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From university to working life: Graduates’ workplace skills in practice

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... An equally important form of professional knowledge is practical or experiential knowledge, which is often implicit and embedded in skills (e.g., Griffiths & Guile, 2003). For conscious storage of knowledge acquired in practice, learners need to explain and conceptualize experiential knowledge with the help of theoretical models in order to understand practice and act professionally (Leinhardt et al., 1995;Tynjälä, 2008). Professional knowledge also consists of self-regulative knowledge that includes self-reflection and metacognition, and further of social-cultural knowledge which shows insight in prescribed conditions and procedures in the given context. ...
... The main features are that learners a) construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world b) through experiential learning situated in authentic contexts c) by discovery learning, self-directed learning and reflecting on those experiences in dialogue with others (Simons et al., 2000). Particularly learning in authentic contexts by active, self-directed learning is assumed to help students to make the transition from education to practice (Lave, 2009;Tynjälä, 2008). Accordingly, the teacher's role has changed from a provider of answers to the role of a coach to recognize and correct misconceptions of students as early as possible so that professionals will build a correct knowledge network (Van Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2018). ...
... Furthermore, the perception of knowledge development has changed in society and professions by the prevailing paradigm of the evidence-based practice. Professionals in twenty-first century are expected to quickly search the needed knowledge, but in professional practice concerns arose about novice nurses' knowledge base needed for recognizing patients' problems in practice and problem-solving skills (Lave, 2009;Tynjälä, 2008). Many newly graduated nurses follow trainee programs ranging from six months to one year to gain more experiential knowledge before becoming a full member of professional practice (Hatlevik, 2012;Ten Hoeve et al., 2017). ...
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Since decades, nursing education struggles with a persistent gap between the theoretical knowledge offered in the study program and its application in professional practice. To bridge this gap competence-based curricula were developed with instructional designs as authentic learning contexts and self-directed learning. In this project we explored final year Bachelor Nursing (BN) students’ experiences in learning in a newly developed curriculum, and their knowledge quality outcomes and the degree of agreement with knowledge requirements. An instrumental multiple case study was conducted with interviews, concept mapping and a domain knowledge list. Results show that a third of the participants had positive learning experiences and got high appraisals for their knowledge quality. Similar to the medium and low scoring participants, they developed instrumental knowledge but integrated other forms of learning into a system of meaning, which is needed to solve non-routine problems in future practice. Medium and low scoring participants did not profit from learning in authentic contexts and self-directed learning. In conclusion, developing sufficient professional knowledge in a constructivist competence-based curriculum is influenced by students’ intrinsic motivation to build a strong knowledge base, by their perception of how to learn and use professional knowledge, and their expectations of the degree of supervision and guidance by the teacher. It is recommended to evaluate the extent to which the intended curriculum is being taught.
... As young people make their transition from education to working life in the information society today, they should have not only the necessary skills of knowledge use, but also social skills, experimentation, innovativeness, and life-long learning skills [37]. The 21st century competencies that are required from youth today promote personal and professional success in education and work settings and participation in a sustainable, democratic society. ...
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The aim of this study was to examine entrepreneurship in the context of future Finnish teachers’ readiness to teach 21st century (broad-based) competencies. Teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching entrepreneurial skills and financial matters is vital for their pupils to actively participate and flourish in future society. The study utilized survey data of future teachers’ expectancy-values in teaching seven broad-based competencies of the current national curriculum and their financial literacy. Future teachers expressed high interest in all competencies but reported the least self-efficacy and highest cost in teaching ICT as well as working life and entrepreneurship competencies. Teaching self-efficacy (TSE) in entrepreneurial competencies was predicted by subjective evaluations of financial capability and TSE in consumer skills. Teaching STEM subjects as well as male gender were related to better objective financial knowledge. We discuss the implications of observed financial capability, lack in self-efficacy, and high experienced cost of teaching these competencies. Support for future teachers’ readiness to teach working life skills, entrepreneurship, and financial literacy through phenomenon-based school subject collaboration, formal teacher training, and digital applications are emphasized.
... A large number of attempts have been made to articulate the key skills and traits required in the modern workplace (e.g. Hinchliffe, William & Adrienne, 2011;Tynjälä et al. 2006;Washer 2007;Kotsiou et al. 2022). One influential framework, for example, is the World Economic Forum (2016), 21st century skills model which identifies foundational literacies, competencies (critical thinking/ problem solving, creativity, communication and collaboration) and character qualities (curiosity, initiative, persistence, adaptability, leadership, social and cultural awareness). ...
