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This study aimed to clarify the validity of the short scale of Transformational Leadership used by the Human System Audit (short HSA-TFL). The need of today’s enterprises for combined assessment of transformational leadership and quality-related performance in wider contexts requires short instruments based on scientific research. Convergent, construct and criterion validity of the short HSA-TFL were analyzed. Comparison of the short HSA-TFL with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X) showed high convergent validity. Exploratory factor analysis with hospital workers in Spain (N=625) showed the single factor structure of the Spanish version of the HSA-TFL. Confirmatory factor analysis using three further samples of hospital workers (N= 776) from different european countries confirmed a single factor. As regards criterion validity, the results indicated that the short HSA-TFL is positively related in all four countries to subjective performance. In sum, the results provide empirical evidence for the validity of the short HSA-TFL scale.
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Univ. Psychol. Bogotá, colomBia v. 10 no. 3 PP. 657-668 seP-dic 2011 issn 1657-9267 657
Validity of the Human System Audit
Transformational Leadership Short Scale
(HSA-TFL) in four european countries
Validez de la escala corta de Liderazgo Transformacional
en el marco de la Auditoría del Sistema Humano
en cuatro países europeos (HSA-TFL)
Recibido: julio 19 de 2010 Revisado: septiembre 3 de 2010 Aceptado: septiembre 10 de 2010
Rita BeRgeR
*
MontseRRat Yepes
Juana góMez-Benito
**
santiago QuiJano
Universidad de Barcelona, España
Felix C. BRodBeCk
**
Ludwig-Maximillians Universität, München, Alemania
aBstRaCt
This study aimed to clarify the validity of the short scale of Transformational
Leadership used by the Human System Audit (short HSA-TFL). The need of
today’s enterprises for combined assessment of transformational leadership
and quality-related performance in wider contexts requires short instruments
based on scientific research. Convergent, construct and criterion validity of
the short HSA-TFL were analyzed. Comparison of the short HSA-TFL
with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X) showed high
convergent validity. Exploratory factor analysis with hospital workers in
Spain (N=625) showed the single factor structure of the Spanish version
of the HSA-TFL. Confirmatory factor analysis using three further samples
of hospital workers (N= 776) from different european countries confirmed
a single factor. As regards criterion validity, the results indicated that the
short HSA-TFL is positively related in all four countries to subjective per-
formance. In sum, the results provide empirical evidence for the validity of
the short HSA-TFL scale.
Key words authors
Construct validity, short scale, transformational leadership.
Key words plus
Human relations, leadership, psychometry.
Re s u M e n
La necesidad de las empresas de evaluar el liderazgo transformacional en
un contexto amplio y combinado con rendimiento de calidad, requiere
instrumentos cortos y, al mismo tiempo, basados en evidencia científica. El
objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la validez (convergente, de constructo
y de criterio) de la escala corta del Liderazgo Transformacional, usada por
la Auditoria del Sistema Humano (short HSA-TFL). La comparación con
el Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X) aportó valores de alta
validez convergente. El análisis factorial exploratorio con empleados del
sector sanitario en España (N = 625) del HSA-TFL, sugiere una estructura
unifactorial, que fue confirmada mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio,
realizado con otras tres muestras de empleados del sector hospitalario de
varios países europeos (N = 776). Asimismo, los resultados muestran, en
los cuatro países, una relación positiva del HSA-TFL con el rendimiento
SICI: 1657-9267(201112)10:3<657:HSATFL>2.3.TX;2-S
Para citar este artículo. Berger, R., Yepes, M., Gó-
mez-Benito, J., Quijano, S. & Brodbeck, F. (2011).
Validity of the Human System Audit Transforma-
tional Leadership Short Scale (HSA-TFL) in four
european countries. Universitas Psychologica, 10 (3),
657-668.
* Departamento de Psicología Social, Facultad de
Psicología, Passeig Vall d’Hebron, 171, 08035
Barcelona, España. E-mails: ritaberger@ub.edu,
myepes@ub.edu, sdiazdequijano@ub.edu
** Departamento de Metodología de las Ciencias del
Comportamiento, Facultad de Psicología. Passeig
Vall d’Hebron, 171, 08035 Barcelona, España. Ins-
tituto de Investigación en Cerebro, Cognición y
Conducta (IR3C), Universidad de Barcelona. E-
-mail: juanagomez@ub.edu
*** Leopoldstraße 13, Zi. 3204, Pf. 1, D-80802 Mün-
chen, Deutschland (Alemania). E-mail: brodbeck@
lmu.de
Rita BeRgeR, Mon ts eR Rat Yepes, Juana góMez-Be ni to , santiag o QuiJano, Fe li x BRodBeck
658 Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011
subjetivo (validez de criterio). En conclusión, la versión
breve del HSA-TFL es válida para el análisis del liderazgo
transformacional.
Palabras clave autores
Validez de constructo, escala corta, liderazgo transformacional.
Palabras clave descriptores
Relaciones humanas, liderazgo, psicometría.
