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Gibson GR, Probert HM, Loo JV, Rastall RA, Roberfroid MB.. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 17: 259-275

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Abstract

Prebiotics are non-digestible (by the host) food ingredients that have a beneficial effect through their selective metabolism in the intestinal tract. Key to this is the specificity of microbial changes. The present paper reviews the concept in terms of three criteria: (a) resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal absorption; (b) fermentation by intestinal microflora; (c) selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria associated with health and wellbeing. The conclusion is that prebiotics that currently fulfil these three criteria are fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose, although promise does exist with several other dietary carbohydrates. Given the range of food vehicles that may be fortified by prebiotics, their ability to confer positive microflora changes and the health aspects that may accrue, it is important that robust technologies to assay functionality are used. This would include a molecular-based approach to determine flora changes. The future use of prebiotics may allow species-level changes in the microbiota, an extrapolation into genera other than the bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and allow preferential use in disease-prone areas of the body.

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Fermented foods have been an important component of the human diet from the time immemorial. It contains a high amount of probiotics that have been associated to a wide range of health benefits, including improved digestion and immunity. This review focuses on the indigenously prepared prebiotic-and probiotic-containing functional fermented rice (named Xaj-pani) by the Ahom Community from Assam, in Northeast India, including all the beneficial and potential effects on human health. Literature was searched from scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Glutinous rice (commonly known as bora rice of sali variety) is primarily employed to prepare beverages that are recovered through the filtration process. The beer is normally consumed during religious rites, festivals and ritual practices, as well as being used as a refreshing healthy drink. Traditionally, it is prepared by incorporating a variety of medicinal herbs into their starter culture (Xaj-pitha) inoculum which is rich in yeasts, molds and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and then incorporated in alcoholic beverage fermentation. The Ahom communities routinely consume this traditionally prepared alcoholic drink with no understanding of its quality and shelf life. Additionally, a finally produced dried cake, known as vekur pitha act as a source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and can be stored for future use. Despite the rampant use in this community, the relationship between Xaj-pani's consumption, immunological response, infectious and inflammatory processes remains unknown in the presence of factors unrelated or indirectly connected to immune function. Overall, this review provides the guidelines to promote the development of prebiotic-and probiotic-containing functional fermented rice that could significantly have an impact on the health of the consumers.
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The oral microbiota plays a vital role in the human microbiome and oral health. Imbalances between microbes and their hosts can lead to oral and systemic disorders such as diabetes or cardio-vascular disease. The purpose of this review is to investigate the literature evidence of oral microbiota dysbiosis on oral health and discuss current knowledge and emerging mechanisms governing oral polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis; both have enhanced our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and aided the design of innovative therapeutic approaches as ORALBIOTICA for oral diseases such as demineralization. PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, EMBEDDED, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source via EBSCO, APA PsycINFO, APA PsyArticles, and [email protected] were searched for publications that matched our topic from January 2017 to 22 April 2022, with an English language constraint using the following Boolean keywords: (“microbio*” and “demineralization*”) AND (“oral microbiota” and “demineralization”). Twenty-two studies were included for qualitative analysis. As seen by the studies included in this review, the balance of the microbiota is unstable and influenced by oral hygiene, the presence of orthodontic devices in the.
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has gained increasing attention from researchers in terms of its pathophysiology as a global disease with a growing incidence. Although the exact etiology of IBD is still unknown currently, various studies have made us realize that it is related to the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and the link between the two may not just be a simple causal relationship, but also a dynamic and complicated one. The intestinal microbiota has been confirmed to be closely related to the occurrence, development, and treatment of IBD. Therefore, this review focuses on the changes in the structure, function, and metabolites of intestinal bacteria, fungi, and viruses in influencing IBD, as well as various approaches to IBD treatment by changing disordered intestinal microbiota. Ultimately, more clinical studies will be needed to focus on the efficacy of intestinal microbiota-based treatments in IBD, because of the existence of both advantages and disadvantages.
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Increased knowledge suggests that disturbed gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, might promote the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Accordingly, gut microbiota manipulation has evolved in the last decade as a novel treatment strategy in order to improve IBS symptoms. In using different approaches, dietary management stands first in line, including dietary fiber supplements, prebiotics, and probiotics that are shown to change the composition of gut microbiota, fecal short-chain fatty acids and enteroendocrine cells densities and improve IBS symptoms. However, the exact mixture of beneficial bacteria for each individual remains to be identified. Prescribing nonabsorbable antibiotics still needs confirmation, although using rifaximin has been approved for diarrhea-predominant IBS. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently gained a lot of attention, and five out of seven placebo-controlled trials investigating FMT in IBS obtain promising results regarding symptom reduction and gut microbiota manipulation. However, more data, including larger cohorts and studying long-term effects, are needed before FMT can be regarded as a treatment for IBS in clinical practice.
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Garlic is a common food, and many of its biological functions are attributed to its components including functional carbohydrates. Garlic polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as main components are understudied but have future value due to the growing demand for bioactive polysaccharides/oligosaccharides from natural sources. Garlic polysaccharides have molecular weights of 1 × 103 to 2 × 106 Da, containing small amounts of pectins and fructooligosaccharides and large amounts of inulin‐type fructans ((2→1)‐linked β‐d‐Fruf backbones alone or with attached (2→6)‐linked β‐d‐Fruf branched chains). This article provides a detailed review of research progress and identifies knowledge gaps in extraction, production, composition, molecular characteristics, structural features, physicochemical properties, bioactivities, and structure–function relationships of garlic polysaccharides/oligosaccharides. Whether the extraction processes, synthesis approaches, and modification methods established for other non‐garlic polysaccharides are also effective for garlic polysaccharides/oligosaccharides (to preserve their desired molecular structures and bioactivities) requires verification. The metabolic processes of ingested garlic polysaccharides/oligosaccharides (as food ingredients/dietary supplements), their modes of action in healthy humans or populations with chronic conditions, and molecular/chain organization–bioactivity relationships remain unclear. Future research directions related to garlic polysaccharides/oligosaccharides are discussed.
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Biological, social, and psychological practices greatly affect the dietary intake of people; as a result, health-related complexities occur. Functional food and supplements have become popular due to their nutraceutical benefits, which make different choices of fermented food and beverages available to people. This review describes the characteristics of probiotics, prebiotics, post- and paraprobiotics, and their role in nutrition and in the sustainability of health. Currently, several synbiotic supplements have attracted consumers in the nutraceutical market to offer a number of health benefits, which are complementary mixtures of selected characterized probiotic cultures and prebiotic substrates. Traditional fermented foods consumed in different cultures are different than probiotics and symbiotic preparations, though these could be considered potential biotics in nutrition. Fermented foods are part of a staple diet in several countries and are cost-effective due to their preparation using seasonal raw materials available from local agriculture practices. Intake of all biotics discussed in this article is intended to improve the population of beneficial microbiota in the gut, which has proved important for the microbiome–gut–brain axis, influencing the activity of vagus nerve.
