Article

The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections

Københavns Universitet, København N, Denmark.
APMIS. Supplementum 05/2013; 121(136):1-58. DOI: 10.1111/apm.12099
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most research into bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but these diseases have now been supplemented by a new category of chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilm infections, such as pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, chronic wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence. In general, bacteria have two life forms during growth and proliferation. In one form, the bacteria exist as single, independent cells (planktonic) whereas in the other form, bacteria are organized into sessile aggregates. The latter form is commonly referred to as the biofilm growth phenotype. Acute infections are assumed to involve planktonic bacteria, which are generally treatable with antibiotics, although successful treatment depends on accurate and fast diagnosis. However, in cases where the bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often turns out to be untreatable and will develop into a chronic state. The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. In this thesis, I will assemble the current knowledge on biofilms with an emphasis on chronic infections, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these infections, before relating this to my previous research into the area of biofilms. I will present evidence to support a view that the biofilm lifestyle dominates chronic bacterial infections, where bacterial aggregation is the default mode, and that subsequent biofilm development progresses by adaptation to nutritional and environmental conditions. I will make a series of correlations to highlight the most important aspects of biofilms from my perspective, and to determine what can be deduced from the past decades of biofilm research. I will try to bridge in vitro and in vivo research and propose methods for studying biofilms based on this knowledge. I will compare how bacterial biofilms exist in stable ecological habitats and opportunistically in unstable ecological habitats, such as infections. Bacteria have a similar lifestyle (the biofilm) in both habitats, but the fight for survival and supremacy is different. On the basis of this comparison, I will hypothesize how chronic biofilm infections are initiated and how bacteria live together in these infections. Finally, I will discuss different aspects of biofilm infection diagnosis. Hopefully, this survey of current knowledge and my proposed guidelines will provide the basis and inspiration for more research, improved diagnostics, and treatments for well-known biofilm infections and any that may be identified in the future.

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    • "Bone implant infections are usually caused by bacterial attachment and colonization on the implant surface[1]. Bacterial adhesion and subsequent growth usually results in slime enclosed biofilm formation on the implant surface[2,3]. In fact, it has been estimated that 65–80% of bacterial infections treated by clinicians in the developed world are caused by organisms growing on biofilms[4]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Since there is no effective treatment for biofilm infections, the gold standard treatment is mechanical removal of the infected material and/or tissue. Mechanical removal is not always possible without risk of serious complications (Bjarnsholt, 2013). If the biofilm infected material cannot be removed, the patient is placed on chronic suppressive antibiotics, therefore requiring several different antibiotics at high doses for an extended period of time (Hoiby et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation is a significant problem, accounting for over eighty percent of microbial infections in the body. Biofilm eradication is problematic due to increased resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials as compared to planktonic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on biofilm-infected mesh. Prolene mesh was infected with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated with PEF using a concentric electrode system to derive, in a single experiment, the critical electric field strength needed to kill bacteria. The effect of the electric field strength and the number of pulses (with a fixed pulse length duration and frequency) on bacterial eradication was investigated. For all experiments, biofilm formation and disruption were confirmed with bioluminescent imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Computation and statistical methods were used to analyze treatment efficiency and to compare it to existing theoretical models. In all experiments 1500V are applied through a central electrode, with pulse duration of 50μs, and pulse delivery frequency of 2Hz. We found that the critical electric field strength (Ecr) needed to eradicate 100-80% of bacteria in the treated area was 121±14V/mm when 300 pulses were applied, and 235±6.1V/mm when 150 pulses were applied. The area at which 100-80% of bacteria were eradicated was 50.5±9.9mm2 for 300 pulses, and 13.4±0.65mm2 for 150 pulses. 80% threshold eradication was not achieved with 100 pulses. The results indicate that increased efficacy of treatment is due to increased number of pulses delivered. In addition, we that showed the bacterial death rate as a function of the electrical field follows the statistical Weibull model for 150 and 300pulses. We hypothesize that in the clinical setting, combining systemic antibacterial therapy with PEF will yield a synergistic effect leading to improved eradication of mesh infections.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
    • "Some examples for tissue and medical device-associated biofilms are as follows: chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis, chronic wound infections, biofilms on orthopedic devices, endotracheal tubes, intravenous catheters, indwelling urinary catheters, etc. (Høiby et al. 2015). Biofilm-based infections are resistant to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents (Bjarnsholt 2013). However, there is lack of evidence about antiadherence activity of silymarin, which is vital for biofilm formation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Limited treatment options in infectious diseases caused by resistant microorganisms created the need to search new approaches. Several herbal extracts are studied for their enormous therapeutic potential. Silymarin extract, from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), is an old and a new remedy for this goal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial and antiadherent effects of silymarin besides biofilm viability activity on standard bacterial strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), antiadherent/antibiofilm activity, and effects on biofilm viability of silymarin were evaluated against standard bacterial strains. MIC values were observed between 60 and >241 μg/mL (0.25->1 mmol/L). Gram-positive bacteria were inhibited at concentrations between 60 and 120 μg/mL. Gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited by the silymarin concentrations included in this study. MBC values for Gram-positive bacteria were greater than 241 μg/mL. Adherence/biofilm formations were decreased to 15 μg/mL silymarin concentration when compared with silymarin-untreated group. Silymarin reduced the biofilm viabilities to 13 and 46 % at 1 and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations, respectively. We demonstrated that silymarin shows antibacterial and antiadherent/antibiofilm activity against certain standard bacterial strains which may be beneficial when used as a dietary supplement or a drug.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Folia Microbiologica
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