The concept of transformational leadership is of
particular relevance to the enterprises of today’s
complex world (Jung, Chow & Wu, 2003). The
most well-known operationalization of this con-
cept, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
(MLQ), was developed by Bass (1985). However,
despite the considerable interest in Bass’ transfor-
mational leadership (TFL) concept, some aspects
have been subject to intense debate. One of the
most important of these is the ambiguity concer-
ning the differentiation and number of sub-dimen-
sions of Bass’ transformational leadership model.
Furthermore, very strong relationships have been
reported between the transformational leadership
factors (Avolio, Bass & Jung, 1999; Carless, 1998;
Tejeda, Scandura & Pillai, 2001). Enterprises today
have an increased need for combined assessment
of leadership and quality-related aspects of perfor-
mance (Lowe, Kroeck & Sivasubramaniam, 1996;
Molero, Cuadrado, Navas & Morales, 2007). To
meet these needs it is necessary to develop a valid
instrument that is easy and quick to apply (Carless,
Wearing & Mann, 2000), based on scientific re-
search (Felfe, 2006) and which leads to recommen-
dations for performance-related development and
intervention for leadership in a wider organizational
context. This was the main aim of the present study.
Following these ideas we consider transformational
leadership theory in the interest of today’s organi-
zations and conclude that there is a need for a TFL
short scale. The short HSA-TFL scale is part of the
organizational behavior conceptual framework of
the Human System Audit (HSA) (Quijano, 2006).
Transformational leadership theory in
the interest of today’s organizations
Bass (1985) based his theory of transformational
leadership on Burns’s (1978) conceptualization,
with several modifications. Following Bass (1985),
the four dimensions of transformational leadership
are charisma or idealized influence, inspirational
motivation, intellectual stimulation, and indivi-
dualized consideration.
After more than 25 years of accumulated re-
search evidence the effectiveness of transforma-
tional leadership is acknowledged throughout the
literature. Empirical studies show that transforma-
tional facets have a stronger relationship to success
and to both individual and organizational outcome
criteria (Zhu, Chew & Spangler, 2005) than do
transactional scales (Lowe et al., 1996). Several
meta-analyses have also provided evidence for the
criterion-related validity of transformational and
charismatic leadership (Dumdum, Lowe & Avolio,
2002; Fuller, Patterson, Hester & Stringer, 1996;
Judge & Piccolo, 2004), which consistently showed
a positive impact on both subjective (Lowe et al.,
1996) and objective (Barling, Weber & Kelloway,
1996; Geyer & Steyrer, 1998) performance criteria.
Transformational leadership behavior has been
empirically linked to increased employee (e.g.,
Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman & Fetter, 1990)
and job satisfaction (Nemanicha & Seller, 2007),
organizational commitment (e.g. Bycio, Hackett &
Allen, 1995), supervisor-rated performance, extra
effort (e.g. Seltzer & Bass, 1990), overall emplo-
yee (e.g. Yammarino, Spangler & Bass, 1993) and
unit performance (Bass, Avolio, Jung & Berson,
2003) and organizational effectiveness (Lowe et
al., 1996). Given the need of today’s organizations
for combined assessment of quality-related aspects
of performance (Quijano, Navarro, Yepes, Berger
& Romeo, 2008) the importance for organizations
of transformational leadership behavior (Molero et
al., 2007) in wider practical and cultural contexts
seems obvious. The well-known MLQ (Bass, 1985)
is rather long and this makes it difficult to use in
practical circumstances. Moreover, from the scien-
tific point of view, some authors (Burchell & Marsh,
1992) also report that refusal to participate in as-
sessments could be influenced by the length of the
questionnaire, and it thus seems necessary to have
a reduced set of items to measure transformational
leadership. These practical reasons can be consi-
Val id ez de la es ca la co rta d e liderazgo t ransformacional
Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011 659
dered to outweigh the psychometric advantages
of a longer scale (Muck, Hell & Gosling, 2007).
Mixed empirical support for the
transformational leadership model
as developed by Bass (1985, 1995)
Despite the effectiveness of transformational lea-
dership its proposed structure has proved highly
controversial (e.g., Deluga & Souza, 1991; Rafferty
& Griffin, 2004; Tejeda et al., 2001; Tepper & Per-
cy, 1994; Tracey & Hinkin, 1998). Past research
on transformational leadership placed the empha-
sis on a more differentiated model of this style of
leadership (Bass & Avolio, 1995), although high
correlations between the transformational scales
have often been addressed in the literature (Avolio
et al., 1999; Bycio et al., 1995; Carless, 1998; Den
Hartog, Van Muijen & Koopman, 1997).
As a result of the mixed empirical support for
a differentiated transformational model, authors
such as Carless (1998) and Tepper and Percy
(1994) have argued that research should examine
the higher-order factors of transformational leader-
ship rather than the individual components of the
model. Given this mixed empirical support for the
four-factor-model of transformational leadership
it is worth investigating its structure when using
the concept for performance-related assessment.
Overview of the present study
Taking these findings into account the objective of
the present study was to clarify empirically the evi-
dence for the validity of the Spanish version of the
short scale for transformational leadership (short
HSA-TFL-ES) developed as part of the Human
System Audit framework (Quijano et al., 2008).
Evidence of validity was based on different sources.