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Hydrogenated fat-embedded calcium gluconate (HFCG), a prebiotic mixture designed to target the hindgut, has improved milk and component yields when supplemented in mid-lactation cows, likely due to improved hindgut health. The objective of this study was to evaluate production responses to HFCG when fed to lactating dairy cattle over a full lactation. Seventy-four Holstein cows (21 primiparous, 53 multiparous) were used in a randomized complete block design comparing supplementation with either HFCG (approximately 16 g/d of supplement delivering approximately 6.4 g of active ingredient) or a negative control from approximately 21 days prior to calving until the end of lactation. In multiparous cattle supplemented with HFCG, average daily milk protein yield (P = 0.037) was increased during the first 8 weeks of lactation, while average daily yields of milk fat, fat- and energy-corrected milk tended (P ≤ 0.075) to increase over the same period of time. Increased yields were likely supported by the concurrent increase in dry matter intake (P = 0.036). Future work is needed to characterize the mode of action of this product within both the hindgut lumen and host, as well as investigate the potential differential responses between primiparous and multiparous animals over the course of lactation.
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Ornamental fish culture is the most popular hobby throughout the world, and it has a great role to stabilize the economy in developing countries. Health and nutrition are two pillars that hold the ornamental fish trade. Quality assurance program has become an essential part of the ornamental fish culture. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have been amplified due to excessive use of antibiotics in aquaculture over the past three decades. That is why, safe and sound substitute to antibiotics is very essential for sustainable development for the aquaculture sector after its annulment in the European Union (EU) in 2006. It is essential to study the various ecological aspects and their relationship minutely regarding the ex situ cultivation of brood stock to avoid the wild collection of the ornamental fishes. In search for alternatives of antibiotics, an eco-friendly and beneficial bacteria are used, known as prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics, which improve the microbial ecology of the fish gut. Recent research work shows that probiotics have no side effects on the aquatic environment (aquarium) and on the ornamental fishes; rather, they produce several essential digestive enzymes and vitamins and also amplify the admittance to minerals and microelements. Probiotics show a synbiotic benefits to the ornamental fishes as improved gastrointestinal morphology, which plays a vital responsibility in preventing and controlling pathogens, thereby promoting larval survival, enhanced immunostimulants, and improved disease resistance and getting better tolerance, increased growth performance, improved body color quality, reduced stress response, reduced malformations, etc. These entire factors are positively correlated with better fish appetite, feed conversation ratio, and feed utilization as confirmed by findings of many studies. Rearing and reproduction of the ornamental fish species have notably increased and have received the attention of the hobbyists to scientists as the ornamental fishes have high economic value. Reproduction is an energy-consuming process that can be successfully performed only when adequate energy stores are available within the organisms. Present researches indicate that probiotics play a crucial role between metabolism and reproduction. To get the highest benefit from probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics research, it is essential to know the mechanism of action to attain a better quality of the environment and healthy ornamental fish culture practices, suggesting avoidance of pharmaceutical use.KeywordsFunctional feedProbioticsPrebioticsSynbioticsMode of actionSustainable ornamental fish culture
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Traditional fermented foods and beverages play an important role in a range of human diets, and several experimental studies have shown their potential positive effects on human health. Studies from different continents have revealed strong associations between the microorganisms present in certain fermented foods (e.g., agave fructans, kefir, yeats, kombucha, chungkookjang, cheeses and vegetables, among others) and weight maintenance, reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease, antidiabetic and constipation benefits, improvement of glucose and lipids levels, stimulation of the immunological system, anticarcinogenic effects and, most importantly, reduced mortality. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to corroborate information reported in experimental studies that comprised interventions involving the consumption of traditional fermented foods or beverages and their association with human health. This work focuses on studies that used fermented food from 2014 to the present. In conclusion, traditional fermented foods or beverages could be important in the promotion of human health. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in inflammatory, immune, chronic and gastrointestinal diseases and the roles of fermented traditional foods and beverages in terms of preventing or managing those diseases.
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Probiotics exhibit many health benefits and a great potential for broad applications in pharmaceutical fields, such as prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases (irritable bowel syndrome), prevention and therapy of allergies, certain anticancer effects, and immunomodulation. However, their applications are limited by the low viability and metabolic activity of the probiotics during processing, storage, and delivery in the digestive tract. To overcome the mentioned limitations, probiotic delivery systems have attracted much attention. This review focuses on alginate as a preferred polymer and presents recent advances in alginate-based polymers for probiotic delivery systems. We highlight several alginate-based delivery systems containing various types of probiotics and the physical and chemical modifications with chitosan, cellulose, starch, protein, fish gel, and many other materials to enhance their performance, of which the viability and protective mechanisms are discussed. Withal, various challenges in alginate-based polymers for probiotics delivery systems are traced out, and future directions, specifically on the use of nanomaterials as well as prebiotics, are delineated to further facilitate subsequent researchers in selecting more favorable materials and technology for probiotic delivery.
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Diabetes and obesity are metabolic diseases that have become alarming conditions in recent decades. Their rate of increase is becoming a growing concern worldwide. Recent studies have established that the composition and dysfunction of the gut microbiota are associated with the development of diabetes. For this reason, strategies such as the use of prebiotics to improve intestinal microbial structure and function have become popular. Consumption of prebiotics for modulating the gut microbiota results in the production of microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids that play essential roles in reducing blood glucose levels, mitigating insulin resistance, reducing inflammation, and promoting the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the host, and this accounts for the observed remission of metabolic diseases. Prebiotics can be either naturally extracted from non-digestible carbohydrate materials or synthetically produced. In this review, we discussed current findings on how the gut microbiota and microbial metabolites may influence host metabolism to promote health. We provided evidence from various studies that show the ability of prebiotic consumption to alter gut microbial profile, improve gut microbial metabolism and functions, and improve host physiology to alleviate diabetes and obesity. We conclude among other things that the application of systems biology coupled with bioinformatics could be essential in ascertaining the exact mechanisms behind the prebiotic-gut microbe-host interactions required for diabetes and obesity improvement.