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While not the only motive for Chinese students to come to study in the UK, employability must be one key factor. Yet there is relatively little research on perceptions among students, employers and teachers of how studying in the UK impacts employment prospects. This paper seeks to compare the views of these stakeholders on what are the essential skills needed for employability and whether these match those gained through study abroad. The data used was from an online questionnaire. The data showed that while there seemed to be some agreement about what skills were valued for employability and about what was learned in studying in the UK yet there was quite a strong mismatch between the two. Free text responses to the survey confirmed from previous research that reverse culture shock and work experience issues were important barriers to employability. They also revealed some types of challenge not identified or given emphasis before such as a reverse language shock and a misalignment between the timing of recruitment rounds and study in the UK. The data also confirmed the relative weakness of career advice for international students.
... http://jecer.org et al., 2012Tynjälä et al., 2006). A novice can be considered a person who is still in the initial phase of acquiring these skills and competencies and gradually gaining expertise through work experience. ...
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High-quality interactions between teachers and children in early childhood education and care (ECEC) are at the heart of supporting children's development, well-being, and learning. The aim of the study was to examine the quality of an experienced ECEC teacher's and an ECEC student teacher's teacher-child interactions using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Furthermore, the study explored the participants' reflections on their pedagogical interactions and the extent to which they aligned with the CLASS framework. The data consisted of video recordings, written observation notes, and stimulated recall interview (SRI) transcripts. The videos were rated according to the CLASS manual, and the data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. The results suggested that participants' teacher-child interactions were of relatively high quality, although instructional support was an area for development. However, the interactions of the student teacher varied across observation cycles. In the SRIs, both participants emphasised the importance of emotional support and supporting children's language skills. Differences arose in the participants' positioning toward teacher identity: the ECEC teacher as expert and the student teacher as developing a professional identity. The results provide novel qualitative insights into teacher-child interactions and using CLASS tool in combination to teachers’ self-reflections regarding their interactions with the children.
... Social skills Teachers consider social skills the most important skill set required in daily classroom work (Tynjälä et al., 2006; see also Jennings & Greenberg, 2009) and critical for collegial collaboration (Tynjälä et al., 2016). According to Denham (2005); Denham et al., 2003), ways of relating to other people are determined by relational and emotional competency skills, which reveal individual differences at the preschool age. ...
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In the present study, we aimed to specify the key competence domains perceived to be critical for the teaching profession and depict them as a comprehensive teacher competence model. An expert panel that included representatives from seven units providing university-based initial teacher education in Finland carried out this process. To produce an active construction of a shared understanding and an interpretation of the discourse in the field, the experts reviewed literature on teaching. The resulting teacher competence model, the multidimensional adapted process model of teaching (MAP), represents a collective conception of the relevant empirical literature and prevailing discourses on teaching. The MAP is based on Blömeke et al.’s, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 223, 3–13, (2015) model which distinguishes among teacher competences (referring to effective performance of teachers’ work), competencies (knowledge, skills, and other individual competencies underlying and enabling effective teaching), and situation-specific skills of perceiving, interpreting, and making decisions in situations involving teaching and learning. The implications of the MAP for teacher education and student selection for initial teacher education are discussed.
... Studies have even pointed out that generic skills can be used as key skills that students need to have in the labor market in the future. Even in different majors and disciplines, they must have such general skills, such as organizing skills, knowledge acquisition, and problem-solving skills (Tynjälä et al., 2006;Virtanen et al., 2009;Arevalo et al., 2010). Although generic skills are not as important as employability and other abilities for task execution in the workplace, this ability reflects the intuitive response the learner has to daily life, as well as their views and insights on problems. ...
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In higher education, student learning satisfaction is a significant predictor of learning that indicates the commitment students have to their learning and future academic achievement. The study combines the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) model to explore the psychological cognition and attitudes derived from students during their learning, discusses the pattern of student learning satisfaction enhancement from the aspect of process, and further understands the relationships among social support systems, interaction relationships, self-efficacy, generic skills, and learning satisfaction. In this study, 800 valid copies of questionnaires were collected from 12 universities through purposive sampling, and the structural model was analyzed by partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results showed that the relationships among all the constructs were positive and showed a significant effect; furthermore, the research results showed that self-efficacy and student generic skills had a significantly indirect effect in the model—specifically, a mediating effect. Finally, corresponding theoretical and practical implications were put forward based on the research results.
... Considerable attention was paid to the importance of the 'right' combination of cognitive, social, self-management and administrative skills, attitudes and individual attributes that may enhance graduate employment opportunities (Jackson, 2013), or the ability to work a network (Okay-Somerville and Scholarios, 2017). A lot of studies focused on the problem of competency gap (Tynjälä et al., 2006;Tymon, 2013). For example, according to studies conducted in Spain, employers believe that higher education is too theoretical and that there is too much distance between studies and the realities of the workplace (though they do admit that the majority of graduates do not need more than six months to adapt to the workplace requirements and that, in general, higher education provides workers with a solid knowledge base and analytical capacity) (Hernández-March et al., 2009). ...