First, to analyze convergent validity, we compared
the short HSA-TFL to the MLQ. Secondly, we
analyzed the dimensionality of the scale by con-
ducting an exploratory factor analysis using a Spa-
nish sample. To confirm the structure of the scale,
confirmatory factor analysis was applied using
three samples (one from the United Kingdom, one
from Poland and one from Portugal). Following
Den Hartog, House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla
and Dorfman (1999) we expect for the HSA-TFL
short scale for transformation leadership a univer-
sal construct across cultures. The criterion validity
of this short HSA-TFL was subsequently assessed
using subjective criteria variables (satisfaction,
commitment and identification). In line with the
results of other studies (Bycio et al., 1995; Lowe et
al., 1996; Nemanicha & Seller, 2007; Podsakoff et
al., 1990) our hypothesis is that transformational
leadership is positively related in all four european
countries to satisfaction, commitment and iden-
tification. We also based evidence for validity on
internal consistency.
Methods
Participants
Data were collected from four samples. The first
sample, which was used for exploratory factor
analysis, consisted of employees from a medium-
sized hospital in Spain. From a total of 1094 target
participants, responses were received from 625
employees (response rate = 57.16 %). These em-
ployees assessed the transformational leadership
style of their direct leader or supervisor by respon-
ding to the HSA short scale for transformational
leadership. The professional occupations of these
participants were distributed as follows: 17 % were
doctors, 28 % nurses, 3.5 % other qualified staff,
18.2 % nursing assistants and 19 % non-healthcare
staff (19 %), with the remaining 12.2 % not falling
under any of these categories. No response was
received from 2.1 %. Of the total, 9.9 % identified
themselves as managers.
For the confirmatory factor analysis we used
three samples of 776 hospital workers, each one
from a different european country (UK, Poland and
Portugal) and comprising 50 doctors, 555 nurses
and 171 other workers, all of whom responded to
the short HSA-TFL questionnaire. As before, the
employees assessed the transformational leadership
style of their direct leader or supervisor.
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660 Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011
Measures
Transformational leadership
The Human System Audit short scale for
transformational leadership (HSA-TFL-ES)
The transformational leadership short scale (HSA-
TFL-ES) was developed as part of the Human
System Audit (Quijano et al., 2008) framework
for quality related assessment of human resources
and processes. It is designed to evaluate partici-
pants’ perceptions of their supervisors’ transfor-
mational leadership. The items reflect charisma,
inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation
and individualized consideration. The short HSA-
TFL-ES was developed from the long version of the
HSA-TFL-ES using principles such as semantic
heterogeneity of the items, content validity, and
a high level of explained variance of the items as
regards the conceptual dimensions. The content
validity of the Spanish version of the short-scale
was considered adequate. A panel of five expert
judges with extensive active research and applied
content experience judged the selected items at
the beginning of the development process. The
applied scale consists of eight items, with two for
each sub-dimension. The items are rated on a
5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (= definitely
do not agree) to 4 (= frequently, most of the time,
completely agree). The scale is also available in Po-
lish, Portuguese and English versions, which were
developed through a careful process of translation
and back-translation into Portuguese, English and
Polish by native speakers who were experts in the
field of organizational psychology. The content ex-
perts in each culture did not see a reason to modify
or add items to the existing Spanish version.
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
MLQ (5X) Spanish version
In order to test the convergent validity of the
leadership instrument (the Spanish version of the
HSA-TFL) we used the subordinates’ version of
the Spanish Multifactor Leadership Question-
naire MLQ (5X), validated by Molero (1994). This
comprises questions that are specifically phrased
for subordinates to evaluate their leader, and items
are scored on a Likert-type scale from 0 = definitely
not to 4 = frequently, most of the time.
Subjective criteria
The study included three subjective measures that
were used to analyze the criterion validity of the
HSA-TFL-ES. Respondents were asked to rate their
identification with the organization, their organi-
zational commitment (Identification/commitment
Inventory ICI) and their satisfaction with the leader
and the organization. These scales ranged from 1
(= definitely do not agree) to 5 (= completely agree)
in all four participating countries. The items for the
subjective criteria were again translated and back-
taBle 1
Description of the samples in the countries
Doctors Nurses Other TOTAL Managers*
Spain 106 (17%) 175 (28%) 344 (55%) 625 62 (9.9%)
Portugal -464 (89.2%) 56 (10.8%) 520 56 (10.8%)
Poland 37 (24%) 56 (36.4%) 61 (39.6%) 154 11 (7.1%)
United Kingdom 13 (12.7%) 35 (34.3%) 54 (52.9%) 102 59 (57.8%)
TOTAL 156 730 515 1401 188 (7.5%)
* Number and percentage of TOTAL. Source: Own work.
Val id ez de la es ca la co rta d e liderazgo t ransformacional
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translated by native speakers, who were experts in
the field of organizational psychology.