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Background: One in 10 adults suffer from type 2 diabetes (T2D). The role of the gut microbiome, its homeostasis, and dysbiosis has been investigated with success in the pathogenesis as well as treatment of T2D. There is an increasing volume of literature reporting interventions of pro-, pre-, and synbiotics on T2D patients. Methods: Studies investigating the effect of pro-, pre-, and synbiotics on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in T2D populations were extracted from databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to January 2022. Results: From an initial screening of 5,984 hits, 47 clinical studies were included. Both statistically significant and non-significant results have been compiled, analyzed, and discussed. We have found various promising pro-, pre-, and synbiotic formulations. Of these, multistrain/multispecies probiotics are found to be more effective than monostrain interventions. Additionally, our findings show resistant dextrin to be the most promising prebiotic, followed closely by inulin and oligosaccharides. Finally, we report that synbiotics have shown excellent effect on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes. We further discuss the role of metabolites in the resulting effects in biomarkers and ultimately pathogenesis of T2D, bring attention toward the ability of such nutraceuticals to have significant role in COVID-19 therapy, and finally discuss few ongoing clinical trials and prospects. Conclusion: Current literature of pro-, pre-and synbiotic administration for T2D therapy is promising and shows many significant results with respect to most markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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Background Dietary interventions have been previously explored in children with ADHD. Elimination diets and supplementation can produce beneficial behaviour changes, but little is known about the mechanisms mediating change. We propose that these interventions may work, in part, by causing changes in the gut microbiota. A microbiome-targeted dietary intervention was developed, and its feasibility assessed. Methods A non-randomised feasibility study was conducted on nine non-medicated children with ADHD, aged 8–13 years (mean 10.39 years), using a prospective one-group pre-test/post-test design. Participants were recruited from ADHD support groups in London and took part in the 6-week microbiome-targeted dietary intervention, which was specifically designed to impact the composition of gut bacteria. Children were assessed pre- and post-intervention on measures of ADHD symptomatology, cognition, sleep, gut function and stool-sample microbiome analysis. The primary aim was to assess the study completion rate, with secondary aims assessing adherence, adverse events (aiming for no severe and minimal), acceptability and suitability of outcome measures. Results Recruitment proved to be challenging and despite targeting 230 participants directly through support groups, and many more through social media, nine families (of the planned 10) signed up for the trial. The completion rate for the study was excellent at 100%. Exploration of secondary aims revealed that (1) adherence to each aspect of the dietary protocol was very good; (2) two mild adverse events were reported; (3) parents rated the treatment as having good acceptability; (4) data collection and outcome measures were broadly feasible for use in an RCT with a few suggestions recommended; (5) descriptive data for outcome measures is presented and suggests that further exploration of gut microbiota, ADHD symptoms and sleep would be helpful in future research. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a microbiome-targeted dietary intervention in children with ADHD. Recruitment was challenging, but the diet itself was well-tolerated and adherence was very good. Families wishing to trial this diet may find it an acceptable intervention. However, recruitment, even for this small pilot study, was challenging. Because of the difficulty experienced recruiting participants, future randomised controlled trials may wish to adopt a simpler dietary approach which requires less parental time and engagement, in order to recruit the number of participants required to make meaningful statistical interpretations of efficacy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03737877. Registered 13 November 2018—retrospectively registered, within 2 days of the first participant being recruited.
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The importance of functional food and nutraceutical products to deal with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has gained attention in the past few years. The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the potential and effectiveness of nutraceutical in the improvement of CMDs and MetS biomarkers, alongside their burden of disease and economic health expenditure. A science database search was conducted between May and June 2021. A total of 35 studies were included in this paper. We included male and female subjects, children, and adults, in good health or with cardiovascular or metabolic disease. CMDs and MetS have gradually become worldwide health problems, becoming two of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western countries. The results indicate a positive link between daily consumption of nutraceutical products and an improvement in cardiometabolic and anthropometric biomarkers. In this paper we included a wide range of nutraceutical products. Most of them showed promising data, indicating that nutraceuticals could provide a new therapeutic treatment to reduce prevalence and pharmaceutical expenditures attributed to CMDs and MetS. Unfortunately, there is a huge vacuum of data on nutraceutical usage, savings, and burden reduction. Therefore, further clinical and pharmaco-economic research in the field is highly required.
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The colon harbours a dynamic and complex community of microorganisms, collectively known as the gut microbiota, which constitutes the densest microbial ecosystem in the human body. These commensal gut microbes play a key role in human health and diseases, revealing the strong potential of fine-tuning the gut microbiota to confer health benefits. In this context, dietary strategies targeting gut microbes to modulate the composition and metabolic function of microbial communities are of increasing interest. One such dietary strategy is the use of prebiotics, which are defined as substrates that are selectively utilised by host microorganisms to confer a health benefit. A better understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in the breakdown of prebiotics is essential to improve these nutritional strategies. In this review, we will present the concept of prebiotics, and focus on the main sources and nature of these components, which are mainly non-digestible polysaccharides. We will review the breakdown mechanisms of complex carbohydrates by the intestinal microbiota and present short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as key molecules mediating the dialogue between the intestinal microbiota and the host. Finally, we will review human studies exploring the potential of prebiotics in metabolic diseases, revealing the personalised responses to prebiotic ingestion. In conclusion, we hope that this review will be of interest to identify mechanistic factors for the optimization of prebiotic-based strategies.
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The gut of warm-blooded animals is colonized by microbes possibly constituting at least 100 times more genetic material of microbial cells than that of the somatic cells of the host. These microbes have a profound effect on several physiological functions ranging from energy metabolism to the immune response of the host, particularly those associated with the gut immune system. The gut of a newly hatched chick is typically sterile but is rapidly colonized by microbes in the environment, undergoing cycles of development. Several factors such as diet, region of the gastrointestinal tract, housing, environment, and genetics can influence the microbial composition of an individual bird and can confer a distinctive microbiome signature to the individual bird. The microbial composition can be modified by the supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics. Supplementing these additives can prevent dysbiosis caused by stress factors such as infection, heat stress, and toxins that cause dysbiosis. The mechanism of action and beneficial effects of probiotics vary depending on the strains used. However, it is difficult to establish a relationship between the gut microbiome and host health and productivity due to high variability between flocks due to environmental, nutritional, and host factors. This review compiles information on the gut microbiota, dysbiosis, and additives such as probiotics, postbiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, which are capable of modifying gut microbiota and elaborates on the interaction of these additives with chicken gut commensals, immune system, and their consequent effects on health and productivity. Factors to be considered and the unexplored potential of genetic engineering of poultry probiotics in addressing public health concerns and zoonosis associated with the poultry industry are discussed.
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Two experiments were conducted to determine the impact of various combinations of yeast-based direct fed microbials (DFM) in diets fed to nursery pigs weaned from sows fed lactation diets with or without yeast additives. In Exp. 1, 340 weaned pigs, initially 5.1 kg ± 0.02, were used to evaluate previous sow treatment (control vs yeast additives) and nursery diets with or without added yeast-based DFM on growth performance and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of fecal Escherichia coli. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of sow treatment (control vs. yeast-based pre- and probiotic diet; 0.10% ActiSaf Sc 47 HR+ and 0.025% SafMannan, Phileo by Lesaffre, Milwaukee, WI) and nursery treatment (control vs. yeast-based pre- and probiotic diet; 0.10% ActiSaf Sc 47 HR+, 0.05% SafMannan, and 0.05% NucleoSaf from d 0 to 7, then concentrations were decreased by 50% from d 7 to 24) with 5 pigs per pen and 17 replications per treatment. Progeny from sows fed yeast additives had increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) from d 0 to 24 and d 0 to 45. However, pigs that were fed yeast additives for the first 24 d in the nursery tended to have decreased d 0 to 45 ADG (P = 0.079). Fecal E. coli isolated from pigs from the sows fed yeast group had increased (P = 0.034) resistance to nalidixic acid and a tendency for increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.065) and gentamicin (P = 0.054). Yet, when yeast additives were added in the nursery there was reduced (P < 0.05) fecal E. coli resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol. In Exp. 2, 330 weaned pigs, initially 5.8 kg ± 0.03, were used to evaluate diets with two different combinations of DFM on growth performance. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of sow treatment (same as described in Exp. 1) and nursery treatment (control; YCW, 0.05% of SafMannan from d 0 to 38 and NucleoSaf at 0.05% from d 0 to 10 and 0.025% from d 10 to 24; or DFM, 0.10% MicroSaf-S from d 0 to 38 and NucleoSaf at 0.05% from d 0 to 10 and 0.025% from d 10 to 24) with 6 pigs per pen and 8 to 10 replications per treatment. From d 0 to 10 post-weaning, progeny of sows fed yeast additives had increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F. In conclusion, feeding sows yeast through lactation improved offspring growth performance in the nursery. While feeding live yeast and yeast extracts reduced nursery pig performance in Exp. 1, feeding DFM improved growth later in the nursery period in Exp. 2.
