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Electromagnetic field interactions with the human body: observed effects and theories

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Abstract

The effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) field interactions with the human body were reported and human related studies were collected. Nonionizing EM fields are linked to cancer in humans in three different ways: cause, means of detection, and effective treatment. Bad and benign effects are expected from nonionizing EM fields and much more knowledge is necessary to properly categorize and qualify EM field characteristics. It is concluded that knowledge of the boundary between categories, largely dependent on field intensity, is vital to proper future use of EM radiation for any purpose and the protection of the individual from hazard.

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... The Raines 1981 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report [4] reviewed an extensive literature based on occupational exposures to non-thermal microwave EMFs. Based on multiple studies, Raines [4] reports 19 neuropsychiatric effects to be associated with occupational microwave/radiofrequency EMFs, as well as cardiac effects, endocrine including neuroendocrine effects and several other effects. ...
... The Raines 1981 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report [4] reviewed an extensive literature based on occupational exposures to non-thermal microwave EMFs. Based on multiple studies, Raines [4] reports 19 neuropsychiatric effects to be associated with occupational microwave/radiofrequency EMFs, as well as cardiac effects, endocrine including neuroendocrine effects and several other effects. ...
... The Raines 1981 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report [4] reviewed an extensive literature based on occupational exposures to non-thermal microwave EMFs. Based on multiple studies, Raines [4] reports 19 neuropsychiatric effects to be associated with occupational microwave/radiofrequency EMFs, as well as cardiac effects, endocrine including neuroendocrine effects and several other effects. ...
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Dozens of reviews and thousands of primary literature studies have shown the existence of many different non-thermal health effects of microwave and lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs); however current safety guidelines and standards only recognize thermal effects. This leaves both individuals and companies unprotected, particularly with the very large increases in microwave frequency exposures that are occurring over time. It has recently been shown that many, perhaps even all non-thermal health effects are produced by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the plasma membranes of cells, with EMFs activating these channels, producing large increases in intracellular calcium levels [Ca2+]i. The voltage sensor controlling the VGCCs is thought to be extremely sensitive to activation by weak EMFs. Diverse health effects are thought to be produced by downstream effects of increased [Ca2+]i produced by VGCC activation. It is difficult if not impossible to currently predict the biological effects of different EMFs because pulsation patterns, frequencies and EMF polarization each have strong influences on biological effects; there are also windows of exposure producing maximum biological effects within the exposure window. While decreasing exposures on the order of 100 to 1000-fold will no doubt be useful, we also need to have genuine biological measures of damage to allow optimization of both the type of EMF exposures as well as intensities. Biological optimization should be done by studying cells in culture that have high densities of various types of VGCCs, measuring such effects as increases in [Ca2+]i and increases in nitric oxide (NO) production following EMF exposures. Such cell culture-based assessment of biological damage should allow progressive improvement of wireless communication devices and various other electronic devices by choosing designs that lower biological responses.
... I am aware of three different types of evidence for cumulative effects. Three of the human occupational exposure studies from the 1970's reviewed in Raines (1981), showed that effects increased substantially with increasing time of exposure to a particular type and intensity of EMF. ...
... Cellular DNA damage Glaser (1971); Yakymenko et al. (1999) Glaser (1971); Tolgskaya and Gordon (1973); Raines (1981); Lai (1994); Grigor'ev (1996) Adey (1981Adey ( , 1988; Walleczek (1992); Yakymenko et al. (1999); Gye and Park (2012); Pall (2013Pall ( , 2015aPall ( , 2015bPall ( , 2016aPall ( , 2016b); Asghari et al. (2016) Endocrine effects Glaser (1971); Tolgskaya and Gordon (1973); Raines (1981) Dasdag and Akdag (2016); Wang and Zhang (2017) 4. Wi-Fi and other EMFs may be particularly damaging to young people Most arguments that have been made that microwave frequency EMFs may be much more damaging to young children have centered on the much smaller skulls and skull thickness in young children, increasing the exposure of their brains to EMFs (Gandhi and Kang, 2001;Gandhi et al., 2012). However there are other arguments to be made. ...
... Cellular DNA damage Glaser (1971); Yakymenko et al. (1999) Glaser (1971); Tolgskaya and Gordon (1973); Raines (1981); Lai (1994); Grigor'ev (1996) Adey (1981Adey ( , 1988; Walleczek (1992); Yakymenko et al. (1999); Gye and Park (2012); Pall (2013Pall ( , 2015aPall ( , 2015bPall ( , 2016aPall ( , 2016b); Asghari et al. (2016) Endocrine effects Glaser (1971); Tolgskaya and Gordon (1973); Raines (1981) Dasdag and Akdag (2016); Wang and Zhang (2017) 4. Wi-Fi and other EMFs may be particularly damaging to young people Most arguments that have been made that microwave frequency EMFs may be much more damaging to young children have centered on the much smaller skulls and skull thickness in young children, increasing the exposure of their brains to EMFs (Gandhi and Kang, 2001;Gandhi et al., 2012). However there are other arguments to be made. ...