Identification/Commitment Inventory
(HSA-ICI)
The questionnaires for organizational commitment
and identification were developed by Quijano,
Navarro and Cornejo (2000). The scale for Or-
ganizational Commitment (OC) is based on the
concepts of Meyer and Allen (1991) and Mael and
Ashforth (1992). The inventory represents a holis-
tic model of OC, integrating attitudinal and beha-
vioral perspectives. Organizational Identification
(OI) is conceptually based on the ideas of O’Reilly
and Chatman (1986), Franklin (1975) and Mael
and Ashforth (1992). OI is considered as a type of
link between employees and organization, which
implies cognition, affect and desire. The question-
naire consists of twenty items. Its development and
good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s Alpha
of 0.941) are described by Romeo, Yepes, Berger,
Guàrdia, and Castro (2011).
Satisfaction Inventory (HSA-SI)
The satisfaction scale was developed by Yepes-Bal-
dó, Romeo, Berger, Díaz de Quijano, and Gómez-
Benito (under revision). It is based on the concepts
of Meliá and Peiró (1989) and Meliá, Peiró, and
Calatayud (1986). It comprises eight items that
cover satisfaction with the support and recognition
of superiors, with the relationship with colleagues,
with learning and professional development, with
the physical working conditions, with job security
and stability as regards the future, and, finally, sa-
tisfaction with salary and social benefits. The scale
presents with an alpha of Cronbach of 0.0771 a
good internal consistency, similar to that obtai-
ned by the abovementioned and other authors
(Hunt, Osborn & Schuler, 1978; Schriesheim,
1979; Schriesheim, Kinicki & Schriesheim, 1979),
as well as good validity. One factor is explaining
38.86% of the variance. The scales’ concept and
psychometric properties are reported by Yepes-
Baldó et al. (under revision).
Procedure
The questionnaires were administered to emplo-
yees of hospitals in Spain, Portugal, the United
Kingdom and Poland over a two-week period. Full
anonymity was assured and participants answered
voluntarily. Once completed the questionnaires
were returned directly to the researchers.
Statistical Analysis
To analyze the convergent validity of the short
HSA-TFL-ES the MLQ was used to correlate the
short HSA-TFL-ES with the Spanish version of the
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X).
The convergent validity of the short HSA-TFL-ES
was also assessed by testing both scales for any diffe-
rences between the means of the composite scores
of transformational leadership, using the MLQ and
the short HSA-TFL-ES in a Spanish sample of 105
hospital workers. Results were compared using
the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples,
which was chosen because the distribution of sco-
res for the HSA short-scale did not follow a normal
curve and the data are ordinal.
To explore the structure of the HSA-TFL-ES an
exploratory factor analysis with a Spanish sample of
625 hospital workers was conducted. To assess the
adequacy of the sample the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin in-
dex (KMO) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (BTS)
were calculated. The principal components extrac-
tion method was used to identify the factors that
explained the most variance and correlations. The
following criteria were established: KMO should
be greater than 0.5; BTS was set at p < 0.05; the
item loadings should be greater than 0.40; the ex-
plained variance of the first factor should be more
than 40 %; and the item-scale correlation should
be more than 0.35.
To test the explored structure and the factor va-
lidity of the leadership instrument, a confirmatory
factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with a further
sample of 776 hospital workers from Portugal, the
United Kingdom and Poland. This CFA was perfor-
med using the LISREL program, version 8.6 (Jöres-
kog & Sörbom, 2006a) in order to test whether the
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662 Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011
data supported a factor structure of four factors, or
one general factor as explored in the exploratory
factor analysis. The weighted least squares (WLS)
method was used for estimation, as recommended
by Jöreskog and Aish (1993) for ordinal data. In a
previous step, covariance matrices and asymptotic
covariance matrices were obtained by using Prelis
2, version 2.50 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2006b). Fo-
llowing the recommendations of Kaplan (2000) and
MacCallum and Austin (2000), various alternative
criteria were used to evaluate the model’s overall
goodness of fit. The following indices were used:
a) χ2 likelihood ratio statistic; b) root mean square
error of approximation (RMSEA) and its corres-
ponding 90 % confidence intervals; c) goodness of
fit index (GFI); d) non-normed fit index (NNFI);
and e) comparative fit index (CFI). Indicators of a
good fit are that χ2 is not significant; that the GFI,
NNFI and CFI have values above 0.90; and that
the RMSEA value does not exceed 0.08.
To analyze the criterion validity of the HSA-
TFL-ES its relationship with the subjective per-
formance criteria was studied using a correlation
design. Subordinates from all four countries were
asked to rate the following subjective performance
indicators: organizational commitment, organiza-
tional identification and satisfaction. The hypothe-
sis that the HSA-TFL is positively related to subjec-
tive performance in different countries was tested.
Internal consistency was evaluated as a mea-
sure of the reliability of the HSA-TFL-ES. This
was done by calculating Cronbach’s alpha, which
was considered to be the optimal method for de-
termining the internal consistency as it takes into
account the degree of covariance between the test
items. The following criterion was established: the
value of Cronbach’s alpha should be at least 0.8.
This analysis was performed with 625 Spanish
hospital workers.
