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Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane

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Sugarcane is one of the most important crops for the sugar production in India and Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the top on sugarcane while second in sugar production. Many biotic and abiotic stresses affected the sugarcane production among the reported diseases of sugarcane; Pokkah boeng is now playing a very important role due to its economic threats in UP. Recent survey during 2007-13 showed increasing trend of disease incidence and most of the commercial cultivars affected by the disease ranged from 1%-90%. Although Pokkah boeng comes under minor concern but these days it is going to be major on basis of their rapid epidemiology during last few years. Nowadays, the incidence and severity of Pokkah boeng disease has been reported from major sugarcane growing states like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Tamil Nadu and Bihar in India and other sugarcane growing countries. Keeping in view the seriousness of the problem, the present review summarise the distribution, establish a suitable genetic base and disease management practices through various approaches.
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Review Article Open Access
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Vishwakarma et al., J Plant Pathol Microb 2013, 4:3
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000170
J Plant Pathol Microb
ISSN:2157-7471 JPPM, an open access journal
Keywords: Fusarium moniliforme; Malformed; Epidemiology;
Symptomology; Management
Introduction
Sugarcane is a cash crop and cultivated in most of the states of India
with total area coverage 4.2 M ha [1]. India is the largest consumer
of sugar in the world with annual consumption of about 19 million
MT (Metric Tons) and the second largest producer of sugar next to
Brazil, with production in the sugar year 2009-10 crossing 28 million
Mt in India. Uttar Pradesh occupies as premier position of sugarcane
cultivation accounting for 42.2 million hectare and 30% of the area and
production respectively. Average cane yield of UP (58.2 MT/ha) is very
lower than the national average (66.9 MT/ha). Similar to yield, sugar
recovery in UP is also lower (9.51%) than national average (10.27%),
respectively due to the several diseases.
Pokkah boeng of sugarcane caused by Fusarium moniliformae
and the pathogen was rst described by Sheldon [2] and the perfect
stage of pathogen is Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada). Fusarium is now
conrmed by several workers as a causal agent of Pokkah Boeng in
sugarcane in Asia as well established pathogen by many workers [3-
5]. Pokkah Boeng is the most serious and devastating disease not only
in central Uttar Pradesh but also in the whole of the Southern and
Northern sugarcane growing zone of India. Pokkah Boeng is a Javanese
term denoting a malformation or distorted top was originally in Ja1va
but in that time no causal agent was established and its incidence was
recorded by Padwick [6]. Pokkah Boeng disease recorded in all over
the countries where sugarcane grown and pathogen spreads in wind-
blown rain, infected cane cuttings, pupae and adults of sugarcane stem
borers [7-9]. is disease was well-known in sugarcane for long time
but severity of disease reported in two commercial varieties Co7219
and Co C671 in Maharashtra 1983-1984 [10]. Fusarium moniliforme
var. subglutinans reduce the quality of the harvested crop mainly among
varieties with high sugar yields the sugar production depending upon
the variety up to 40.8-64.5% [11].
Symptomology
e characteristics symptoms of Pokkah Boeng disease are the
appearance of chlorotic patches towards the base of the young leaves,
in acute cases disease shows distortion of stalk with external and
internal cut like lesions and rotting of apical part of stalk. Under eld
conditions, the disease may develop many variations from the general
symptoms, but the nal result is usually a malformed or damaged top
and stalk. e base of aected leaves is oen narrower as compared
to normal leaves. Knife cut symptoms of the disease were reported in
varieties CoS767, CoC671, CoC8014, Co1158, CoS8315 and CoS 8436
[12]. Development of disease symptom in four phases was observed
namely chlorotic phases I and II, top rot and knife cut phase (Figure
1). e apical leaves may also show pronounced wrinkling and twisting
depending upon the susceptibility of varieties and existing climatic
conditions also malformed or damaged top and stalk due to this disease
[13]. e symptoms of Pokkah boeng disease were mainly two types
i.e., chlorotic phase and acute phase of top rot [10] and knife cut (fourth
phase) of this disease in Maharashtra [12]. Similar ndings of about the
disease symptom were also reported by workers [14-16].
Epidemiology
Status of Pokkah Boeng disease
During the survey of dierent sugarcane areas of last few years
(2007-13), it has been observed that the incidence severity of Pokkah
Boeng disease increases and aects almost all the sugarcane cultivars
which is recommended for general cultivation for dierent agro climatic
regions. During this year (2012-13), 90% and 5%-30% infection was
observed in genotype S. 224/10 and promising variety CoSe 01434 at
Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur. However, 15% infection
was noticed in variety CoS 07240 at Sugarcane Research Station, Gola
*Corresponding author: Pradeep Kumar, Department of Biotechnology
Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva-84105, Israel,
E-mail: pkbiotech@gmail.com/pradeepgkp17@yahoo.co.in
Received
January 30, 2013; Accepted March 21, 2013; Published March 26,
2013
Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013)
Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb 4: 170
doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
Copyright: © 2013 Vishwakarma SK, et al. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided
the original author and source are credited.
Abstract
Sugarcane is one of the most important crops for the sugar production in India and Uttar Pradesh (UP) is
the top on sugarcane while second in sugar production. Many biotic and abiotic stresses affected the sugarcane
production among the reported diseases of sugarcane; Pokkah boeng is now playing a very important role due to its
economic threats in UP. Recent survey during 2007-13 showed increasing trend of disease incidence and most of
the commercial cultivars affected by the disease ranged from 1%-90%. Although Pokkah boeng comes under minor
concern but these days it is going to be major on basis of their rapid epidemiology during last few years. Nowadays,
the incidence and severity of Pokkah boeng disease has been reported from major sugarcane growing states like
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Tamil Nadu and Bihar in India and other sugarcane growing
countries. Keeping in view the seriousness of the problem, the present review summarise the distribution, establish
a suitable genetic base and disease management practices through various approaches.
Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane
Vishwakarma SK
1
, Kumar P
1,3
*, Nigam A
2
, Singh A
1
and Kumar A
1
1
UP Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjhanpur-242001 (U.P.), India
2
Department of Life Sciences, IGNOU, New Delhi-110068, India
3
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva-84105, Israel
Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013) Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb
4: 170 doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
Page 2 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000170
J Plant Pathol Microb
ISSN:2157-7471 JPPM, an open access journal
(Lakhimpur Kheri). Beside this, it has also been reported from other
districts like Bareilly (Baheri), Sitapur and Pilibhit in many sugarcane
cultivars viz: CoS 8436, Co 0238, CoS 97264, CoS 8432, CoS 91269,
CoS 84212, CoSe 92423, CoS 98259, CoS 07250 and CoS 07240 in stray
to moderate level. Knife-cut stage of Pokkah Boeng was also observed
in CoS 07240, Colk 9709, CoS 09231, S. 4386/07 and S.3438 from
Gola, Baheri and Shahjahanpur respectively. In Western Uttar Pradesh
(Saharanpur, Muzzafarnagar, Bijnour, Khatauli, Mawana, Shimbhawali,
Titawi, Seohara districts), the disease were observed in varieties
CoS 8436, CoS88230, CoS94257, CoS767, CoS94270, CoSe95422,
CoSe98231 and CoJ64 with stray to moderate level and in Eastern
Uttar Pradesh (Gonda, Baharaich and Kushinagar districts), the disease
were noticed in varieties CoS91269, Co0238 and CoSe01434 in trace
to moderate level. Knife-cut stage was observed in varieties CoS91269
from Maizapur sugar factory zone of Bahraich district in traces (Table
1).
According to the disease scenario of dierent states of India viz.
Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana,
Maharashtra, it was observed that the incidence of Pokkah Boeng
disease were found in trace to moderate level on most of commercial
varieties but the incidence severity is high in Uttar Pradesh and
Maharashtra rather than other states and these two are major sugarcane
growing states of India. Symptoms of the diseases have been observed
in many varieties of Andhra Pradesh (Co7805, CoA 99082, CoV94102,
98V95 & 2000V59) and Haryana (CoH151, CoJ85 & CoS8436).
Top rot symptom of the disease was noticed in Haryana (CoS8436,
CoH152, CoH133, Co89003 and CoH136) and Punjab (CoJ 854). In
Maharashtra, amongst the foliar diseases, Pokkah Boeng disease is
becoming a major threat to sugarcane and incidence were observed in
many varieties (CoV19805, Co 05002, CoM 08090, Co 8014, Co 94012,
VS 1434, CoC 671, Co 7527, Co 86032). In Bihar, trace to moderate
levels of Pokkah Boeng disease was observed in many varieties.
Disease were reported from dierent other country aer the rst
report of disease from java in 1896 by walker and went and studied
by several workers [13]. From Malaysia, the disease was recorded in
1973 and it concluded that the disease incidence occur when crops
are grown in a climate where hot and dry season persists followed by
a wet season that was helpful for the spread of Pokkah Boeng [17].
Disease started when plants aged 3-7 months older, then plant growing
very rapidly than the older crop [18]. Giatgong [19] from ailand
reported F. moniliforme Sheldon and G. fujikuroi (Saw) Wr. were the
causal agents of Pokkah Boeng. Several Fusarium species were isolated
from the Pokkah Boeng aected tissue of sugarcane in Indonesia i.e., F.
anguioides Sherb. F. bulbigenum Cke. and Mass. var. tracheiphilum (E.
Sm.) Wr., F. moniliforme Sheld., F. moniliforme Sheld. var. subglutinans
Wr. and Rkg. [Gibberella fujikuroi (Saw.) Ito ap. Ito and Kamura], F.
moniliforme Sheld. var. anthophilum (A. Br.) Wr., F. neoceras Wr. and
Rkg., F. orthoceras App. and Wr. var. longius Wr. and F. semitectum B.
and Rav [20]. Fusarium andiyazi and F. Sacchari play important role in
the development of pookah boeng disease and prove the association of
F. andiyazi with sugarcane pokkah boeng in vitro from South Africa [4].
Pokkah Boeng of sugarcane also reported from Iran by F. verticillioides.
Morphological characteristics, pathogenecity test on healthy sugarcane
and VCG’s for correctly identication of Fusarium species causing
Pokkah Boeng; and also reported the genetic diversity among the F.
verticillioides in sugarcane elds using the vegetative compatibility
group technique [5,21].
Characteristics of pathogen
Fusarium moniliforme showed dierent colour for its mycilium pale
white, pink and purple mycilium and for pigmentation of metabolites
also during the growth on articial medium and its conidial growth
is aected by glucose concentration (Figure 2) [22,23]. Morphological
study of Fusarium spp. by earlier worker on Potato Dextrose Agar
Chloroc Phase I Chloroc Phase II
Top Rot Phase Knife cut Phase
Figure 1: Different stages of pokkah boeng disease.
Figure 2: Morphological variability among isolates of Fusarium moniliforme
isolated from pokkah boeng disease samples.
Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013) Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb
4: 170 doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
Page 3 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000170
J Plant Pathol Microb
ISSN:2157-7471 JPPM, an open access journal
Major and minor (N, P, K, S. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mg) study of the
sugarcane plant aected by the Pokkah Boeng showed the decreasing
pattern in stalks and leaves of diseased plant as compared to healthy
ones and its incidence have been noticed on broad leaves varieties of
sugarcane during monsoon. is may lead to the reduction in weight
of cane, length of internodes, juice percent, girth, pol percent and total
sugars in juice in infected canes of varieties CoS 8436 and CoS 88230
[3].
Pathogenesis
e pathogen enters into the host tissues through any injury by
insects/borers or natural growth cracks, etc. Aer the entry of pathogen,
the infection thread develops normal hypha which grows within the
medium (PDA) and the growth of conidia range from 9.3-29.7 µM in
length and 2.7-6.0 µM in width; mycelium width of ranged in between
1.75-7.00 µM [24]. Mycelium of F. moniliforme was generally dense in
delicately occose to felted with powdery appearance due to formation
of macro conidia (Figure 3). Many workers reported that F. sacchari
as causal agent for Pokkah Boeng in sorghum and also cause the same
in sugarcane belongs to the Section Liseola [8,25,26]. In India, F.
sacchari from sugarcane was rst described as Cephalosporium sacchari
by Butler and Khan [27]. Later F. moniliforme and C. sacchari are
separate as distinct organism based on their enzymes and pathogencity
characteristics [12,28]. Dierent media had profound inuence on
the cultural growth characters while the modied Czapeks dox agar
was selective medium for F. moniliforme and malt extract medium is
suitable for the growth [29-31]. On PDA, virulent strains F. moniliforme
grew faster than the non-virulent strains and growth is inuenced by
the nitrogen sources magnesium nitrite followed by sodium nitrate,
iron also enhanced the growth and sporulation [32-34]. However Patil
and Hapase [10] reported that starch, xylose, fructose, sucrose, glucose
and maltose as good carbon source and urea for nitrogen.
Year Area surveyed Varieties affected
No. of affected varieties/
genotypes
Incidence %
range
2012-13 Shahjahanpur, Baheri, Gola, Ajbapur,
Seorahi, Gonda, Baharaich,
Kushinagar, Pilibhit
CoS07250, Co0238, CoS 97261, CoS98231, CoS8436, CoS97264,
CoS88230, CoS98259, CoS05125, CoS 91269, Co0238, CoS 01434,
Co0239
13 1-15
CoSe01434 (SRI, Shahjahanpur Farm) 01 25
S. 224 (SRI, Shahjahanpur) 01 90
2011-12 Shahjahanpur, Balrampur,Ghazipur,
Gola,Sultanpur
CoSe01224, CoS05452, CoS06455, CoS06456, CoS05434,
CoSe92423, CoSe01235, CoSe96436, CoS8436, CoS07250,
CoS96275, CoS8432, CoS99259,
13 Stray
2010-11 Seohara,Neoli, Tilhar,Gola,Baheri,
Hargaon, Pallia, Rudrabilaspur
CoS8436, CoS767, CoS8432, CoS88230, CoS97261, CoS98259,
CoSe95422, CoSe01424, CoSe92423
09 Stray to 5%
2009-10 Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Hardoi, Sitapur,
Lakhimpur.
CoJ84, CoS8436, CoS88230, CoSe98231. 04 Traces
2008-09 Shahjahanpur, Hardoi, Muzzafarnagar. CoS8436, CoS88230, CoS8432 03 5-25
2007-08 Sharanpur,Bijnour, Sitapur,Sultanpur,
Lakhimpur.
CoS8436, CoS88230, CoS8432, CoS97261, CoSe95422, CoSe98231. 06 Traces
2006-07 Neoli,Semikhera Gola CoS8436, CoS8432, CoS88230, CoS97261 04 1.0-3.0
2005-06 Roza,Rupapur,Pallia, Seohara CoJ64, CoS8436, CoS8432, CoS88230, CoSe95422 05 1.0-8.0
2004-05 Neoli,Tilhar,Biswan CoS8432, CoS94257, CoS94270, CoSe92423, CoLk8102 09 0.5-3.0
2003-04 Khatauli,Mawana, Shahjahanpur,
Shimbhawli, Titawi,Gola
CoS88230, CoS8432 CoJ64, CoS767 04 2-10
Table 1: Incidence status of Pokkah Boeng disease during last ten years in Uttar Pradesh (Source: Annual reports of UPCSR, Shahjahanpur).
Meteorological observations during the year 2012
Months Rainfall
(mm)
Relative humidity (%) Temperature (°C)
8.30 A.M. 5.30 P.M. Ave. Max. Min. Ave.
January 36.8 87.0 64.0 76 17.5 6.2 11.8
February Nil 80.0 45.0 63 23.1 9.4 16.2
March Nil 70.0 35.0 52 30.4 13.7 22.0
April 6.2 58.2 29.2 43.7 36.6 19.9 28.2
May Nil 41.0 23.0 32.0 40.0 24.4 32.2
June 3.4 47.0 31.0 55.0 41.1 28.1 34.6
July 332.3 83.0 75.0 79.0 33.7 26.5 30.1
August 479.0 89.0 82.0 85.5 32.4 26.0 29.2
September 249.6 89.0 71.0 80.0 33.4 25.2 29.3
October Nil 82.0 50.0 66.0 32.0 17.6 24.8
November Nil 82.0 62.0 72.0 27.5 11.9 19.7
December 2.6 89.0 67.0 78.0 23.1 8.9 16.0
Source : Division of Plant Physiology, Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur,
U.P.
Table 2: Metrological observations during the year 2012.
Figure 3: Mycelium and spores of Fusarium moniliforme isolated from
pokkah boeng.
Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013) Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb
4: 170 doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
Page 4 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 3 • 1000170
J Plant Pathol Microb
ISSN:2157-7471 JPPM, an open access journal
host tissues for some time and then emerges out through the cells to the
outer surface and develops acervuli. Rains and heavy dews usually wash
the acervuli developed on nodes and internodes and the spores get
lodged around the nodes behind the leaf sheath. e spores germinate
and the mycelium gets established in bud scales, root primordial or leaf
scars and later within the plant tissues. Electron microscopic of infected
leaves revealed that aer lodging of conidia and incubation of minimum
one month at the time of germination, the thin walled bulliform cells of
the epidermis are attacked and soon collapse then the older cells of the
epidermis are attacked [12]. From the epidermal cells, the hyphae enter
the underlying tissues. Changes in the structure of stomata were also
observed in the infected leaves but there was no evidence found for the
entry of pathogen through stomata.
Host range
Fusarium moniliforme associated with a wide range of hosts such
as banana [35], corn [12], cotton [31], mango [36], sugarcane and
other important crops [37]. e F. moniliforme causes the disease in
maize, sorghum, rice and sugarcane, and produce dierent mycotoxins
(fumonisins, moniliformin and beauvericin). It was reported from
Gramineae family along with 31 other families of plants [38]. e
Pokkah Boeng pathogen also attacks sorghum and had been reported
that the disease was caused by F. moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi) [5].
Fungus infects a wide range of species including monocotyledons and
dicotyledons causing various diseases such as seedling blight, scorch,
stalk and root rot, abnormal stunting or hypertrophy. Pokkah Boeng
disease of sugarcane has associated with several diseases of sugarcane
such as sett rot, root rot [39], wilt [40,41] and knife cut [42,43].
Transmission and viability of pathogen
Basically it is an air-borne disease and primarily transmitted
through the air-circulation and secondary infection takes place
through the infected setts, irrigation water, splashed rains and soil.
e pathogen (F. Moniliforme) can survive for 12 months in the plant
debris under natural conditions and can remain viable for more than 10
months under laboratory conditions (http://www.vsisugar.com/india/
agriculture_divisions/plantpathology/pokkaboengdisease-sugarcane.
htm). Fungus could not grow at 50°C but it remained viable for at least
six months. It is also reported that the survival of a F. moniliforme can
observed for 12 months, although incidence is noticed low aer nine
months. Under natural conditions, maximum survival occurred more
than 11 months at 30 cm in soil. Cool and dry conditions favoured the
survival of a fungus in plant debris [43]. Disease may also spread from
seeds contaminated with the fungus [11]. Pokkah Boeng pathogen is
transmitted by spore movement from one locality to another by air
currents and will colonised on leaves, owers and stems of the plants
[44]. Dispersal of spores depends on the environmental condition
(windy day, rainy day or dry day) that require dierent strategies to
disperse. Two mechanisms describe by Deacon [45] for the dispersal
of the fungal spores: i) Fungus that disperse by rainsplace are based on
the “puand “tapmechanism that will cause the dry spore become
airborne and usually the spores are curved like Fusarium species. ii)
Fungi that grow on leaf surfaces and produces chains of spore can
be removed by wind, by mist-laden air or by hygroscopic (drying)
movements that cause spore to buckle. Hot and dry weather will lead
to the opening of leaves between partially unfolded leaves that provide
an opportunity for airborne conidia to settle on the leaves [45]. When
the rains start, the conidia are washed down to the susceptible parts of
the spindles along the margin of a partially unfolded leaves where they
germinate. e conidia germinate and the mycelium can pass through
the so cuticle of young leaves to the inner tissues because the epidermis
tissues are still fragile and not protected by the plant system [46]. e
mycelium spreads to vascular bundles of the immature stem and blocks
the vessels that eventually leads to growth distortions and rupture
and the development shows the ladder-like lesions [47]. Bourne [48]
reported that the pupae and adults of sugarcane stem borers also can
spread the fungus. e top borer known as Chilo spp. oen results in a
distortion and shortening of the leaves which is similar to that caused
by Pokkah Boeng disease [46].
Eect of environmental factors
Temperature is an important natural factor governing the
distribution of a pathogen and it grows and sporulates luxuriantly in
a temperature range of 20-30°C in both in-vitro and in-vivo condition.
Minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for growth of
pathogen are 10-15°C, 30°C and 35-40°C, respectively. e severe
incidence of the disease occurred in the range of temperature between
20°C-32°C with high humidity up to 70-80% and cloudy weather in
rainy season from July to September. We also found the incidence of
the disease in month of July to September when humidity range from
79.0-85.5, temperature ranging 29.0-30ºC and rain fall is high (Table
2). Temperature ranging from 20-30°C and humidity ranging from 75-
85% is the best suitable for the growth of Fusarium pathogen [36].
Control management
Spraying of dierent fungicides like Bavistin (1 gm/lit. of water)
or Blitox (0.2%) or Copper oxychloride or 0.3% Dithane M-45 (3 gm/L
of water) are the eective for reducing the Pokkah Boeng disease [43].
Two to three sprayings with an interval of 15 days interval reduces the
multiplication of a pathogen and losses in yield and quality of cane
and therefore, paired row or wider spacing planting of sugarcane is
necessary to facilitate the plant protection operations. Canes showing
top rot’ or ‘knife cutshould be rouged out from the elds as they are
shown. Planting of healthy seed material/use of resistant verities and
follow of Integrated Disease Management practices are the best way
to prevent disease incidence [49]. F. moniliforme can be disseminated
horizontally by airborne spores or crop debris and vertically through
the seed pieces. So it is important to uses of resistant varieties and
fungicide applications. Both the processes for controlling, is limited and
there is increasing need for novel and environmentally sound strategies
to control this and other diseases of sugarcane. Burkholderia isolates
from sugarcane plants is a crucial step toward further development
of these isolates for biological control of Pokkah Boeng and other
sugarcane diseases. e endophytic bacteria community associated
with sugarcane harbours multiple genera with potential for plant
growth promotion and disease control [50].
