Development of nanofibrous cellulose acetate/gelatin skin substitutes for wound treatment applications
The major component of fibrous extracellular matrix of dermis is composed of a complex combination of proteins and polysaccharides. Electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin might be an effective simulator of the structure and composition of native skin and during this study, we electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin membranes in various compositions and their performance as a scaffold for either skin tissue engineering or as a wound dressing was evaluated. Skin treatment products, whether tissue-engineered scaffolds or wound dressings, should be sufficiently hydrophilic to allow for gas and fluid exchange and absorb excess exudates while controlling the fluid loss. However, a wound dressing should be easily removable without causing tissue damage and a tissue-engineered scaffold should be able to adhere to the wound, and support cell proliferation during skin regeneration. We showed that these distinct adherency features are feasible just by changing the composition of cellulose acetate and gelatin in composite cellulose acetate/gelatin scaffolds. High proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts on electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin 25:75 confirmed the capability of cellulose acetate/gelatin 25:75 nanofibers as a tissue-engineered scaffold, while the electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin 75:25 can be a potential low-adherent wound dressing.
Available from: Graham Peter Riley
- "Further, in a subcutaneous model, none of the substrates induced cellular orientation parallel to the direction of the substrate topography. It is tempting to hypothesise that two-dimensional imprinted substrates are overwhelmed with body fluids and protein adsorption upon implantation, prohibiting favourable cell / material interaction at the substrate-tissue nano-biointerface and that three-dimensional fibrous constructs are more effective for directional neural [77- 79], tendon   , bone    and skin    neotissue formation and promote relatively enhanced cell growth, motility, matrix deposition and neotissue growth through the provision of a true three-dimensional environment. "
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ABSTRACT: Controlling the cell-substrate interactions at the bio-interface is becoming an inherent element in the design of implantable devices. Modulation of cellular adhesion in vitro, through topographical cues, is a well-documented process that offers control over subsequent cellular functions. However, it is still unclear whether surface topography can be translated into a clinically functional response in vivo at the tissue / device interface. Herein, we demonstrated that anisotropic substrates with a groove depth of ∼317 nm and ∼1,988 nm promoted human tenocyte alignment parallel to the underlying topography in vitro. However, the rigid poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) substrates used in this study upregulated the expression of chondrogenic and osteogenic genes, indicating possible tenocyte trans-differentiation. Of significant importance is that none of the topographies assessed (∼37 nm, ∼317 nm and ∼1,988 nm groove depth) induced extracellular matrix orientation parallel to the substrate orientation in a rat patellar tendon model. These data indicate that two-dimensional imprinting technologies are useful tools for in vitro cell phenotype maintenance, rather than for organised neotissue formation in vivo, should multifactorial approaches that consider both surface topography and substrate rigidity be established.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Available from: Robin Augustine
- "Dai et al. (2004) fabricated PCL/collagen composites for tissue-engineered skin substitutes and demonstrated good cell attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin membranes of various compositions were fabricated and their performance as a skin substitute was evaluated by Vatankhah et al. (2014). They reported that by changing the ratio of cellulose acetate and gelatin, the material can be used as tissue-engineered skin substitute with high cell adhesion properties or potential low-adherent wound dressing. "
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ABSTRACT: This review gives a brief description on the skin and its essential functions, damages or injury which are common to the skin and the role of skin substitute to replace the functions of the skin soon after an injury. Skin substitutes have crucial role in the management of deep dermal and full thickness wounds. At present, there is no skin substitute in the market that can replace all the func-tions of skin 'and the research is still continuing for a better alternative. This review is an attempt to recollect and report the past efforts including skin grafting and recent trends like use of bioengineered smart skin substitutes in wound care. Incorporation functional moieties like antimicrobials and wound healing agents are also described.
Available from: Jurgita Kazlauske
- "Novel antimicrobial agents are, therefore, urgently needed; among the alternatives to antibiotics, silver nanoparticles have shown great potential. Cellulose based dressings were prepared in different forms, such as, mentioned above gauzes, lyophilized wafers , electrospuned cellulose acetate/gelatin membranes , hydrogels of cellulose nanowhiskers with polyvinyl alcohol  bacterial cellulose films   hydroxyethylcellulose nanofibers prepared by electrospinning , membranes from microcrystalline cellulose . However, the porosity and absorption properties of cellulose materials in such forms are not sufficient. "
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ABSTRACT: tCellulose based sponges were developed by freeze-drying of regenerated cellulose gels and characterizedas a potential wound dressing. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by means of micro-computedtomography. The results showed that the porosity of the sponges reached 75%, the pores were inter-connected and their size ranged from 10 to 1200 �m with a mean pore diameter of 750 �m. Due tohydrophilicity of cellulose and high specific surface area (14.5 mm2/mm3) the sponges possess highsorption of simulated wound fluids (approx. 210%) and high water vapour transmission ability. Dif-ferent active compounds, such as polyphenols from Calendula officinalis or Chamomilla recutita extracts(1 day diffusion experiment), silver nanoparticles (1, 2 and 4 days diffusion experiments) were immo-bilized into the sponges in order to improve wound dressing performance. Release kinetics of silvernanoparticles and polyphenols from the sponges were investigated. The sponges incorporated with sil-ver, showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thus, these cellulose based spongesare promising wound dressing materials for fester and infected wounds.
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