Results
Dimensionality
The short HSA-TFL-ES was first studied through
exploratory factor analysis, and we therefore used
the items as indicators. When exploring the di-
mensions of the leadership short scale the following
results were obtained for the Spanish sample: ade-
quacy of the data for factor analysis was high, with
a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index of 0.936 and Bartlett’s
test of sphericity = 4005.127 (p < 0.001). Loadings
between 0.822 and 0.890 indicated that all the
items were good indicators of the construct. Princi-
pal components analysis yielded one factor, which
explained 72.78 % of the variance. The scree plot
confirmed a one-factor solution, as well as the high
item inter-correlations and item-scale correlations
(see Table 2).
The next step involved testing whether the uni-
dimensionality found in the spanish sample would
be replicated in the three other european samples,
comparing a one-factor with a four-factor model.
The factor loadings were all significant (p < 0.01)
and notably high, thus illustrating the relevance of
the corresponding item in measuring the construct
and indicating that the chosen indicators provide
a reliable measure of it. With respect to fit indices
the values were as follows: χ2 (20) = 267.63, p <
0.01; RMSEA = 0.08 (CI = 0.07-0.09); GFI =
0.99; NNFI = 0.97; CFI = 0.98. All the fit indi-
ces, apart from χ2, reached the values established
as satisfactory, since the RMSEA is 0.08 and the
GFI, NNFI and CFI are all above 0.95. Given the
large sample size used in this study, the χ2 value
may lead to the rejection of acceptable models due
to excessive power (Hayduk, 1996); therefore, we
rely only on the alternative fit indices.
We also tested whether the structure of a four-
factor model as proposed by Bass could be con-
firmed. However, the four-factor model presents
some Heywood cases, with two correlations greater
than 1 between factors. This led us to propose a
more complex model that maintains the four fac-
tors and also specifies a second-order factor that
is subject to the four primary factors. However, we
obtained the same results with this second model:
the fit indices reached good values but the model
still presented some Heywood cases, this time with
two standardized gamma values greater than 1s.
These findings led us to accept the unidimensional
model as the best representation of the data.
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Relationships with other variables
The high correlation between the HSA-TFL-ES
and the MLQ (5X) (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) sup-
ports the convergent validity between these cons-
tructs. Additionally, the comparison of average
transformational leadership scores as measured
by the HSA-TFL-ES and the MLQ reveals that
MLQ scores (X = 1.91) were almost equal to
the average transformational leadership scores
as measured by the HSA-TFL-ES (X = 1.92)
(both scale measures between 0 and 4). The Wil-
coxon signed-rank test revealed no significant
differences between the average ratings of trans-
formational leadership as measured by the MLQ
and the HSA short-scale (z = -2.84, p > 0.05,
n.s.). Table 3 shows that the transformational
leadership style measured by the short HSA-TFL-
ES was significantly associated with subjective
performance (organizational commitment, orga-
nizational identification and satisfaction) in all
countries.
taBle 3
Correlations for leadership and subjective performan-
ce indicators
Leader-
ship
Spain
Leader-
ship
Portugal
Leader-
ship
Poland
Leader-
ship
U. King-
dom
Identifica-
tion 0.515** 0.328** 0.507** 0.351**
Commitment 0.599** 0.305** 0.562** 0.323**
Satisfaction 0.666** 0.500** 0.630** 0.635**
MLQ 0.840**
** p0.01 (bilateral). Source: Own work.
Internal consistency
In order to evaluate the internal consistency,
Cronbach’s alpha was calculated for the HSA-
TFL-ES. The instrument shows satisfactory alpha
levels (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.946, item-scale
taBle 2
Factor loadings means, standard deviations, intercorrelations and item-scale correlation for the items of the HSA-
TFL-ES at individual level
Factor
loading Mean SD I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8
Item-
scale
correlation
I1 0.832 3.28 1.047 1.000 0.779
I2 0.859 2.77 1.091 0.709** 1.000 0.812
I3 0.855 3.17 1.004 0.707** 0.708** 1.000 0.806
I4 0.822 2.94 1.114 0.611** 0.672** 0.625** 1.000 0.767
I5 0.846 3.06 1.062 0.652** 0.674** 0.656** 0.718** 1.000 0.797
I6 0.851 3.07 1.031 0.629** 0.642** 0.677** 0.647** 0.684** 1.000 0.801
I7 0.867 3.02 1.046 0.659** 0.665** 0.675** 0.650** 0.676** 0.808** 1.000 0.820
I8 0.890 2.76 1.053 0.669** 0.785** 0.737** 0.694** 0.705** 0.708** 0.758** 1.000 0.851
(n = 625). I1: “I have trust in his/her ability to overcome any obstacle”, I2: “He/She develops ways of motivating us”, I3: “I feel
proud to work with him/her”, I4: “He/She is concerned with training those who need it”, I5: “He/She gives advice to those who
need it”, I6: “He/She gets us to rely on reasoning and evidence to solve problems”, I7: “He/She promotes the use of intelligence
to overcome obstacles”, I8: “He/She presents things through an approach that stimulates me
Source: Own work
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664 Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011
correlation between 0.767 and 0.851) and we the-
refore assume that our results are based on reliable
construct assessment.
Discussion
Although the MLQ is well known and often applied, it
is too long to use in combined assessments. There-
fore, a short scale for transformational leadership,
based on the concept of Bass, was developed and
tested. This study provides evidence for the con-
vergent validity between the short HSA-TFL-ES
and the MLQ. The results revealed a one-factor
structure for the transformational leadership con-
cept, as measured by the short HSA-TFL-ES.