Acknowledgement
First author is grateful to Dr. G.P. Rao, Principal Scientist, Division of Plant
Pathology, IARI, New Delhi for their valuable suggestions and Dr. Ram Ji Lal,
Principal Scientist, Crop Protection Division, IISR, Lucknow for providing literature
to compile manuscript.
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Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013) Pokkah Boeng: An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb
4: 170 doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000170
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J Plant Pathol Microb
ISSN:2157-7471 JPPM, an open access journal
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Citation: Vishwakarma SK, Kumar P, Nigam A, Singh A, Kumar A (2013) Pokkah Boeng:
An Emerging Disease of Sugarcane. J Plant Pathol Microb 4: 170 doi:10.4172/2157-
7471.1000170
... Sugarcane considers a major source of sugar for human consumption in addition to a major energy commodity in the world (Viswanathan et al., 2017). It is susceptible to a variety of microorganism attacks, including Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Ceratocystis paradoxa and others, which have resulted in major losses in sugar and cane yield Vishwakarma et al. (2013). Knife-cut signs are the fourth stage of pokkah boeng disease, which is caused in various countries by Fusarium sacchari, F. subglutinans, F. fujikuroi, F. verticillioides, F. semitectum, F. proliferatum and F. andiyazi (Lin et al., 2015;Hilton et al., 2017;Viswanathan et al., 2017). ...
... The fourth stage of pokkah boeng disease on plants of sugarcane is knifecut symptoms. Pokkah boeng disease upon sugarcane can result in 38% yield losses and 90% infection in susceptible varieties (Vishwakarma et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2014). Knife-cut signs are observed during extreme disease manifestations, in which organisminfected stalks display a number of symptoms, including reduced internodes (Viswanathan, 2020). ...
... The virulence of the sugarcane varieties tested varied from strong to poor. Vishwakarma et al. (2013) investigate the economic importance, infection, and symptoms of Knife-cut lessons on sugarcane varieties. Knife-cut effects have been identified in a variety of forms. ...
... El rendimiento de este cultivo es afectado por enfermedades como la de pokkah boeng o enfermedad del cogollo retorcido, en donde el patógeno penetra el tejido de la planta a través de orificios naturales o lesiones presentes ocasionando una infección caracterizada por la aparición de manchas cloróticas hacia la base de las hojas jóvenes. En los casos agudos, la infección continúa bajando por la hoja y penetra por el punto de crecimiento del tallo provocando su distorsión y presentando lesiones externas e internas parecidas a cortes, en la etapa tardía de la infección las hojas se deforman, en su base las hojas se arrugan, tuercen y pudren, aparecen manchas y rayas rojizas, en la última etapa el punto de crecimiento de la planta se pudre y esta muere (Wishwakarma et al., 2013;Jeyakumar y Zhang, 2020). ...
... La enfermedad afecta a casi todas las variedades de caña de azúcar (Wishwakarma et al., 2013), provoca la reducción de los niveles de macro y micronutrientes en el tallo y las hojas enfermas, afecta el peso, el desarrollo de los entrenudos y la acumulación de azúcares en el jugo (Singh et al., 2006), lo que causa la disminución de la calidad del cultivo cosechado (Dohare et al., 2003) y por consiguiente del jugo de sacarosa que se utiliza para la producción del azúcar y otras materias primas. ...
... La variedad My 55-14 presentó coloración café rojizo tanto en el entrenudo como en el resto del tallo, tornándose negro el centro de la lesión, color característico del tejido necrótico, la coloración de los bordes fue marrón (Figura 3D-E), malformaciones del tallo y brotación de yemas laterales se produjeron también. Los síntomas presentados por las plantas en campo, así como los presentados por los tallos inoculados en laboratorio, coinciden con lo reportado por Nordahliawate et al. (2008); Wishwakarma et al. (2013) para la enfermedad de pokkah boeng causada por F. sacchari. De acuerdo con Nordahliawate et al. (2008), sólo F. sacchari causa la enfermedad de pokkah boeng, otras especies como F. proliferation y F. subglutinans no son patogénicas para el cultivo de caña de azúcar; sin embargo, las especies de F. proliferatum y F. verticillioides se reportaron como agentes causales del pokkah boeng en caña de azúcar en Veracruz (Rosas-Guevara et al., 2014). ...
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La caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum) es uno de los principales cultivos que se producen en el mundo, México es el sexto productor a nivel mundial, mientras que San Luis Potosí ocupa el tercer lugar en producción a nivel nacional. Se recolectaron plantas de caña de azúcar con síntomas de marchitez semejantes a los originados por la enfermedad de pokkah boeng en campos cañeros de la Huasteca Potosina. Esta enfermedad conocida como cogollo retorcido, es causada por algunas especies del género Fusarium y provoca pérdidas económicas por la disminución de la calidad del cultivo cosechado. A partir de los tallos de estas plantas se obtuvieron dos aislados de hongos con características morfológicas típicas de Fusarium sp. La identificación de los aislamientos se realizó a través de las características morfológicas de los macroconidios, microconidios y las características de la colonia. La identificación molecular de la especie se llevó a cabo mediante la secuenciación de las regiones de los genes ITS, β-tubulina (BT) y factor de elongación (TEF). Se cumplieron los postulados de Koch para los aislamientos obtenidos mediante inoculación en las variedades de caña de azúcar My 55 y Mex 79-431. La caracterización morfo-molecular de los aislamientos identificó a Fusarium sacchari como el agente causal de la enfermedad. Hasta donde se sabe, este es el primer informe de Fusarium sacchari como agente causal de la enfermedad de pokkah boeng en caña de azúcar en la región de la Huasteca Potosina.