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In this chapter, the authors explore the physicochemical composition of whey from bovine milk, the most representative technologies used for the production of added‐value products and bioactive compounds or biomolecules from industrialization of whey such as whey protein fractions, peptides, and oligosaccharides, beneficial properties and food applications of these products. In addition, the use of whey as the encapsulating material of bioactive compound‐loaded liposomes, and the presence of bacteriophages in whey derived products, are also discussed. Whey derived products enriched in proteins are widely used in many food and pharmaceutical applications because of their broad range of functionality, nutritive value, and health benefits. In addition, the demand for whey proteins has been boosted by the consumer request for high‐protein foods and supplements. The authors also focus on the structure, characteristics, technology of production, biological properties, and applications of some peptides such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial and antioxidant, GMP, GOS and lactosucrose.
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Background: Diarrhoeal disease is a major cause of global infant mortality, and compromises the ability of many countries with respect to achieving sustainable development goals. The WHO’s recommendation of Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) and zinc in the management of this disease, may not be readily available. Consideration and assessment of cultural practices in its management has been an area of increased interest over the last decade. Aim: This study aims to systematically evaluate efficacy of the consumption of traditional fermented foods as functional products for the treatment and management of diarrhoea. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted of electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline and Pubmed) databases with no restrictions on language and publication date for RCTs that investigated the effect of consumption of fermented foods on the treatment of diarrhoea in children under five years of age. Results: Seven RCTs were included. Meta-analysis showed that compared to control, consumption of fermented foods significantly reduced mean duration of diarrhoea, −0.61 days; (95% CI, −1.04, −0.18); length of hospitalization, −0.35 days (95% CI, −0.69, −0.02); but not mean daily frequency of stool −2.00 (95% CI,-7.03, 3.04). Conclusion: Limited available evidence suggests that consumption of fermented foods may help reduce duration and severity of symptoms as a treatment of diarrhoea. More high quality research needs to be undertaken to investigate the efficacy of fermented food as an effective alternative to ORS as a potential WHO recommendation for management of diarrhoeal disease.
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The effect of pre- and probiotics on the human intestinal microflora was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of specifically PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. The prebiotic inulin was orally administered in the form of Raftiline ® HP (Orafti, Belgium). Daily doses of 9 g were taken for 14 days by 10 healthy adult volunteers. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum , encapsulated in gelatin/pectin capsules, was orally administered in the form of Bifina ® (Morishita Jintan, Japan). Nine capsules were taken each day for 14 days by 14 healthy adult volunteers. For the prebiotic study, FISH probes were used to enumerate all bacteria, bifidobacteria, the Eubacterium rectale–Clostridium coccoides group (Erec group), Bacteroides , and eubacteria of the low G+C group. No significant changes were found in the total population of bacteria, the Bacteroides nor in the low G+C group during the study. The population of bifidobacteria increased significantly, while there was a significant decrease in numbers of the Erec group. The FISH analysis of the probiotic study focused on the enumeration of bifidobacteria only, which did not increase significantly during the study. Samples collected in both studies were analyzed by Bifidobacterium -specific PCR and DGGE. The results showed that a stable bifidobacterial population was present throughout each study. Using both FISH and DGGE, we have shown that for modulation of the bifidobacterial populations in the gut, prebiotics are better candidates than probiotics, since inulin increased bifidobacterial numbers without changing the species composition, whilst the probiotic had almost no effect. Keywords: inulin, non-digestible oligosaccharides, prebiotics, probiotics, intestinal microflora, bifidobacteria, fluorescent in situ hybridization, probes, DGGE.
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A group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe S-G-Lab-0158- a-A20 (Lab158) was designed and validated to quantify species of the phylogenetic group lactobacilli-enterococci. The Lab158 probe detects nearly all species of the genera Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus, Weissella, Vagococcus, Leuconostoc and Oenococcus. The specificity of the probe was tested on various species of the target group and on a range of common intestinal bacteria. For these experiments, procedures to permeabilize these groups of Gram-positive bacteria were optimized and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) conditions for maximum specificity were determined. In addition, we showed that it is possible to distinguish the predominant gut- enterococci i.e. E, faecalis among the Lab158 probe-positive cells with the E. faecalis-specic probe Efs (1). Lactobacilli-enterococci in faecal samples of four Volunteers were enumerated by FISH using the Lab158 probe. With this technique 0.4-0.8 x 108 cells per gram wet weight of faeces were counted The Lab158 probe was also used to identify colonies after culturing faecal bacteria on MRS and Rogosa agar. Only 2% of the colonies hybridized to the lactobacilli-enterococci specific probe. Most of the remaining colonies hybridized to a bifidobacteria specific probe. This shows that FISH with probe Lab158 is a useful method to enumerate lactobacilli-enterococci in faeces and can assist in the identification of lactic acid bacteria grown on plates.
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The prebiotic effects of lactulose were monitored in a human feeding study. Prebiotics are dietary carbohydrates that have a selective microbial metabolism in the gut, directed towards bacteria seen as bene cial, examples being bi dobacteria and:or lactobacilli. The study was conducted in a double blind, placebo controlled manner. A dose of 10 g per day, half the pharmacological dose, was fed to 10 healthy adult volunteers. In parallel, 10 persons were fed a placebo (glucose:lactose). Both culture based methodologies and genetic probing, based around uorescent in situ hybridization were used to determine bacterial populations. Faecal water genotoxicity was assessed using the Comet assay to investigate the ability of lactulose to protect against DNA damage. Bi dobacteria showed a statistically signi cant increase during lactulose intake, whilst genetic probing showed a concomitant decrease in clostridia. Viable plate counts of lactobacilli increased when lactulose was fed, but this was not replicated by the genetic probing. During the trial, none of the recruits experienced any signi cant adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. Single-cell gel electrophoresis, used to assess faecal water genotoxicity, did not reveal that lactulose intervention reduced genotoxicity. The prebiotic nature of 10 g:day lactulose towards the human gut microbiota has been clearly demonstrated in this study. Lactulose is shown to be an effective food-grade prebiotic for healthy adults particularly in sections of the community with low bi dobacterial populations. The value of the more direct, culture independent FISH technique in the microbial ecology of the gut has been demonstrated in this study.