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Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs. Each of these seven is also produced by downstream effects of the main action of such EMFs, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. While VGCC activation via EMF interaction with the VGCC voltage sensor seems to be the predominant mechanism of action of EMFs, other mechanisms appear to have minor roles. Minor roles include activation of other voltage-gated ion channels, calcium cyclotron resonance and the geomagnetic magnetoreception mechanism. Five properties of non-thermal EMF effects are discussed. These are that pulsed EMFs are, in most cases, more active than are non-pulsed EMFs; artificial EMFs are polarized and such polarized EMFs are much more active than non-polarized EMFs; dose-response curves are non-linear and non-monotone; EMF effects are often cumulative; and EMFs may impact young people more than adults. These general findings and data presented earlier on Wi-Fi effects were used to assess the Foster and Moulder (F&M) review of Wi-Fi. The F&M study claimed that there were seven important studies of Wi-Fi that each showed no effect. However, none of these were Wi-Fi studies, with each differing from genuine Wi-Fi in three distinct ways. F&M could, at most conclude that there was no statistically significant evidence of an effect. The tiny numbers studied in each of these seven F&M-linked studies show that each of them lack power to make any substantive conclusions. In conclusion, there are seven repeatedly found Wi-Fi effects which have also been shown to be caused by other similar EMF exposures. Each of the seven should be considered, therefore, as established effects of Wi-Fi.
... The Raines (1981) NASA report reviewed extensive literature based on occupational exposures to non-thermal microwave EMFs, with that literature coming from U.S., Western European and Eastern European studies. There are no obvious differences in the literature coming from these different regions. ...
... There are no obvious differences in the literature coming from these different regions. Based on multiple studies, Raines (1981) reports 19 neuropsychiatric effects to be associated with occupational microwave/radiofrequency EMFs. ...
... It is important to consider the different criteria that allow one to judge whether a cause and effect relationship is justified by the studies listed in Table 3 and the individual studies cited in Raines, 1981. There are five such criteria that should be considered in making that judgment (See pp.39-43 in Hennington and Buring, 1987): ...
Article
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Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970's-80's provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness,dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
... The greater biological activity of pulsed field exposures were sufficiently well documented 30-48 years ago, such that it influenced safety standards of the 1960s and 1970s. For example, the Canadian Standards Association 48 years ago in 1966, adopted lower standards [see Table 2 in ref. (23)] for occupational exposure to pulsed field exposures (1 mWhr/cm 2 , limited to 6 min exposure) in contrast to those for continuous, that is non-pulsed exposures (10 mW/cm 2 , for which there was no time limitation). In 1974, in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted essentially identical standards as had Canada for occupational pulsed field and non-pulsed field exposure (23). ...
... For example, the Canadian Standards Association 48 years ago in 1966, adopted lower standards [see Table 2 in ref. (23)] for occupational exposure to pulsed field exposures (1 mWhr/cm 2 , limited to 6 min exposure) in contrast to those for continuous, that is non-pulsed exposures (10 mW/cm 2 , for which there was no time limitation). In 1974, in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted essentially identical standards as had Canada for occupational pulsed field and non-pulsed field exposure (23). In 1970, the Czechoslovakian government adopted more stringent occupational and general public standards for pulsed field exposures vs non-pulsed field exposures (23). ...
... In 1974, in the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) adopted essentially identical standards as had Canada for occupational pulsed field and non-pulsed field exposure (23). In 1970, the Czechoslovakian government adopted more stringent occupational and general public standards for pulsed field exposures vs non-pulsed field exposures (23). Pulsed fields are, of course, produced by any type of wireless communication device since it is the pattern of pulsations that conveys the information. ...
Article
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This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each of the observations above. The Report is assessed here in several ways including through Karl Popper's assessment of strength of evidence. Popper argues that the strongest type of evidence is evidence that falsifies a theory; second strongest is a test of "risky prediction"; the weakest confirms a prediction that the theory could be correct but in no way rules out alternative theories. All of the evidence supporting the Report's conclusion that only thermal effects need be considered are of the weakest type, confirming prediction but not ruling out alternatives. In contrast, there are thousands of studies apparently falsifying their position. The Report argues that there are no biophysically viable mechanisms for non-thermal effects (shown to be false, see above). It claims that there are many "inconsistencies" in the literature causing them to throw out large numbers of studies; however, the one area where it apparently documents this claim, that of genotoxicity, shows no inconsistencies; rather it shows that various cell types, fields and end points produce different responses, as should be expected. The Report claims that cataract formation is produced by thermal effects but ignores studies falsifying this claim and also studies showing [Ca2+]i and VGCC roles. It is time for a paradigm shift away from only thermal effects toward VGCC activation and consequent downstream effects.
... The technical report [2] presents what is known today concerning non-ionizing electromagnetic field interaction with the human body. Many significant and interesting effects are identified. ...
... A great variety of theories have been developed to describe the electro-magnetic field of the human body. Some theories regarded the human body as a whole as single prolate spheroid with a single set of electromagnetic constants: permittivity, permeability, and conductivity [2]. In that sense, the body is a simple antenna or probe capable o f intercepting a certain amount of electromagnetic energy, which is converted entirely in to heat. ...