... Quality degradation and yield reduction of sugarcane in ACZ5 over the last decade is a matter of concern. It was found that Pokkah Boeng of sugarcane (causal organism: Fusarium moniliformae) has become a major threat to sugarcane during the recent decade, showing an increasing trend of disease incidence and making most of the commercial cultivars susceptible (Vishwakarma et al. 2013) [40] . They also reported that the severity of the airborne disease Pokkah Boeng incidence increases manifold under cloudy weather and high humidity up to 70-80% with favourable temperature during the rainy season (June, July, August and September) in ACZ5. ...
... Quality degradation and yield reduction of sugarcane in ACZ5 over the last decade is a matter of concern. It was found that Pokkah Boeng of sugarcane (causal organism: Fusarium moniliformae) has become a major threat to sugarcane during the recent decade, showing an increasing trend of disease incidence and making most of the commercial cultivars susceptible (Vishwakarma et al. 2013) [40] . They also reported that the severity of the airborne disease Pokkah Boeng incidence increases manifold under cloudy weather and high humidity up to 70-80% with favourable temperature during the rainy season (June, July, August and September) in ACZ5. ...
... Pokkah boeng is now a severe fungal infection that affects sugarcane worldwide (Siddique 2007;Srivastava et al. 2019Srivastava et al. , 2020. Disease severity in different sugarcane cultivars ranged from 5 to 90% (Vishwakarma et al. 2013). It can result in a significant quality decline in high sugar-yielding cultivars, decreasing the sugar content by 40.8-64.5% (Siti Nordahliawate et al. 2008;Tiwari et al. 2021). ...
Chapter
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Sugarcane is grown by small, medium, and large rural farmers in several countries around the globe. In addition, the primary objective is to increase cane yield, sugar recovery and sustainably improve the livelihoods of cane farmers. For producing a large amount of biomass and sugarcane, crop extracts a large amount of nutrients from the soil and accumulate in the plant. The regular harvesting of natural resources consequently from the soil mitigates a high amount of nutrients. Therefore, there is always a need to replace these nutrients with other sources of fertilization. Soil textural properties and fertility status under changing climatic conditions also play an important role. Several alternatives can be utilized to increase the sustainable nutrient use efficiency of both macro and micronutrients to make a balance for the profitability of the crop. Two of these natural alternatives are the use of green and organic manure, i.e., press mud and farmyard manure. This chapter aims to develop an integrated nutrient management approach for the global cane farmers that would improve the quality and productivity of the canes and improve water, nutrients, and pesticide use efficiencies.
... Pokkah boeng is now a severe fungal infection that affects sugarcane worldwide (Siddique 2007;Srivastava et al. 2019Srivastava et al. , 2020. Disease severity in different sugarcane cultivars ranged from 5 to 90% (Vishwakarma et al. 2013). It can result in a significant quality decline in high sugar-yielding cultivars, decreasing the sugar content by 40.8-64.5% (Siti Nordahliawate et al. 2008;Tiwari et al. 2021). ...
Chapter
Sugarcane is a strategic cash crop having a deep impact on social and governmental issues on many people around the globe. Rapid climatic change and intensification as mono-culture cropping of sugarcane, world trade, and extensive use of chemical products have amplified the risk of regular recurrence of disease/pest outbreaks and incursions. Any sugarcane variety development program must consider adaptation to biotic stressors. Understanding the causes of biotic stress resistance implies knowledge of sugarcane taxonomy. Various wild species are still being studied for their ability to withstand biotic stresses. The major issues involving the most widely spread diseases, such as ratoon stunting, rust, and smut, as well as its history and explanation, have been thoroughly examined. Plants respond to pathogen infection by upregulating the expression of glucanases, chitinases, thaumatins, peptidase inhibitors, defensins, catalases, and glycoproteins, among other proteins. Pathogen-induced proteins are engaged in plant defense either directly or indirectly, resulting in pathogen death or generating additional plant defense responses. Effective management of pests/diseases in sugarcane agroecosystems is based on integrated crop managing scenarios. This chapter focuses on agricultural practices and their influence on pests/disease, biological, chemical control, transgenic varieties, and the use of GIS in sugarcane integrated pest management.
... However, we note an increasing concern of foliar diseases in sugarcane due to minor diseases becoming major diseases. For example, pokkah boeng was a minor disease in past decades [7], but it has become a major disease in India [8,9]. The first severe outbreaks of brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala on sugarcane were reported in 1978 in Florida [10] and recently reported in India [11]. ...
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The sexual morph Leptosphaeria taiwanensis Yen and Chi and its asexual morph Stagonospora tainanensis W. H. Hsieh is an important necrotrophic fungal phytopathogen, which causes sugarcane leaf blight, resulting in loss of cane tonnage and sucrose in susceptible sugarcane varieties. Decoding the genome and understanding of the basis of virulence is vitally important for devising effective disease control strategies. Here, we present a 38.25-Mb high-quality genome assembly of S. tainanensis strain StFZ01, denovo assembled with 10.19 Gb Nanopore sequencing long reads (~267×) and 3.82 Gb Illumina short reads (~100×). The genome assembly consists of 12 contigs with N50 of 2.86 Mb of which 5 belong to the telomere to telomere (T2T) chromosome. It contains 13.20% repeat sequences, 12,543 proteins, and 12,206 protein-coding genes with the BUSCO completeness 99.18% at fungi (n = 758) and 99.87% at ascomycota (n = 1706), indicating the high accuracy and completeness of our gene annotations. The virulence analysis in silico revealed the presence of 2379 PHIs, 599 CAZys, 248 membrane transport proteins, 191 cytochrome P450 enzymes, 609 putative secreted proteins, and 333 effectors in the StFZ01 genome. The genomic resources presented here will not only be helpful for development of specific molecular marker and diagnosis technique, population genetics, molecular taxonomy, and disease managements, it can also provide a significant precise genomic reference for investigating the ascomycetous genome, the necrotrophic lifestyle, and pathogenicity in the future.