Article
The fate of cereal fructans and inulin in the gastrointestinal tract was investigated by using a rat model. Male Wistar rats received diets containing 5.0% of a preparation of cereal fructans or 4.7 or 9.4% inulin. Each diet was tested with or without Nebactin, an antibiotic drug given to suppress the intestinal microflora. The availability of fructans in the upper gastrointestinal tract was calculated from the recovery in feces in Nebacitin-treated rats. Animals receiving cereal fructans developed diarrhea, which made it impossible to measure the bioavailability of this substrate. With inulin, the extent of digestion and absorption appeared to be 18–26%. This might, at least to some degree, be explained by hydrolysis by gastric juice in the stomach. Thus, in an in vitro assay, mild acid hydrolysis (0.05 M HCl, 37°C, 120 min) converted about 8% of inulin to free fructose. The apparent digestibility of the fructans was calculated from its recovery in feces from untreated rats. Only minute amounts of fructans could be detected, hence, cereal fructans as well as inulin reaching the hindgut appeared to be almost completely fermentable.
Article
Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P < 0.01) group. In Exp. 2, the effects of yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 × 10⁸ CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P < 0.01) during the 9-d period in pigs fed carbadox. Total fecal coliforms were consistently lower throughout the postinoculation period in pigs fed yeast (P < 0.05). Yeast reduced colonization of total coliforms in the duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P < 0.10) to have higher serum IgG levels than controls. In these experiments, brewers dried yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health traits of early-weaned pigs, but certain serum immunological traits were enhanced by feeding yeast.
Article
The effect of changing the human intestinal microflora by administration of Oligomate-50, which contains 52 per cent galactooligosaccharides and is produced from lactose by the action of β-D-galactosidase (produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Streptococcus thermophillus ), was investigated. Oligomate-50 (0, 4.8, 9.6 or 19.2 g/d) was given orally for 7 d to 12 volunteers in a single-blind cross-over study. Each dose included 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g of galactooligosaccharides, respectively. Bifidobacteria were greatly increased following ingestion of galactooligosaccharides and a linear relation was found ( P < 0.05) between the amount of galactooligosaccharides ingested and the number of bifidobacteria per gram of faeces. Lactobacilli were also slightly increased. The ratio of the number of bifidobacteria to the total number of bacteria was significantly increased from 0.26 ± 0.12 to 0.48 ± 0.19 by galactooligosaccharides ingestion. Stool weight and stool frequency after ingestion did not change significantly and no sign of diarrhoea was observed when 10.0 g of galactooligosaccharides was ingested. The results of this study show that galactooligosaccharides are a superior growth-promoting factor for bifidobacteria, and, moreover, have the ability to increase the multiplication of lactobacilli in the human intestinal microflora. Keywords: Galactooligosaccharides; Oligomate-50; Bifidobacteria; Lactobacilli; Intestinal microflora; Faecal microflora.
Article
Hydrogen is produced during fermentation in the large intestine and may be excreted in breath and flatus or further metabolized by the flora. However, there is little information about total H2 excretion from different substrates or the extent to which it is metabolized in the colon. We have therefore measured total H2 and methane excretion in 10 healthy subjects using a whole body calorimeter. Breath gases were measured simultaneously with total excretion in response to lactulose, pectin, and banana starch. Metabolic activities of the predominant H2 consuming anaerobes (methanogenic, sulfate reducing, and acetogenic bacteria) were measured in fecal samples. Total H2 excretion on a starch and fiber-free diet was 35 ± 6.1 mL/24 h ± SEM. H2 from 7.5 g, 15 g, and 22.5 g lactulose was 88.1 ± 22.4 mL, 227.0 ± 60.7 mL, and 321.8 ± 79.2 mL. Four of the subjects also excreted CH4, which was 51.3 ± 5.5 mL, 97.3 ± 18.4 mL, and 157.5 ± 36.3 mL for the respective lactulose doses. H2 excretion was less in methanogenic subjects (7.9 mL/g lactulose) than in nonmethanogenic (17.3 mL/g), but total H2 excreted as, hydrogen + methane, was 34.9 mL/g. H2 from pectin (20 g) was 14.1% ± 3.2% and from starch (22.2 g) 38.6% ± 9.2% of an equivalent lactulose dose. Sixty-five percent of total H2 and CH4 was expired in breath at total excretion rates up to 200 mL/24 h. Over this the proportion decreased to 25% with an overall average of 58%. Only subjects with CH4 excretion in vivo showed methanogenesis in feces, whereas nonmethanogenic subjects showed high sulfate-reducing activity in feces (58.7 ± 5.6 nmol 35SO4 reduced · h−1 · g−1 wet wt vs. 7.9 ± 2.0 nmol · h−1 · g−1 in methanogens). Acetogenesis rates were very low in both groups. It was concluded that H2 excretion varies with different substrates. The proportion of H2 that is exhaled in breath is higher than currently accepted and varies with total excretion rate. Substantial amounts of H2 are consumed by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Article
The effects of lactulose and lactitol (2x10 g/d) were studied in 36 healthy volunteers in comparison to placebo. All parameters studied were affected by both treatments, lactulose in general leading to more pronounced changes compared to lactitol. Probiotic bacteria were increased, and putrefactive bacteria and potential pathogens were significantly reduced. These variations in colonic flora had the following consequences: (i) a reduced activity of pro-carcinogenic enzymes: azoreductase, 7α-dehydroxylase, ß-glucuronidase, nitroreductase and urease activity; (ii) a global increase of short-chain fatty acids in faeces; (iii) an effect on pH and moisture of faeces, and (iv) also on aromatic compounds such as phenol, cresol, indole and skatol. The findings suggest that lactulose and lactitol are not comparable in their effect on the colonic microflora, its metabolism, and the consequent probiotic effects on human health. The differences found may also be of clinical relevance suggesting that neither compound is equipotent.
Article
Background: The establishment of a balanced intestinal microflora which may protect against infection is desirable for the preterm infant. Objective: To investigate the effect of a preterm formula milk supplement consisting of oligosaccharides in similar proportions to human milk on the faecal flora and stool characteristics of preterm infants. Study design: To resemble the effect of human milk, an oligosaccharide mixture consisting of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides was used to supplement a standard preterm formula at a concentration of 10 g/l. This supplemented formula was studied in 15 preterm infants, and the results were compared with those found in 15 infants fed a formula supplemented with maltodextrin os placebo. p group fed fortified mother's milk was investigated as a reference group (n=12). On four Bays during a 28 day feeding period (1, 7, 14, and 28), the faecal flora was investigated, and stool characteristics, growth, and possible side effects were recorded. Results: During the study period, the number of bifidobacteria in the group fed the oligosaccharide supplemented formula increased to the upper range of bifidobacteria counts in the reference group. The difference between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups was highly significant (p=0.0008). The stool characteristics were also influenced by the supplement: the stool frequency after 28 days was significantly lower in the control group than in the oligosaccharide supplemented group (p=0.0079) and the reference group (p<0.0001). Over the study period, the stool consistency in the control group became harder, but remained fairly stable in the other two groups., There was no effect of the different diets on the incidence of side effects (crying, regurgitation, vomiting) or on weight gain or length gain. Conclusion: Supplementing preterm formula with a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides at a concentration of 10 g/l stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria in the intestine and results in stool characteristics similar to those found in preterm infants fed human milk. Therefore prebiotic mixtures such as the one studied may help to improve intestinal tolerance to enteral feeding in preterm infants.
