Single-Stage Flexor Tendon Transfer for the Treatment of Severe Concomitant Peroneus Longus and Brevis Tendon Tears
Although peroneal tendon injuries are a common cause of lateral ankle pain, there is a paucity of literature specifically addressing the treatment of severe concomitant peroneus longus and brevis tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient outcomes following a single-stage flexor tendon transfer for the treatment of severe concomitant tears of both peroneal tendons. Eight patients were treated with a single-stage flexor tendon transfer for severe concomitant peroneus longus and brevis tears over a 15-year period. Mean age at the time of surgery was 54 years (range, 41-67 years), including 4 male and 4 female patients. Tendon transfer of either the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) or flexor digitorum longus (FDL) was performed when both peroneal tendons were found intraoperatively to have severe nonreconstructable tears. Mean follow-up time from surgery was 58 months (range, 12-91 months). Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot and visual analog pain scores were prospectively collected, and patient charts were reviewed for complications. A postoperative outcome questionnaire was administered during latest follow-up to assess return to activities, satisfaction, and self-rated patient outcome. Mean pre- and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from 64 (range, 54-77) to 86 (range, 69-100), whereas mean score for pain on a visual analog scale decreased from 4.2 (range, 0.5-6) to 0.7 (range, 0-3). One surgical complication occurred following FDL transfer in a patient who developed a transient peroneal nerve palsy, and 1 patient underwent a subsequent calcaneal osteotomy. Seven of 8 patients reported a return to preoperative activity levels, and no patient required bracing for activities of daily living. All patients reported satisfaction with surgical results, and 7 rated their outcomes as good or excellent. Single-stage flexor tendon transfer is an effective surgical option for the treatment of severe concomitant peroneus longus and brevis tendon tears. Level IV, case series.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lateral transfers of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) or flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons have been described for treatment of concomitant, irreparable peroneal tears. This study evaluated the anatomic benefits and constraints of lateral FHL and FDL tendon transfers with regard to available tendon length, diameter, and proximity to the posterior neurovascular bundle. In 9 cadaveric specimens, the FHL and FDL tendons were transected through a medial approach distal to the knot of Henry. Each tendon was transferred into a lateral incision, passing the FDL tendon both posterior and anterior to the tibial neurovascular bundle. The tendons were individually secured to the base of the fifth metatarsal with the foot in maximal eversion and dorsiflexion. The length of donor tendon available for fixation at the fifth metatarsal was measured. After the FDL tendon transfer was secured, the posterior neurovascular bundle was examined for signs of compression. Average FHL tendon diameter measured 5.1 mm; the FDL measured 4.5 mm. After passage through a bone tunnel, an additional 4.9 cm of FHL tendon remained to suture to itself; only 0.5 cm remained for the posterior and anterior FDL transfers. Transfer of the FHL did not increase muscle bulk within the retrofibular groove. Every FDL transfer posterior to the neurovascular bundle produced obvious visual compression of the tibial nerve with plantar flexion and inversion of the foot. Use of the FHL tendon for lateral transfer consistently provided sufficient length of tendon for multiple fixation options and a stronger muscle for transfer. Fixation options for the FDL were limited due to its shorter length. Lateral transfer of the FDL tendon posterior to the neurovascular bundle caused visible compression on the tibial nerve with ankle and hindfoot range of motion. This anatomic study confirmed several advantages for the use of the FHL tendon transfer in cases of concomitant peroneal tears.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports have demonstrated that peroneal tendon tears can be successfully treated by direct repair or debridement and tubularization, based on the extent and nature of the pathology. Irreparable peroneal tendon tears or completely unsalvageable tendons after failure of previously attempted repairs are rare, and as a result there is a lack of high-level evidence to guide the management of these complex injuries. When irreparable tears are encountered the salvage options include tenodesis, bridging of the defect using allografts or autografts, and tendon transfers. The choice of treatment strategy depends on the presence of a functioning tendon or tendons and the viability and excursion of the peroneal musculature.