... PB affected canes recorded a considerable decline in sugarcane production and sugar yield parameters (Dohare et al. 2003;Singh et al. 2006). The disease severity with 1-90% disease incidences on most of the commercial varieties were recorded during 2007-2013 in Uttar Pradesh state, which cultivates more than 50% of sugarcane in India (Vishwakarma et al. 2013). Further, the disease drastically reduces internodal elongation in the stalks ). ...
Chapter
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp hybrid) is grown across the continents, principally for white sugar and bioethanol. It is a C4 plant, generates highest amount of biomass among the cultivated crops, and meets nearly 80% of the global white sugar requirement. The modern cultivated sugarcane is a derivative of Saccharum officinarum (noble canes) and the wild relative, S. spontaneum. Worldwide, breeding strategies have improved sugarcane yield till 1970s and later cane yield remained static across the countries. Many biotic constraints seriously affect productivity of the crop which is specific to cane growing countries. Among the diseases, smut, ratoon stunting, yellow leaf and mosaic are the major constraints in most of the countries. The diseases like red rot and wilt seriously affect cane production in South and South East Asian countries with many historic red rot epiphytotics causing huge crop losses in India. Similarly, the phytoplasma diseases, grassy shoot and white leaf are serious constraints in Asian region. Recently, the diseases like rusts, pokkah boeng, red stripe etc. emerged as major diseases in different countries. Among the insect pests, stalk borers are ubiquitous in nature with serious economic losses and each country or region has unique group of borer pests. Apart from the borer pests, many sucking pests and root grub are also of serious concern to sugarcane cultivation. Among the management strategies, host resistance is successfully exploited against various diseases and healthy seed, heat treatment, and chemicals are the other management strategies adopted in tandem. In case of insect pests, an integrated management is followed with more emphasis on biological control and chemicals depending on the pests and the location. Though remarkable gains were achieved through breeding strategies, complex polyploidy hinders genetic advancements for various traits in sugarcane. Recently, various genomic tools, especially transcriptomics were applied to understand gene functions and molecular markers are partially successful. Although, genetic transformation was successful in developing many transgenic lines against various biotic constraints, application of genome editing is in nascent stage due to multiple alleles. Overall, the various biotic constraints are managed through host resistance and other strategies in an integrated approach. Genomic applications have helped to understand genomes of the crop and pathogens/insects and, host resistance and genetic engineering supports trait improvement.
... This filamentous fungus can infect various crops since it has a broad host range which includes rice, wheat, almost all horticultural crops, ornamentals and almost all other agricultural commodities (Supyani and Widadi 2015). Many economically important diseases are caused by Fusarium species such as rot of apples (Riad and Zeidan 2015), sugarcane wilt by Fusarium sacchari (Lin et al. 2014), Pokkah Boeng in sugarcane by Fusarium moniliforme (Vishwakarma et al. 2013), Bakanae in rice by Fusarium fujikuroi (Jain et al. 2014), oil palm wilt by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaidis (Rusli et al. 2015) and panama disease by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ...
Infection of fungi with mycoviruses can lead to hypovirulence and control the pathogenicity of fungus causing diseases in crops. In the present study, ten Fusarium isolates with reduced mycelia growth were obtained from mulberry twigs buried in the rhizosphere of apple trees in Himachal Pradesh. All isolates except isolate 2 of Fusarium led to complete fruit rotting after 12 days of spore inoculation. After curing of Fusarium isolate 2, culture exhibited normal morphology, pigmentation, and growth rate. Fusarium strain cured for mycovirus was found to be more pathogenic as compared to uncured strain. The growth and pathogenicity phenotype were not fully restored in comparison to wild type. This study thus documents the presence of hypovirulence associated mycoviruses in Fusarium sp. isolated from apple rhizosphere of Himachal Pradesh. Recently, mycovirus induced hypovirulence has gained a lot of attention worldwide.