Article
N-Acetylehitooligosaccharides ((GlcNAc)(n)) with different degrees of polymerization (n=1-6) were prepared as the main carbon sources in media for evaluating the growth of nine intestinal bacteria. A chitohydrolysate was prepared by hydrolyzing shrimp-shell chitin using HCl. After purification, the purity of each (GlcNAc)(1-6) was > 86%. The growth of intestinal bacteria was carried out in a basal medium (BM) containing 0.2% (w/v) of each sugar or glucose as the main carbon source and was evaluated using maximum cell densities and specific growth rates. Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium perfringens could respectively utilize GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)(2) more efficiently for growth than glucose. Bifidobacterium adolcscentis and Eubacterium limosum could use (GlcNAc)(1-6) slightly as their main carbon source. Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis and Proteus vulgaris could utilize glucose more efficiently than (GleNac)(1-6). GlcNAc was used more readily than (GlcNAC)(2-6) by Staphylococcus aureus, exhibiting almost the same specific growth rates. In BM, Streptococcus faecalis grew well even without adding each of the sugars tested. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Chapter
In the last few years, new types of mono- and oligosaccharides are being developed actively, mainly in Japan, as bulk sucrose substitutes with beneficial effects. The functional properties of these saccharides to be used in processed foods should be as close as possible to those of sucrose in providing bulk properties and a good sweetness. However, these saccharides differ from sucrose with regard to several physiological properties as is discussed later. Several types of mono- and oligo saccharides are already used as sucrose substitutes in processed foods such as soft drinks, candies, caramels, chocolates, cookies, cakes, breads, canned fruits, soft creams, jams and jellies, and pudding.
Chapter
We have previously defined a prebiotic as ‘a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon’ (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). In this context, a prebiotic is a dietary ingredient that reaches the large intestine in an intact form and has a specific metabolism therein — directed towards advantageous rather than adverse bacteria. This would ultimately lead to a marked change in the gut microflora composition. The premise is based on the hypothesis that the human large gut contains bacterial genera, and species, that are beneficial, benign and deterimental for host health. Whilst this generalisation probably gives too simplistic a view of gut microbiology, it is a feasible working concept. Fig. 1 gives our view of how different bacterial groups in the colon may be categorised in this manner. Forthcoming research will no doubt identify the realistic health values of the gut microflora, whilst other chapters in this book have discussed some of the more useful areas of interest.
Article
Six 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed, validated, and used to quantify predominant groups of anaerobic bacteria in human fecal samples. A set of two probes was specific for species of the Bacteroides fragilis group and the species Bacteroides distasonis. Two others were designed to detect species of the Clostridium histolyticum and the Clostridium lituseburense groups. Another probe was designed for the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus, and the final probe was designed for the species of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. The temperature of dissociation of each of the probes was determined. The specificities of the probes for a collection of target and reference organisms were tested by dot blot hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The new probes were used in initial FISH experiments to enumerate human fecal bacteria. The combination of the two Bacteroides-specific probes detected a mean of 5.4 x 10(10) cells per g (dry weight) of feces; the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group-specific probe detected a mean of 7.2 x 10(10) cells per g (dry weight) of feces. The Clostridium histolyticum, Clostridium lituseburense, and Streptococcus-Lactococcus group-specific probes detected only numbers of cells ranging from 1 x 10(7) to 7 x 10(8) per g (dry weight) of feces. Three of the newly designed probes and three additional probes were used in further FISH experiments to study the fecal flora composition of nine volunteers over a period of 8 months. The combination of probes was able to detect at least two-thirds of the fecal flora. The normal biological variations within the fecal populations of the volunteers were determined and indicated that these variations should be considered when evaluating the effects of agents modulating the flora.
Article
1. The Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) project was introduced, evaluated and accepted by the EU DG XII FAIR Programme as a Concerted Action. Its aim was to develop and establish a science-based approach for the emerging concepts in functional food development. Over the last three years of this EU Concerted Action co-ordinated by ILSI Europe, scientific data have been evaluated and new concepts have been elaborated. This Consensus Document is the culmination of the EU Concerted Action and its key points and recommendations are summarized here. It is by no means the end of the process, but, rather, an important starting point and the stimulus for functional food development. 2. Considerable progress has been made in scientific knowledge leading to the identification of functional food components which might eventually lead to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Consumers are becoming more aware of this development as they seek a better-quality, as well as a longer, life. The food industry has an opportunity to provide products that are not only safe and tasty, but also functional. The originality of the approach in this EU Concerted Action is that it is function-based, rather than product-based. The latter approach would have to be influenced by local considerations of different cultural as well as dietary traditions, whereas the function-based approach starts from the biologically based science that is universal. Furthermore, and most importantly, the function-based approach in this EU Concerted Action has allowed the development of ideas that suggest a unique way in which to link this scientific basis of functional foods with the communication about their possible benefits to consumers. 3. This EU Concerted Action has adopted the following working definition, rather than a firm definition, for functional foods: A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. 4. Functional foods must remain foods and they must demonstrate their effects in amounts that can normally be expected to be consumed in the diet. They are not pills or capsules, but part of a normal food pattern. A functional food can be a natural food, a food to which a component has been added, or a food from which a component has been removed by technological or biotechnological means. It can also be a food where the nature of one or more components has been modified, or a food in which the bioavailability of one or more components has been modified; or any combination of these possibilities. A functional food might be functional for all members of a population or for particular groups of the population, which might be defined, for example, by age or by genetic constitution. 5. The development of functional foods must rely on basic scientific knowledge of target functions in the body that are relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or the reduction of risk of diseases, the identification of validated markers for these target functions and the evaluation of sound scientific data from human studies for their possible modulation by foods and food components. This EU Concerted Action has proposed that markers can be classified according to whether they are markers of exposure to the functional food component whether they are markers that relate to target function or biological response or whether they are intermediate markers of the actual disease endpoint or health outcome. 6. Consumers must be made aware of the scientific benefits of functional foods and this requires clear and informative communication through messages (claims) on products and in accompanying materials. This EU Concerted Action has identified two types of claims that are vital to functional food development and has provided a scientific basis for them to help those who have to formulate and regulate the claims. Claims for 'Enhanced Function Claims' (Type A) should require that evidence for the effects of the functional food is based on establishment and acceptance of validated markers of Improved Target Function or Biological Response, while claims for the Reduced Risk Of A Disease (Type B) should require that evidence is based on the establishment and acceptance of Markers of Intermediate Endpoints of Disease. These markers must be shown to be significantly and consistently modulated by the functional food or the functional food component for either type of claim to be made. This EU Concerted Action has therefore proposed a scheme whereby the scientific basis of functional food development can be linked to the communication of their benefits to the public. If the principles of such a scheme can be universally adopted then this should ultimately improve communication to consumers and minimize their confusion. 7. Functional foods must be safe according to all standards of assessing food risk and new approaches to safety might need to be established. This EU Concerted Action proposes that the development of validated markers as described above should, if possible, be used and integrated in the safety assessment with particular attention being paid to long-term consequences and interactions between components. 8. The development of functional foods, with their accompanying claims, will proceed hand in hand with progress in food regulation, which is the means to guarantee the validity of the claims as well as the safety of the food. Science in itself cannot be regulated and functional food science provides only the scientific basis for these regulations. 9. The Individual Theme Group papers, which are the science base for this Concerted Action, represent the critical assessment of the literature by European experts.
