and heal people from ulcers [29,30]. For centuries, the consumption of picked, decocted, infused, or boiled preparations of many kinds of native plants have been used by traditional healers in Phayao province for gastric ulcer treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
For centuries, many kinds of native plants and their products have been used for the treatment of gastric ulcers by traditional healers in Phayao province. The current study aimed to investigate the polyphenol content in some of these medicinal plants and to point out the relationship between their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities. Six species were selected based on ethnopharmacologic considerations: Punica granatum L., Psidium guajava L., Careya arborea Roxb., Gochnatia decora (Kurz) Cabr., Shorea obtusa Wall. ex Blume, and Ficus hispida L.f. The leaves or bark of these plants were extracted with 70% ethanol and water. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed based on nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and through the determination of scavenging activity. The results demonstrated that the ethanol extract from P. granatum and P. guajava leaves significantly inhibited NO production by suppressing nitric oxide synthase. The extracts also inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 in terms of both mRNA and protein levels and possessed high antioxidants. These extracts were shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols. Our study concluded that among the plants studied, P. granatum and P. guajava have the most significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and polyphenols. These plants may have the potential for use in gastric ulcer therapy due to their indicated properties. Future research should focus on the isolation of their active compounds and their in vivo biological activities. Their beneficial applications need to be warranted by such evidence.
... Pectin (polysaccharide) and rutin (glycoside) have been used in treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as for reduction of permeability and friability of capillaries respectively [7]. The anti-ulcer formulation plantaglucide owes its beneficial effect to its content of pectin [8]. Pectin acts with rutin to form hydrophobic barrier on gastric mucosal membranes [9]. ...
... Usually, children and the elderly do not develop any symptoms unless complications have arisen. 1 ...
... Papaya ranks among the first fruits for vitamin C, vitamin A, riboflavin, foliate, calcium, thiamine, iron, niacin, potassium and fibre [1]. Papaya has been reported also to contain broad spectrum of polychemicals including, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and oils, lectins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids [4][5][6][7][8]. It was reported to exhibit therapeutic properties against various pathological disorder including tumours [9] and immunodeficiency which was based on the free radical scavenging activity as well as normalisation of an organism's super oxide level [10]. ...
... Papaya ranks among the first fruits for vitamin C, vitamin A, riboflavin, foliate, calcium, thiamine, iron, niacin, potassium and fibre [1]. Papaya has been reported also to contain broad spectrum of polychemicals including, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, fats and oils, lectins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids [4][5][6][7][8]. It was reported to exhibit therapeutic properties against various pathological disorder including tumours [9] and immunodeficiency which was based on the free radical scavenging activity as well as normalisation of an organism's super oxide level [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most ulcers are caused, one can deduce, by Helicobacter pylori or by use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whether both together are worse than one alone is something that is quite unknown. To study both factors in order to see wither they interact together positively. A case control study of ulcer bleeding in elderly patients chosen without weeding. NSAID usage increased risk substantially. So did H pylori infection (but relative risk less than three). Neither seemed to interact. Their actions were discretely intact. H pylori effects ulcer bleeding in an adverse manner but does not make the risk of NSAIDs worse.
Article
The effects of a weakly acidic polysaccharide fraction, GL-4, from the leaves of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer on various experimental gastric ulcer models in mice and rats have been studied. Oral administration of GL-4 at doses of 50 to 200 mg/kg inhibited the formation of the gastric lesions induced by necrotizing agents such as HCl/ethanol and ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. This protective effect was observed not only upon oral but also upon subcutaneous administration of GL-4 (50-100 mg/kg). GL-4 also inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers which were induced by water immersion stress, indomethacin, or pylorus-ligation. The contents of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric juice from rats were not influenced by oral administration of GL-4. The protective action of GL-4 against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin. When GL-4 (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered into pylorus-ligated rats, both gastric acidity and pepsin activity in the gastric juice decreased significantly.
Article
Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone replacement therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens has increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus particularly important. The plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has potent antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. This article aims to evaluate the biological activities, pharmacological applications and clinical studies of Asparagus racemosus in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact that it is the active principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant; consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform drug efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems, the availability of genetically superior and uniform planting material is essential. This can be obtained by a combination of various biotechnological tools involving chemoprofiling, tissue culture and use of molecular markers. Along with the application of these methods, proper agro-techniques and adequate marketing opportunities would encourage cultivation of Asparagus racemosus and thereby contribute to its conservation. There are also several gaps in the existing literature with regard to the pharmacological actions of Asparagus racemosus. These include an incomplete understanding about the interaction/synergy between Asparagus racemosus and other plant constituents in polyherbal formulations; lack of information regarding the mode of action of the various constituents of Asparagus racemosus, etc. Consequently, we have suggested a 'systems biology' approach that includes metabolite profiling, metabolic fingerprinting, metabolite target analysis and metabonomics to enable further research.
Ulcer Disease Facts and Myths
"Ulcer Disease Facts and Myths". Retrieved (2010)-06-18
  • M Blamey
  • C Grey-Wilson
Blamey M. & Grey-Wilson C.; 1989; Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0- 340-40170-2.
  • S S Singh
  • S Pandey
  • V S Srivastava
  • B Gupta
  • A C Patro
Singh S.S., Pandey S., Srivastava V.S., Gupta B., Patro A.C.; 2003; Ghoshchemistry And Medicinal Properties Of Tinospora Cordifolia (Guduchi) Indian Journal Of Pharmacology; 35: 83-91
Peptic Ulcer: Peptic Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition
"Peptic Ulcer: Peptic Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition". Retrieved (2007)- 10-10.