Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Derived Angiotensin II Formation During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension

Department of Physiology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave, SL39, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 12/2008; 53(2):351-5. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.124511
Source: PubMed


The extent to which endogenous angiotensin (Ang) II formation is responsible for increasing kidney Ang II content and blood pressure during Ang II-induced hypertension is unknown. To address this, mice were treated with an Ang-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEi) to block endogenous Ang II formation during chronic Ang II infusions. C57BL/6J male mice (8 to 12 weeks) were subjected to Ang II infusions (400 ng/kg per minute) with or without an ACEi (lisinopril, 100 mg/L in the drinking water) for 12 days. Blood pressure was monitored by tail-cuff method and telemetry. Ang II content was determined by radioimmunoanalysis. Ang II infusions increased 24-hour mean arterial pressure significantly (141.0+/-3.7 mm Hg) versus controls (110.0+/-1.0 mm Hg). ACEi prevented the increase in concentration in Ang II-infused mice (Ang II+ACEi; 114.0+/-7.4 mm Hg; P value not significant). Plasma Ang II content was significantly increased by Ang II (367+/-60 fmol/mL) versus controls (128+/-22 fmol/mL; P<0.05); plasma Ang II was not altered by ACEi alone (90+/-31) or in combination with Ang II infusions (76+/-27). Intrarenal Ang II content was significantly increased by Ang II (998+/-143 fmol/g) versus controls (524+/-60 fmol/g; P<0.05), and this was prevented by ACEi (Ang II+ACEi; 484+/-102 fmol/g; P value not significant). Thus, ACEi ameliorates the increases in blood pressure and intrarenal Ang II content caused by Ang II infusions, indicating that endogenous ACE-mediated Ang II formation plays a significant role in the increases of blood pressure and intrarenal Ang II during Ang II-induced hypertension.

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Available from: Romer Gonzalez-Villalobos
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    • "The magnitude of that effect on blood pressure is in the range of the blood pressure increase reported in many models of AngII hypertension (Hall et al. 1980; Kawada et al. 2002; Gonzalez-Villalobos et al. 2009; Zhao et al. 2009; Brands et al. 2010). Therefore, this raises the question of whether the inflammatory mechanisms that contribute to AngII hypertension also play a role in the powerful effect of AngII to support blood pressure during LS diet. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a critical physiologic regulator of volume homeostasis and mean arterial pressure (MAP), yet it also is known to induce immune mechanisms that contribute to hypertension. This study determined the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the physiologic effect of AngII to maintain normal MAP during low-salt (LS) intake, and whether hypertension induced by plasma AngII concentrations measured during LS diet required IL-6. IL-6 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were placed on LS diet for 7 days, and MAP was measured 19 h/day with telemetry. MAP was not affected by LS in either group, averaging 101 ± 4 and 100 ± 4 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively, over the last 3 days. Seven days of ACEI decreased MAP ~25 mmHg in both groups. In other KO and WT mice, AngII was infused at 200 ng/kg per minute to approximate plasma AngII levels during LS. Surgical reduction of kidney mass and high-salt diet were used to amplify the blood pressure effect. The increase in MAP after 7 days was not different, averaging 20 ± 5 and 22 ± 6 mmHg in WT and KO mice, respectively. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer of activated transcription (STAT3) phosphorylation were not affected by LS, but were increased by AngII infusion at 200 and 800 ng/kg per minute. These data suggest that physiologic levels of AngII do not activate or require IL-6 to affect blood pressure significantly, whether AngII is maintaining blood pressure on LS diet or causing blood pressure to increase. JAK2/STAT3 activation, however, is tightly associated with AngII hypertension, even when caused by physiologic levels of AngII.
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative RT-PCR) and protein [by Western blot (WB) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC)] were analyzed. C57BL/6J male mice (9-12 wk old) were distributed as controls (n = 10), ANG II infused (ANG II = 8, 400 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1) for 12 days), ACEi only (ACEi = 10, lisinopril, 100 mg/l), and ANG II infused + ACEi (ANG II + ACEi = 11). When compared with controls (1.00), AGT protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.29 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05), and this was not prevented by ACEi (ACEi + ANG II, 1.31 +/- 0.14, P < 0.05). ACE protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.21 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05), and it was reduced by ACEi alone (0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05) or in combination with ANG II (0.80 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). AT(1)R protein (by WB) was increased by ANG II (1.27 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.17 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) but not ANG II + ACEi [1.15 +/- 0.06, not significant (NS)]. Tubular renin protein (semiquantified by IHC) was increased by ANG II (1.49 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and ACEi (1.57 +/- 0.15, P < 0.05), but not ANG II + ACEi (1.10 +/- 0.15, NS). No significant changes were observed in AGT, ACE, or AT(1)R mRNA. In summary, reduced responses of intrarenal tubular renin, ACE, and the AT(1)R protein to the stimulatory effects of chronic ANG II infusions, in the presence of ACEi, are associated with the effects of this treatment to ameliorate augmentations in blood pressure and intrarenal ANG II content during ANG II-induced hypertension.
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