Article
1. General Nutritional Requirement2. Trials to Establish Bifidus-FloraAdministration of living bifidobacterial preparationsImprovement of powdered milkSearch for bifidus-factorsBifidus-factor IBifidus-factor IILactuloseBifidus-factor in carrot rootOther factorsSearch for sugar sourcesSelectivityEfficiencyFurther screening3. Proposal for Bifidobacteriology
Article
This article discuss the serious consequences of formation of toxic fermentation products in the colon and the counteracting health benefits of oligosaccharide ingestion. The benefits arise from increased population of indigenous bifidobacteria in the colon which, by their antagonistic effect, suppress the activity of putrefactive bacteria and reduce the formation of toxic fermentation products. In addition, the many advantages oligosaccharides have over dictary fiber are enumerated, as well as the natural foods that contain the sugar and its dosages and side effects.
Article
A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well-being and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. Health claims are expected to be authorized for functional foods based either on enhanced function (type A claim) or disease risk reduction (type B claim). Their development is a unique opportunity to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the food offered to consumer's choice for the benefit of his well-being and health. But only a rigorous scientific approach producing sound data will garantee its success. The functional food components that are discussed in the proceedings of the 3rd ORAFTI Research Conference are the inulin-type fructans, natural food components found in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are classified as dietary fiber. The targets for their functional effects are the colonic microflora that use them as selective 'fertilizers'; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; and the metabolism of lipids. Potential health benefits may also concern reduction of the risk of some diseases like intestinal infections, constipation, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis or colon cancer. The present proceedings review the scientific data available and, by reference to the concepts in functional food science, they assess the scientific evidence which will be used to substantiate health claims.
Article
Effects of administration of 4G-/?-D-galactosylsucrose (lac-tosucrose: LS) on fecal microflora, putrefactive products, short-chain fatty acids, weight, moisture and pH, and subjective sensation of defecation were investigated in 13 elderly patients with constipation. The LS mixture used in the present study consisted of LS (59.0%), lactose (22.7%), sucrose (8.4%), fructose (1.6%), glucose (6.8%), and non-identified polysaccharides (0.8%). Subjects were fed 0.32 g of LS mixture per kg body weight per day (0.18 g of LS per kg body weight per day) for 3 weeks after a one-week control period. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The number and percentage of Bifidobacterium remarkably increased. The frequency of occurrence of Bifidobacterium increased, while that of lecithinase-negative Clostridium decreased. 2. The concentrations of p-cresol, indole, skatole and ammonia in the feces (nmol or jxmol/g wet feces) were decreased significantly, and the total fecal excretion of p-cresol and skatole (//mol/week) was also diminished significantly. 3. LS administration caused significant increases in the concentration (//mol/g wet feces) and the total fecal excretion (mmol/week) of acetic and -butyric acids. 4. Fecal moisture (%) increased significantly, whereas fecal pH decreased. LS also tented to cause a gain in fecal weight (g/. © 1992, SOCIETY FOR FREE RADICAL RESEARCH JAPAN. All rights reserved.
Article
A study was made of the effects of fructooligosaccharides, which exist widely inplants such as onion, edible burdock, wheat etc., on the human and animal intestinal flora. Fructooligosaccharides are produced from sucrose with the aid of β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger on a commercial scale by Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd.(Neosugar, Meioligo®). It has been found that they are not hydrolyzed by any digestive enzymes of humans and animals. Moreover utilization byvarious kinds ofintestinal bacteria indicated that Bifidobacterium spp., the Bacteroides fragilis group, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae can utilize these saccharides, but Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and others cannot. The fructooligosaccharides are selectively utilized, particularly by bifidobacteria.The clinical studies showed that fructooligosaccharides administration improved the intestinal flora, with subsequent relief of constipation, improved blood lipids in hyperlipidemia, and suppressed the production of intestinal putrefactivesubstances.
Article
The effect of isomalto-oligosaccharides on human fecal flora was studied. Bifidobacteria and the Bacteroides fragilis group from human intestine could utilize isomalto-oligosaccharides but Escherichia coli and other bacteria could not. After the administration of isomaltooligosaccharides (13.5 g daily for 2 weeks) to healthy adult men and senile persons, the numbers of bifidobacteria in the feces increased. The consistency of feces was improved. These studies may support the usefulness of isomalto-oligosaccharides as components of new healthy foodstuffs for the improvement of the intestinal flora.
Article
Three types of yogurt supplemented with Bifidobacterium alone, lactulose alone, or both Bifidobacterium and lactulose were fed to healthy persons, who were tested before and after administration. Plain yogurt was fed during a control period. Yogurt containing both Bifidobacterium and lactulose resulted in greater improvement in the form and frequency of feces than the other yogurts. No differences were noted in blood chemistry test results before and after the administration of each type of yogurt. There were no side effects of yogurt administration. The number of Bifidobacterium in the feces increased after the administration of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium and/or lactulose, but there were no differences among the three test yogurts. Not only the administered Bifidobacterium species but also the original Bifidobacterium species was increased by eating Bifidobacterium and lactulose-containing yogurt, but the administered Bifidobacterium species was not increased more than the dominant original species. The ammonia content in the feces decreased more after the administration of Bifidobacterium-and/or lactulose-containing yogurt than after that of plain yogurt but there were no differences among the three test yogurts.
Article
We studied the effects of administration of TOS, a new growth factor derived from lactose for Bifidobacterium, and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the fecal flora of normal subjects. All of the Bifidobacterium species tested, eight reference strains and B. breve 4006 were capable of fermenting TOS in vitro, while others, 2 Bacteroides strains and 4 Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae strains, showed an appreciable growth among 55 cultures tested. It was evident that TOS is not intestinally absorbed by the recipient subjects, from hydrogen breath test. In vivo, TOS (3g or 10g/day) was observed to promote the growth of both administered B. breve 4006 and resident Bifidobacterium strains. Simultaneous administration of B. breve 4006 and TOS caused the suppression of gram negative anaerobes and aerobes, Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, and the reduction of fecal ammonia and urinary indican excretion. It is concluded that TOS is a typical bifidus factor.
Article
Lactosucrose (4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose) was fermented in vitro by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and to a limited degree by the Bacteroides fragilis group, clostridia, eubacteria, and enterobacteriaceae. The effects of dietary lactosucrose on the fecal flora and fecal metabolites were studied in eight healthy volunteers (20-23 years of age) who ingested 3 g of lactosucrose/day for 7 days followed by 6 g of lactosucrose/day for 7 consecutive days. During lactosucrose intake, the counts of bifidobacteria were increased significantly (p< 0.001), whereas the counts of clostridia, including Clostridium perfringens, and bacteroidaceae were decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the values before the intake. The total bacterial counts were decreased significantly (p< 0.05) on day 14 during the intake. The frequency of occurrence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was decreased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with the values before and after the intake. No detectable changes occurred in the counts of other organisms throughout the experimental periods. Fecal concentrations of ammonia, sulfide, phenol, ethylphenol, skatol and indole were decreased significantly (p< 0.05) during lactosucrose intake. Acetic acid and lactic acid were increased significantly (p< 0.05) during the intake. Fecal enzyme activity of β-glucuronidase was decreased significantly (p< 0.05) on day 14 of the intake. Serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was increased significantly (p< 0.01) on day 14 during the intake. Mean fecal pH values decreased from 6.3 to 5.9, and mean water content increased 3.6% during the intake. Fecal weight was increased slightly during the intake. The results obtained showed that the effective dose of lactosucrose for all healthy adults is 3 g/day.
