Effects of Home-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.81). 01/2009; 149(12):869-78. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-149-12-200812160-00006
Source: PubMed


Home-based rehabilitation is a promising approach to improve access to pulmonary rehabilitation.
To assess whether self-monitored, home-based rehabilitation is as effective as outpatient, hospital-based rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Randomized, multicenter, noninferiority trial.
10 academic and community medical centers in Canada.
252 patients with moderate to severe COPD.
After a 4-week education program, patients took part in home-based rehabilitation or outpatient, hospital-based rehabilitation for 8 weeks. They were followed for 40 weeks to complete the 1-year study.
The primary outcome was the change in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire dyspnea subscale score at 1 year. The primary analysis took a modified intention-to-treat approach by using all patients who provided data at the specified follow-up time, regardless of their level of adherence. The analysis used regression modeling that adjusted for the effects of center, sex, and baseline level. All differences were computed as home intervention minus outpatient intervention.
Both interventions produced similar improvements in the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire dyspnea subscale at 1 year: improvement in dyspnea of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.80) units in the home intervention (n = 107) and 0.46 (CI, 0.28 to 0.64) units in the outpatient intervention (n = 109). The difference between the 2 treatments at 1 year was small and clinically unimportant. The 95% CI of the difference did not exceed the prespecified noninferiority margin of 0.5: difference in dyspnea score of 0.16 (CI, -0.08 to 0.40). Most adverse events were related to COPD exacerbations. No serious adverse event was considered to be related to the study intervention.
The contribution of the educational program to the improvement in health status and exercise tolerance cannot be ascertained.
Home rehabilitation is a useful, equivalent alternative to outpatient rehabilitation in patients with COPD.

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    • "Other studies on community based exercise programs have demonstrated improvements in functional capacity, dyspnea, and disease specific quality of life [29-32]. However, these studies have focused on patients with severe COPD (FEV1 < 50%) whereas our subjects were less severe (mean FEV1 62%). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of clinic-based pulmonary rehabilitation in advanced COPD is well established, but few data exist for less severe patients treated in alternative settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a novel, community-based exercise program (CBE) was feasible and effective for patients with moderate COPD. Nineteen patients with moderate COPD (mean FEV1 62%) and self-reported exercise impairment were randomized to 12-weeks of progressive endurance and strength training at a local health club under the guidance of a certified personal trainer, or to continuation of unsupervised habitual physical activity. Outcomes assessed at baseline and 12 weeks included session compliance, intensity adherence, treadmill endurance time, muscle strength, dyspnea, and health status. Compliance was 94% and adherence was 83%. Comparisons between CBE and control groups yielded the following mean (SEM) differences in favor of CBE: endurance time 134 (74) seconds versus -59 (49) seconds (P = 0.041) and TDI 5.1 (0.8) versus -0.2 (0.5) (P < 0.001). The CBE group increased muscle strength (weight lifted) by 11.8 kilograms per subject per week of training (P < 0.001). SGRQ was not significantly changed. We demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel community-based exercise program involving health clubs and personal trainers for patients with moderate COPD. Trial registration Identifier NCT01985529.
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    • "In the present study improvement in peripheral muscle strength was associated with improvement in walking capacity, which supports the use of resistance training for improving functional outcomes. However changes in walking capacity in the present study were modest and similar to those reported by Maltais et al., [37] whose primary aerobic training intervention was also cycle ergometry. The inclusion of a constant work rate cycle endurance test may have strengthened the association between gains in muscle strength and gains in exercise endurance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Aerobic exercise training is a recognized approach for improving functional capacity in COPD. People with greater disease severity often have difficulty achieving higher aerobic exercise training intensity. The effects of resistance training prior to aerobic training were examined to determine if this sequential approach was associated with greater gains in functional status than aerobic training alone or concurrent aerobic and resistance training. Methods: Patients were randomized to: 1) sequential resistance then aerobic training (RT-then-AT) (8 weeks resistance training followed by 8 weeks aerobic exercise training), 2) control group (CE-then-AT + RT) (8 weeks of 'sham' training followed by 8 weeks concurrent aerobic and resistance training), 3) control group (CE-then-AT) (8 weeks 'sham' training followed by 8 weeks aerobic training). Outcomes were assessed at study entry, after week 8, and after week 16: aerobic exercise performance; muscle strength and endurance. Results: 75 patients completed training: FEV1 %pred 40 ± 10, V˙O(2peak) %predicted, 71 ± 22, fat-free mass index 19.5 ± 3.1. RT-then-AT had greater acquisition of peripheral muscle endurance than CE-then-AT + RT and CE-then-AT, but improvements in aerobic exercise performance were similar. Improvements in muscle strength were similar between RT-then-AT and CE-then-AT + RT. Sarcopenia was associated with poorer attendance, and lower aerobic and resistance training volumes. Conclusion: Although the sequential approach to resistance and aerobic training yielded a greater increase in muscle endurance and higher resistance training volume compared to concurrent resistance and aerobic training, other training outcomes were similar between the two groups, thus the sequential approach is not clearly superior to the concurrent approach in severe COPD. Identifier: NCT01058213.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Respiratory Medicine
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    • "Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a more efficient pulmonary rehabilitation program that costs less and promotes long-term, independent practice by patients. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation is a promising alternative to the outpatient or hospital-based rehabilitation programs (Maltais et al., 2008). This type of program is preferred by patients as they can spend less time away from work or their families, do not have the added cost or hassle of travel, and can apply the practices in a setting that incorporates the normal routine of their daily life. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The pulmonary rehabilitation program has become a cornerstone in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Programs based in hospital and treatment facilities, however, are inconvenient and underutilized. A home-based program is a promising alternative, but studies of its effectiveness have yielded inconsistent results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and other health outcomes in patients with COPD. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs published between February 1991 and February 2012 were retrieved from electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and Wanfang Database). Two reviewers independently assessed topical relevance and trial quality, extracted data for meta-analysis using the Review Manager v5.1 software, and contacted the original studies' authors for additional information. Findings: Eighteen trials, comprising 733 randomized patients, were included in the meta-analysis. COPD patients experienced significant relief in dyspnea status, measured by the Borg score (Fixed effects model, WMD = -0.92, 95% CI: -1.61~-0.23, p = .009) and baseline dyspnea index (BDI) (Fixed effects model, WMD = -1.77, 95% CI: -2.65~-0.89, p < .0001) after 12 weeks of home-based intervention. Home-based intervention also improved patients' HRQoL scores, measured by the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (Fixed effects model, WMD = -11.33, 95% CI: -16.37~-6.29, p < .0001, SGRQ total scores after 12 weeks of intervention); exercise capacity (measured by the 6-minute walking distance test (6MWD) (Fixed effects model, WMD = 35.88, 95% CI: 9.38~62.38, p = .008, after 12 weeks of intervention); and pulmonary functions (measured by forced expiratory volume in one-second/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) [Random effects model, WMD = -10.72, 95% CI: -15.86~-5.58, p < .0001, after 12 weeks of intervention), as compared with the nonintervention control group; however, no statistically significant changes were seen in maximal workload, hospital admission, cost of care, or mortality between the two groups. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs represent effective therapeutic intervention approaches for relieving COPD-associated respiratory symptoms and improving HRQoL and exercise capacity. Rigorously designed, large-scale RCTs are still needed to identify an optimal standard home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program.
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