Article
The purpose of this paper was to present an attempt to build an innovative and comprehensive system of gathering and analysing reliable, accurate and up-to-date feedback on employability of academic graduates in Poland. After a literature review on the nature of the mismatch between the labour market requirements and the knowledge and skills of higher education graduates, as well as challenges connected with obtaining feedback from graduates, a case study devoted to collecting and analysing labour market stakeholders' feedback undertaken by a small faculty of a non-public academy in Warsaw, Poland is presented. A sample of 31 opinions of the faculty's graduates was gathered and analysed, in the form of an arithmetic mean, minimum and maximum values and cross-plot charts. The main conclusion of both the literature review and the case study is that the labour market highly values technical, especially IT skills and business-related soft skills, such as team-working. The two main challenges for the academic decision-makers are to develop curricula that would foster the development of the desired knowledge and skills and to build effective communication channels with all their stakeholders. A further, more comprehensive research into the matter will be worth conducting.
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Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää erityisopettajien kokemuksia työssä oppimisesta uran alkuvaiheessa. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millä tavoin erityisopettajat kokevat oppivansa työssään sekä millaisten asioiden he kokevat edistävän ja rajoittavan työssä oppimistaan uransa alkuvaiheessa. Tutkimus toteutettiin laadullisin menetelmin. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin puolistrukturoiduin teemahaastatteluin, joihin osallistui kuusi suomalaisissa peruskouluissa työskentelevää uransa alkuvaiheessa olevaa laaja-alaista erityisopettajaa. Aineiston analysoinnissa käytettiin sekä teoriaohjaavan että aineistolähtöisen sisällönanalyysin menetelmiä. Tutkimukseen osallistuneet erityisopettajat kokivat oppivansa työssään yksilöllisen, sosiaalisen ja suunnitellun oppimisen tavoin. He kokivat työkulttuuriin ja omaan hyvinvointiin liittyvien tekijöiden edistävän työssä oppimistaan. Työssä oppimista rajoittaviksi tekijöiksi he puolestaan kokivat aikaan ja työn järjestämiseen liittyvät tekijät. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan päätellä, että uransa alkuvaiheessa olevien erityisopettajien työssä oppimisessa korostuvat yksilöllisen oppimisen tavat. Lisäksi voidaan päätellä, että huomioimalla hyvinvointiin ja työn järjestämiseen liittyvät tekijät paremmin, erityisopettajien mahdollisuuksia työssä oppimiseen voitaneen parantaa. Tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää erityisopettajien työn järjestämistä sekä työssä oppimisen edistämisen tapoja koskevassa suunnittelu- ja kehittämistyössä. Aihetta on kuitenkin syytä tutkia enemmän, jotta erityisopettajien työssä oppimista voidaan edistää parhaalla mahdollisella tavalla.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine what kinds of pedagogical practices predict perceived learning of university students’ social skills in classes where these skills are not set as learning outcomes. Data were collected from students of various disciplines by means of a questionnaire and then analysed using regression analysis. Students’ learning of social skills was explained by pedagogical factors related to 1) the modes of teaching and learning, 2) the features of the constructivist learning environment, 3) the features of the integrative pedagogy, and 4) the circumstances pertaining to the atmosphere of the learning environments involved in their studies. Factors belonging to three of these elements predicted the learning of social skills amongst university students. The regression models explained 46–58% of the learning of social skills. The results showed that collaborative learning typical of a constructivist learning environment plays a critical role in the learning process. In contrast, the modes of traditional or individual learning, such as listening and feedback or evaluation given by the teacher, loaded negatively in the regression model. Overall, the results suggest that collaborative and active forms of learning are highly significant in the learning of social skills. The study also brought up new perspectives to consider in the teaching of social skills.
Article
A course at the University of Toronto encourages engineering students to analyze how science isconveyed in the popular media through a variety of contexts. An analysis of the language and rhetoric of these communicative acts provides on entry point into how science is framed, while the discipline of performance studies, which identifies and analyzes the mechanisms with which we present our messages and ourselves, provides another useful tool through which to understand the motivations and associated strategies behind scientific communication. This teaching practice paper presents three case studies of scientific press conferences used in the course: NASA’s 2010 astrobiology event, the Higgs Boson announcement in 2012, and Virgin Galactic’s 2014 SpaceShipTwo crash. These three case studies illustrate how the act of communicating science within public spaces should be navigated with an awareness of the intended message and the way that this message is conveyed and perceived. Each case study includes a summary of observations on the event (generated and shared through class discussions), and prompts that will enable theeffective instruction of these and other case studies.
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