Article
Xylooligosaccharide was found to have a favorable effect on human intestinal flora. Xylooligosaccharide was utilized by bifidobacteria, but it was not utilized by Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in vitro. In vivo, xylooligosaccharide (5 g/day) promoted the growth of bifidobacteria, lowered fecal pH and helped to maintain the fecal water content within normal range. These results showed that xylooligosaccharide can selectively promote the growth of bifidobacteria and help to establish favorable environmental conditions in the intestines.
Article
Aims: The primary objectives was to confirm the bifidogenic effects of fructooligosaccharides in elderly subjects (increase equal or higher than 1 log endogenous bifidobacteria per gram of faeces), and to make an exploratory investigation on non-specific immune defense parameters, such as phagocytosis and changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, in relation to the increase in endogenous bifidobacteria. Methods: The study was a pretest/posttest study of 19 elderly nursing home patients, with one period of 3 weeks of 8 g fructooligosaccharides (FOS) given in portions of 4 g, twice a day. Faecal bacteria composition was investigated using viable counts, lymphocyte subpopulation was analysed using a FACS scan, and relative expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) by measuring levels of IL-6 mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes. Results: Bacterial counts for bifidobacteria increased by a mean of 2.8 ± 0.57 log10CFU/g faeces after 3 weeks of supplementation, and decreased by a mean of 1.1 log10CFU/g faeces after the period without FOS (post-test). Unexpected changes in non-specific immunity were observed: decreased phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes, as well as a decreased expression of interleukin-6 mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes. These results suggest a possible decrease in inflammatory process in elderly subjects after FOS supplementation. Conclusion: The results confirm the bifidogenic effect of FOS with a 2 log increase in bifidobacteria counts and the frail elderly subjects showed low counts at the beginning of study. A diminution in inflammatory process is suggested by the decreased expression of IL-6 mRNA in peripheral blood monocytes. These results need confirmation in further studies.
Article
IMO, a commercially available mixture of isomaltooligosaccharides, was fractionated by preparative HPLC, and two fractions (IM02 and IM03) were obtained. IM02 contained mainly disaccharides (86.4%), which IM03 contained tri- and higher oligosaccharides (89.9%). The administration of IM02 or IM03, ranging in amount from 5 to 20g/day, increased human intestinal bifidobacteria in dose-dependent manner. An IM02 intake of 10 g/day and IM03 of 5 g/day each produced a significant increase of bifidobacterial number in feces and the ratio in fecal microflora within 12 days.
Article
Oligofructose and inulin, which are increasingly used in human food preparations, are now recognised as important prebiotic agents influencing the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract of the host. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting a low dose of oligofructose (5 g/day) by healthy human subjects on the faecal microflora, especially bifidobacteria, and to compare it with the ingestion of a placebo (sucrose). In a placebo-controlled study design, faecal samples were collected in the morning from 8 healthy human subjects, who were not on any medication, and immediately enumerated for bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, coliforms, total anaerobes and total aerobes. Subjects first took sucrose (placebo) daily (5 g) for 3 weeks with their normal diet except for known sources of oligofructose and inulin and subsequently were administered oligofructose (5 g) daily for 3 weeks. Faecal samples were collected after 11 days and after 3 weeks. At 2 weeks post ingestion of oligofructose, another set of faecal samples was taken.All samples were subjected to immediate microbial enumeration. Ingestion of sucrose (5 g/day) was without effect on all faecal bacteria enumerated, whereas consumption of oligofructose (5 g/day) for 11 days resulted in close to one log cycle increase in bifidobacteria numbers. No further increase was observed after the next 10 days. At 2 weeks after termination of oligofructose ingestion, bifidobacteria numbers had decreased to almost that of the period before treatment. Increases in numbers of Bacteroides and total anaerobic bacteria but not in aerobic bacteria also occurred.
Article
For food labelling and control purposes of inulin- and oligofructose-containing food products, a specific method which involves enzymic hydrolysis followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography has been developed. The soluble dietary fibre fraction obtained from commercial food products by the AOAC dietary fibre method has been tested for the quantitative assessment of its inulin or oligofructose content. A modification of the AOAC method is proposed to quantitatively include β-fructans in the determination of the soluble dietary fibre fraction.
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Because the human gut microbiota can play a major role in host health, there is currently some interest in the manipulationof the composition of the gut flora towards a potentially more remedial community. Attempts have been made to increase bacterial groups such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus that are per ceived as exerting health-promoting properties. Probi- otics, defined as microbialfood supplements that benefi cially affect the host by improvingits intestinal microbial balance, have been used to change the composition of colonie microbiota. However, such changes may be tran sient, and the implantation of exogenous bacteria therefore becomes limited. In contrast, prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species already resident in the colon, and thus attempt to improve host health. Intake of prebiotics can significantly modulate the colonie microbiota by increasing the number of specific bacteria and thus changing the composition of the microbiota. Nondigestible oligosaccharides in general, and fructooligosaccharides in particular, are prebiotics. They have been shown to stimulate the growth of endogenous bifidobacteria, which, after a short feeding period, become predominant in human feces. Moreover,these prebiotics modulate lipid metab olism, most likely via fermentation products. By com bining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonie foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients. J. Nutr. 125: 1401-1412, 1995.
Article
A purified stachyose and raffinose fraction of soybean oligosaccharides was fermented in vitro by Bifidobacterium spp., although not B.bifidum, and fermented to a limited degree by Lactobacillus salivarius, Mitsuokella multiacida and the Bacteroides fragilis group, but was not fermented by other bacteria. Six healthy adult males (28–48 yr of age) ingested 10 g of soybean oligosaccharides extract (SOE; 23 per cent stachyose and 7 per cent raffinose) daily independently or in combination with 6 ± 109 colony forming units (c.f.u.) of B.longum 105 for 3 wk. During ingestion of SOE, the number of bifidobacteria increased significantly.
Article
Fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to be nondigestible by human enzymes in the small intestine but are fermented extensively in the large bowel to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can increase mineral absorption. It has been shown that feeding such carbohydrates including short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (sc-FOSs) increases intestinal magnesium (Mg) absorption in animals, but their beneficial impact on Mg absorption in humans still remains to be established. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the effect of moderate daily doses of sc-FOSs (10 g/day) on the intestinal absorption and status of Mg in postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Eleven healthy postmenopausal women aged 59 ± 6 years (mean ± SD) received for 5 weeks sc-FOS or sucrose