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Maize is a widely grown cereal crop in India and ranks third to wheat and rice in production (https://iimr.icar.gov.in). During a field survey in Kharif season in 2018, foliar chlorosis at the base and middle of leaves, and twisted top symptoms were observed in 40-50 days old maize plants in Belagavi district, Karnataka, India. Again during Kharif season in 2021, similar symptoms were observed on commercial maize hybrids and sugarcane at Agricultural Research Station, Sankeshwar Karnataka. The symptoms resembled Pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane (Vishwakarma et al. 2013). Symptomatic sugarcane and maize leaves were sampled, surface sterilized with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, and 70% ethanol, and transferred on Potato dextrose agar, incubated for 10 days at 27±1°C. Fungal growth initiated with white mycelium later turned to pinkish-white with hyaline spores. The morphological features and sporulation patterns of maize and sugarcane samples were similar (e-Xtra 1). Microconidia were formed in long chains and clusters with oval to club-shaped, 0-septate, monophialide-borne microspores. DNA from representative pure culture isolates was extracted using the CTAB protocol (Doyle and Doyle, 1990). The ITS region of r-DNA was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers and sequenced. BLAST analyses of sequences of maize and sugarcane culture isolates at NCBI database revealed 100% homology with Fusarium verticillioides MK264336 (Lin et al., 2016). PCR amplification with Fusarium verticilliodes specific primers VER1/VER2 (Mule et al., 2004) confirmed the organism. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre's Fusarium MLST database also revealed over 98.89% homology with Fusarium verticilliodes (NRRL 46612). The fungal isolates were named Fusarium verticilliodes maize isolate SNK 01 (ON110289) and Fusarium verticilliodes sugarcane isolate SNK 01 (ON564879), and their sequences were deposited in the GenBank. To test pathogenicity, artificial inoculation using maize isolate SNK 01 and cross-inoculation of sugarcane isolate SNK 01 were done on ten maize plants by spraying a conidial suspension (2×106 conidia ml-1) on nonwounded leaves. The plants sprayed with sterile water were used as control. After ten days, typical Pokkah boeng symptoms were observed in the plants inoculated with both maize and sugarcane isolates. Diseased leaves turned pale yellowish-green with small brown spots and a chlorotic appearance, further, these developed into stripes (e-Xtra 2). Wrinkling of leaves was noticed followed by splitting and rotting. No symptoms were noticed in the water-treated control. The pathogens re-isolated from diseased plants inoculated with maize and sugarcane isolates were similar morphologically and identical to the original isolates, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Hitherto, Fusarium verticilliodes was known to cause post-flowering stalk rot in maize. However, this is the first report of Pokkah boeng disease on maize in India caused by F. verticillioides. Considering the economic value of the maize crop, this identification can help develop appropriate disease management strategies to control the disease. References Lee, S. B., et al. 1988. A rapid, high yield mini-prep method for isolation of total genomic DNA from fungi. Fungal Genet. Newsl. 35:23-24. Lin, Z., et al. 2016. Deciphering transcriptomic response of Fusarium verticillioides in relation to nitrogen availability and the development of sugarcane Pokkah boeng disease. Sci. Rep. 6, 29692. Mule, G., et al. 2004. A Species-Specific PCR assay based on the Calmodulin partial gene for identification of Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. European J. Plant Path. 110:495-502 Vishwakarma, S.K., et al. 2013. Pokkah Boeng: an emerging disease of sugarcane. J. Plant Pathol. Microb. 4(3):170. https://iimr.icar.gov.in. Director's desk, ICAR-Indian Institute of Maize Research. (Accessed September 8, 2022).
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Malt extract agar was found to be the best medium for the growth of Fusarium moniliforme. A temperature range of 15 - 20 o c and pH level of 6.5 favoured the rapid mycelial growth of this pathogen. Effect of different nitrogen and carbon sources on the growth of the fungus was highly variable. Maximum mycelial growth of thé fungus was observed when potassium nitrate and galactose were used as N and C sources respectively.
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Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane has been recorded in almost all countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. The objectives of this study were to survey the distribution of Fusarium sacchari associated with pokkah boeng disease throughout Peninsular Malaysia, to isolate and identify the causal organisms by using morphological characteristics, and to ascertain the pathogenicity of F. sacchari based on Koch's postulates. A total of 58 strains of F. sacchari were obtained throughout sugarcane plantations, small holders and household compounds within seven states i.e. Kedah, Perlis, Penang, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and Johor in Peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of F. sacchari strains was obtained from Kedah (48%), followed by Perlis (25%), Penang (3%), Pahang (3%), Kelantan (5%), Terengganu (8%) and Johor (8%). For identification off. sacchari, carnation leaves agar (CLA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media were used with emphasis for characterizations of colony features, growth rates, shapes and sizes of macroconidia and microconidia, conidiogeneous cells and chlamydospores. In plant house pathogenicity tests, healthy seedlings of sugarcane cultivar PS-81-362 were inoculated by injection and soaking techniques with conidial suspension (2×10 6 conidia/ ml) of selected strains of F. sacchari, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. All strains of F. sacchari tested were pathogenic to sugarcane plants with disease severity index (DSI) varying from 0.3 to 5.0 (0 for no visible symptoms and 5 for plants with symptoms of twisted, wrinkled and shortened leaves or death). There were no significant (p≥0.05) difference in DSI caused by strains of F. sacchari on variety PS-81-362 for both inoculation techniques, although they were significantly different compared with the control. This knowledge would be invaluable in developing our understanding on the interaction between F. sacchari with the host plants.
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F. moniliforme var. subglutinans (Fms) colonies were isolated from different portions of the normal and malformed panicles for the mapping/recovery. It was found that the Fms colonies were recovered both from normal as well as malformed panicles. It was significant to note that it's per cent recovery of F. moniliforme var. subglutinans significantly lower in normal panicles compared to malformed panicles. In below base portion of the panicles, while the Fms colonies were 33.33 per cent in normal panicles, it was 56.66 per cent in malformed panicles. It was inferred from the data that while 56.66 per cent population below base in the panicle could cause symptom production of malformation, 33.33 per cent population could not cause malformation. The threshold level above about 50 per cent in the below base portion may be responsible for the cause of the malformation. Mapping of F. moniliforme var. subglutinans population was also done in the entire vegetative malformed seedling. Seedlings were divided into six portions i.e. root, base of the shoot, middle portion of the main shoot, joint portion of lateral branches, lateral branch, top of the branch and isolations were done for the recovery of Fms colonies. It was found that Fms were isolated from root portion also, though it's recovery per cent only 8. The population increased in the upper portions and at the base of the shoot, it was 16 per cent, while it significantly increased in the upper portions. It was also interesting to note that in vegetative malformed portion it's population was above 64 per cent.
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