Furthermore, the results regarding criterion va-
lidity show that it is positively related to relevant
subjective criterion variables across four nations.
Implications for theory
The results indicate that the short HSA-TFL-ES
is a stable, valid and robust instrument, aspects
which are important since they bring vigor to re-
search and make the results obtained more inter-
pretable. Although our empirical results suggest
that the MLQ and the HSA-TFL-ES are highly
convergent, they do show their own structure of
the transformational leadership concept. The short
HSA-TFL-ES appears to measure transformational
leadership qualities with a unidimensional concept.
Furthermore, whereas the MLQ enquires directly
about the leader’s behavior, the short HSA-TFL-
ES asks much more for the impact that the leader’s
behavior has on the follower. This may account for
the unidimensional structure of the HSA-TFL-ES,
establishing the hypothesis that all transformatio-
nal leadership behavior leads to follower processes.
The confirmation of the unidimensionality of the
HSA-TFL-ES might satisfy the need expressed by
Felfe (2006) for further development of survey ins-
truments, especially as regards newly created items,
optimized scales and a simplified factor structure
of the transformational leadership concept. Both
approaches are related to subjective performance
criteria. The short HSA-TFL-ES is notably related
to relevant criterion variables across four nations,
specifically commitment, identification and satis-
faction. In sum, these analyses lend further support
to the validity of the HSA-TFL-ES short scale.
Implications for practice
Given the needs of today’s organizations it seems
necessary to bridge the gap between scientific re-
search and practice in the organizational context
(Murphy & Saal, 1990). For example, the Euro-
pean Foundation for Quality Management (EF-
QM, 2000) is dedicated to the development of or-
ganizational excellence and identifies leadership as
one of its main concerns. This means that today’s
organizations often need to fulfil quality require-
ments and, therefore, they need to combine the
assessment of several human processes (Quijano
et al., under revision) with the assessment of lea-
dership and quality-related aspects of performance.
Meeting these needs requires the development of
instruments that are quick to apply (Carless et al.,
2000), short (Burchell & Marsh, 1992) and based
on scientific research (Felfe, 2006). The well-
known MLQ (Bass, 1985) is rather long and this
makes it difficult to use in practical circumstances.
Some researchers have used a reduced set of items
to measure transformational leadership (e.g. Teje-
da et al., 2001), but as Rafferty and Griffin (2004)
point out, this strategy has been driven by empirical
results and has not been accompanied by a strong
theoretical approach to explain the allocation of
items to factors. They argue that it is important to
adopt a theoretically driven approach when eva-
luating the sub-dimensions of transformational
leadership. Overall, the theoretical debate and
empirical results suggest that due to its relevance
to today’s organizations the concept of transforma-
tional leadership should be assessable in broader
practical and cultural contexts; this would be
achieved by using a concept-based and valid short
scale that can be combined with the assessment of
other organizational and human processes.
The present results have implications for or-
ganizational assessment and intervention in these
wider practical and cultural contexts. Indeed, ob-
Val id ez de la es ca la co rta d e liderazgo t ransformacional
Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011 665
taining an easy-to-apply, valid short instrument
that measures transformational leadership goes
some way to meeting the needs of enterprises for
combined assessment of leadership and quality-
related aspects of performance.
The unidimensionality of the construct could
imply that all of the four sub-dimensions must
be present for a leader to show transformational
leadership. This has implications for the develop-
ment of leadership in organizations, where this
is a coveted quality. In this regard, an integrated
leadership development program targeting all four
dimensions with the same importance could be
interesting.
The impact of transformational leadership as
measured by the HSA-TFL-ES on subjective per-
formance criteria such as satisfaction, identifica-
tion and commitment has implications for the
assessment and development of transformational
leadership behavior, helping enterprises to accom-
plish their business goals or to manage change and
improvement processes.
Limitations
The study has a number of limitations. Firstly, the
analyzed samples correspond exclusively to the
healthcare field and the results obtained may the-
refore be specific to this context.
Secondly, all measures administered were self-
reported surveys. This opens up a potential pro-
blem of source bias. It can be estimated that this
inflated the results in about 26 % (Doty & Glick,
1998; Spector, 2006). Even if this is the case, as
can be seen in table 3, considerable results still
could be found.
Thirdly, we only used positive subjective perfor-
mance criteria and did not include objective per-
formance criteria or negative criteria so as to avoid
common method variance (Avolio, Yammarino &
Bass, 1991). Although other studies (Barling et al.,
1996; Geyer & Steyrer, 1998; Rowold & Heinitz,
2007) showed an impact of TFL on objective per-
formance criteria, it cannot be ruled out that the
use of objective and negative criteria would lead
to different results.
Fourthly, the subjective performance criteria
used are limited and, therefore, provide limited
information about the impact of transformational
leadership as measured by the HSA-TFL-ES on
subjective performance. Further subjective criteria
such as extra-effort and effectiveness (Hetland &
Sandal, 2003; Rowold & Heinitz, 2007) could pro-
duce a wider range of information about this aspect.