... Proteins figure predominantly in at least one of the theories of cancer advanced by Nobel Laureate Albert Szent-Gyorgyi which currently being researched [2,10]. According to this theory, proteins conduct electron out of the cell interior. ...
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This paper develops a generalized dynamical model to describe the interactive dynamics between normal cells, tumor cells, immune cells, drug therapy, elec-tromagnetic field of the human cells, extracellular heat and fluid transfer, and intercellular fractional mass of Oxygen, cell acidity and Pancreatin enzyme. The overall dynamics stability, controllability and observability have been investigated. Moreover, Ce-sium therapy is considered as a control input to the 11-dimensional dynamics using state-feedback con-trolled system and pole placement technique. This approach is found to be effective in driving the de-sired rate of tumor cell kill and converging the sys-tem to healthy equilibrium state. Furthermore, the ranges of the system dynamics parameters which lead to instability and growth of tumor cells have been identified. Finally, simulation results are dem-onstrated to verify the effectiveness of the applied approach which can be implemented successfully to cancer patients.
... In addition the much earlier US Government (NASA) document [66] also documents EMF occupational exposure causation of neurological/neuropsychiatric effect and cardiac effects [28] lists 15 different published reviews each of which provide substantial bodies of evidence that neurological/neuropsychiatric effects are caused by lowintensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Lamech [67] showed that smart meter radiation exposure was associated with large increases in EHS, neurological/neuropsychiatric effects and cardiac effects and similar findings were reported in the Conrad study of smart meter radiation. ...
Article
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Millimeter wave (MM-wave) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are predicted to not produce penetrating effects in the body. The electric but not magnetic part of MM-EMFs are almost completely absorbed within the outer 1 mm of the body. Rodents are reported to have penetrating MM-wave impacts on the brain, the myocardium, liver, kidney and bone marrow. MM-waves produce electromagnetic sensitivity-like changes in rodent, frog and skate tissues. In humans, MM-waves have penetrating effects including impacts on the brain, producing EEG changes and other neurological/neuropsychiatric changes, increases in apparent electromagnetic hypersensitivity and produce changes on ulcers and cardiac activity. This review focuses on several issues required to understand penetrating effects of MM-waves and microwaves: 1. Electronically generated EMFs are coherent, producing much higher electrical and magnetic forces then do natural incoherent EMFs. 2. The fixed relationship between electrical and magnetic fields found in EMFs in a vacuum or highly permeable medium such as air, predicted by Maxwell’s equations, breaks down in other materials. Specifically, MM-wave electrical fields are almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body due to the high dielectric constant of biological aqueous phases. However, the magnetic fields are very highly penetrating. 3. Time-varying magnetic fields have central roles in producing highly penetrating effects. The primary mechanism of EMF action is voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation with the EMFs acting via their forces on the voltage sensor, rather than by depolarization of the plasma membrane. Two distinct mechanisms, an indirect and a direct mechanism, are consistent with and predicted by the physics, to explain penetrating MM-wave VGCC activation via the voltage sensor. Time-varying coherent magnetic fields, as predicted by the Maxwell–Faraday version of Faraday’s law of induction, can put forces on ions dissolved in aqueous phases deep within the body, regenerating coherent electric fields which activate the VGCC voltage sensor. In addition, time-varying magnetic fields can directly put forces on the 20 charges in the VGCC voltage sensor. There are three very important findings here which are rarely recognized in the EMF scientific literature: coherence of electronically generated EMFs; the key role of time-varying magnetic fields in generating highly penetrating effects; the key role of both modulating and pure EMF pulses in greatly increasing very short term high level time-variation of magnetic and electric fields. It is probable that genuine safety guidelines must keep nanosecond timescale-variation of coherent electric and magnetic fields below some maximum level in order to produce genuine safety. These findings have important implications with regard to 5G radiation.
... Microwave RF-EMR is entirely manmade for telecommunications and surveillance and human exposure has highly and rapidly increased, particularly over the last couple of decades. The measured RF exposure levels must be considered with fact that natural background levels of RF-EMR in our living environment without the artificial RF generated for wireless communications are below 10 −15 W/m 2 (13) . ...
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There are some serious errors and gaps in the study conducted by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and published as ‘Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields From WiFi in Australian Schools’ by Karipidis et al. We examine in detail the errors in methodology, interpretation of results and inaccurate/misleading conclusions. In conclusion, contrary to the assurances implied by Karipidis et al., existing scientific evidence clearly indicates that there are potential health risks for students and staff from microwave RF-EMR exposure levels found at schools from internal and external wireless infrastructure. ARPANSA should immediately recommend that schools use wired Internet instead of WiFi as several responsible government agencies in other parts of the world have already done to reduce exposure of children, a sensitive population that need particular protection.
... Non-ionizing radiation (NIR) normally does not produce enough energy to ionize matter [1,2]. In the electromagnetic spectrum, it comprises the frequencies below 3 × 10 15 Hz [1,3]. ...
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Argues that methodological and conceptual errors cast doubt on the conclusion of A. H. Frey and E. Coren (1979) that thermoelastic events in the scalp, skull, and brain are not responsible for microwave hearing and that thermoelastic events within the cochlea are. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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