Fifthly, performance could be influenced by
additional variables. Furthermore, context varia-
bles such as management systems or the structure
of the organization may influence performance
(Fuller et al., 1996; Lowe et al., 1996; Rowold &
Heinitz, 2007). Thus, we cannot be sure about the
extent to which leadership behavior and/or other
variables contribute to performance.
Sixthly, these studies focus on followers’ ratings.
In practical terms it would be interesting in the
future to compare followers’ ratings and leaders’
self-ratings in a 360° feedback. Finally, TFL was
measured at the same point of time, whereas lon-
gitudinal studies could better identify the possible
relationship between TFL and subjective perfor-
mance criteria.
Perspectives for future research
As these results were obtained in a healthcare
sample, additional studies should be conducted
to validate the instrument further in a different
context.
Future research with the short HSA-TFL ques-
tionnaire should use hard performance criteria
and unrequested outcomes such as absenteeism or
experienced stress. It should also implement diver-
gent measures in interview and observation so as to
determine more clearly the criterion validity and
obtain greater insight into the relationship between
transformational leadership and performance. Re-
levant controls e.g., positive appraisal of leaders
should be taken into account in future research.
The role of context variables, such as structure,
should be explored in future studies to understand
better their impact on performance.
The structure of the HSA-TFL construct
should be analyzed using samples from other sec-
Rita BeRgeR, Mon ts eR Rat Yepes, Juana góMez-Be ni to , santiag o QuiJano, Fe li x BRodBeck
666 Universitas P sychologica v. 10 n o. 3 sePtiemBre-diciemBre 2011
tors so as to clarify whether the results are specific
for the healthcare sector.
Cross-cultural comparison analysis should be
done with regard to factor structure stability. To get
a deeper insight the factor structure of the HSA-
TFL short should be compared cross-culturally to
the MLQs factor structure.
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... It consists of four dimensions, the so called "Four I's". Research shows that all four transformational dimensions have a more positive relationship with employees' wellbeing (Breevaart & Bakker, 2018) and with subjective (Dumdum et al., 2002;Kranabetter & Niessen, 2017) and objective (Geyer & Steyrer, 1998) performance at all levels (Bass et al. 2003) and across cultures (Berger et al. 2011) than transactional scales (Lowe et al. 1996). Inspirational motivation (IM) refers to a leader that is able to create a common vision. ...
... Idealized influence (II) measures attributed impact (Yukl, 2010) of positive values and attitudes (Bass et al. 2003) on followers. There is disagreement on the TFL factor structure evidencing a four-factor structure in Singapore, a representative of southeastern culture like Philippines (Bass, 1997) as well as a one-dimensional structure for the MLQ-5X-TFL short version (16 items) in Hong Kong (Sheer, 2010) and in several other cultures (Berger, et al., 2011;Den Hartog, Van Muijen, & Koopman, 1997;Goodwin, Wofford, & Whittington, 2011; HSA-TFL Short-scale in Germany and Philippines Tejeda et al., 2001). This shows that more research is needed to clear the factor structure cross-culturally (Goodwin et al., 2011) as both perspectives are considered relevant for academic and practical contexts (Antonakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003;Bass et al., 2003). ...
... The HSA-TFL short-scale, that is based on Bass' (1985) TFL concept answers the above-mentioned requirements (Carless, 1998;Felfe, 2006;Quijano, Navarro, Yepes, Berger, & Romeo, 2008) for short screening instruments with its practical advantages for the implementation of intervention showing consistently good psychometric characteristics for samples in diverse sectors (Berger, Romeo, Guardia, Yepes, & Soria, 2012). The 8-item HSA-TFL short-scale was developed in the frame of the Human Systems Audit (HSA) (Quijano et al. 2008), first in Spanish, then translated into English, Portuguese, Polish (Berger et al., 2011) and German (Kolbe, 2009) confirming always a one-dimensional factor structure (Berger et al., 2012). It evaluates employees' perceptions of their direct supervisors' TFL. ...
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... However, as of today, the Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire Short version (CBQ-S) by Jönsson et al. 13 represents the only validated scale to assess WCB victimization short enough to be integrated into multiscale employee surveys, which are standard practice for HR practitioners. 14,15 Yet, the low number of theoretically relevant constructs assessed for criterion validity was criticized, which would limit construct validity of the CBQ-S. 6 Another limitation might be that only configural invariance was tested. ...
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As nonessential workers are working from home and connected to colleagues through means of computer technology, cyberbullying, which has only recently been investigated in workplace settings, is likely to become more prevalent. Organizations are also reconsidering work structures that would keep workers remote. Workplace cyberbullying (WCB) can have a detrimental impact on victims' mental health, more than traditional face-to-face bullying. However, there is a dearth of validated assessments to monitor WCB for use in different countries. The Cyberbullying Behavior Questionnaire Short version (CBQ-S) from Jönsson et al. is a validated short scale that seems simple and practical enough to integrate in widely applied multiscale employee surveys. Previously, the CBQ-S has been only validated in Sweden (in the Swedish language) and United States (in English). This study performs a construct validation of the CBQ-S in Spain (in Spanish) and Germany (in German), to equip businesses and organizations operating in those countries with an effective valid tool to measure WCB. Two hundred nine German and 249 Spanish workers (N = 458) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Exploratory and multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses suggested a one-dimensional structure of the scale, supporting configural invariance; metric and partial scalar invariance was also supported. Latent means differences revealed significantly higher mean scores for the Spanish sample (Cohen's d = 0.61). WCB correlated positively with workplace bullying, supporting concurrent convergent validity. WCB also correlated positively with role conflict, role ambiguity, bullying in general, stress, turnover intention, and negatively with job satisfaction, indicating criterion validity.
... Para avaliar Liderança Transformacional, utilizou-se o questionário HSA-TFL de Quijano, Navarro, Yepes, Berger e Romeo (2008), que avalia a percepção do subordinado das qualidades transformacionais do seu líder/supervisor. O instrumento é convergente com o MLQ -Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire, deBass (1985) (Berger, Yepes, Gómez-Benito, Quijano, & Brodbeck, 2011), porém mais sucinto. A versãoHipótese 12: a liderança transformacional influencia positivamente as oportunidades de compartilhar conhecimento percebidas pelo indivíduo no trabalho. ...
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Objective: this paper proposes and evaluates a causal model to explain knowledge sharing among peers in the workplace. The proposed model, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, includes psychosocial factors (transformational leadership, workgroup identification, and shared understanding) and organizational factors (knowledge sharing opportunities and formalization of knowledge sharing processes) as antecedents of individuals' attitudes, perception of subjective norms associated with their group and their direct supervisor, and intention and effective knowledge-sharing behavior. Methods: the model was statistically tested using structural equation modeling techniques with data provided by 131 customer service employees of a large Brazilian telecommunications company. Results: the results indicate that the psychosocial elements have a strong influence on knowledge sharing attitudes and practices. The hypotheses associated with behavioral control have not been confirmed. Moreover, the intention to share knowledge does not seem to be affected by the subjective norms associated with the individual's direct supervisor, but only by those related to their group. Conclusions: the cognitive proximity between group members, reflected in their perception of shared understanding, was an important element in the elicitation of attitudes favorable to knowledge sharing. Additionally, individuals with greater identification with their group tended to have more positive attitudes toward sharing their knowledge. This attitude tends to be more positive when the individual's direct supervisor adopts a more transformational leadership style. The influence of leaders seems to extend from the development of a culture of knowledge exchange and diffusion of principles that stimulate this exchange, to the creation of opportunities to share knowledge through the active management of knowledge diffusion in their teams.
... Recently, increasing debates on the dimensional structure of transformational leadership under different culture have attracted scholarly attention. There is support for a unidimensional construct (Berger et al., 2011), while others claimed for a four-factor structure (e.g., Bass and Avolio, 1995). Specifically, investigations in China showed that the fourfactor model (MLQ, Bass et al., 2003;Wang et al., 2014), the fivefactor model (MLQ5x, Bass and Avolio, 1995;Wu et al., 2010), and the six factor model (Podsakoff et al., 1990;Wang et al., 2005;Zhang et al., 2015) functioned satisfactorily. ...
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It is widely assumed that transformational leadership can effectively facilitate the sharing of knowledge among followers, but most investigations of the underlying mechanisms were based on the social exchange perspective. Based on a sensegiving theory perspective, this article attempts to uncover the mechanisms by which transformational leadership has its impact on employee knowledge sharing behavior by proposing two team-directed mediating mechanisms: perceived team goal commitment and perceived team identification. Results of multi-source and time-lagged data from 186 leader–follower pairs supported the proposed mediating effects. Implications and limitations are discussed.
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Section 2 aims at teaching basic occupational psychology principles in the context of stress and resilience at the workplace, as well as the ability to integrate stress management into the Excellence Model in an innovative and value-adding manner. At first, industrial and organisational psychology principles are integrated into the global topics of sustainability and the promotion of decent work for all. It will be shown that an excellence management approach based on the blueprint Agenda 2030 and on the sustainable development goals of the United Nations is synergetic with the objective of sustainable, comprehensive quality and occupational health. Subsequently, common and emerging psycho-social risk factors at work will be highlighted as well as the transformative role of modern organisations in developing resource-rich working conditions to promote resilience and health among employees, teams and supervisors. Practical categorisations of stress factors and resources that shape personnel’s experiences will be outlined to summarise the state-of-the-art-knowledge of work-, organisational, and personnel psychology. For integration purposes, a scientific systemic model for the assessment of organisational behaviour and intangibles at work and for the intervention for the quality of human resources called the Human System Audit (HSA), will be introduced to align the topics of stress management and excellence. Core aspects of the HSA are based on the interaction of the organisational environment and structure with intangible psychological and psycho-social processes of individuals, groups, and of the organisational system that are taking place in an organisation and are impacting the quality of the human resources. Finally, conceptual innovative alignments between the psychological human resource perspective of the HSA and the direction and execution deployment factors of the new EFQM model will be exemplified. Part 2 thereby bridges the gap between conventional total management approaches based on excellence and organisational psychology perspectives for occupational stress and health.
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