Deletion of Scap in Alveolar Type II Cells Influences Lung Lipid Homeostasis and Identifies a Compensatory Role for Pulmonary Lipofibroblasts
Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, USA. Journal of Biological Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 4.57).
02/2009; 284(6):4018-30. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M805388200
Pulmonary function after birth is dependent upon surfactant lipids that reduce surface tension in the alveoli. The sterol-responsive element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors regulating expression of genes controlling lipid homeostasis in many tissues. To identify the role of SREBPs in the lung, we conditionally deleted the SREBP cleavage-activating protein gene, Scap, in respiratory epithelial cells (ScapDelta/Delta) in vivo. Prior to birth (E18.5), deletion of Scap decreased the expression of both SREBPs and a number of genes regulating fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. Nevertheless, ScapDelta/Delta mice survived postnatally, surfactant and lung tissue lipids being substantially normalized in adult ScapDelta/Delta mice. Although phospholipid synthesis was decreased in type II cells from adult ScapDelta/Delta mice, lipid storage, synthesis, and transfer by lung lipofibroblasts were increased. mRNA microarray data indicated that SCAP influenced two major gene networks, one regulating lipid metabolism and the other stress-related responses. Deletion of the SCAP/SREBP pathway in respiratory epithelial cells altered lung lipid homeostasis and induced compensatory lipid accumulation and synthesis in lung lipofibroblasts.
Available from: James P Bridges
- "Mice with conditional deletion of the Scap (ScapΔ/Δ) or Insig1 (Insig1/2Δ/Δ) genes in pulmonary epithelium were generated as previously reported , . Scap and Insig1 gene deletion efficiency was assessed by qPCR and exon deletion was confirmed by exon microarray, demonstrating a marked decrease in Scap (Figure 1A) and Insig1 (Figure 1B) mRNA in our mouse models. "
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary surfactant is required for lung function at birth and throughout postnatal life. Defects in the surfactant system are associated with common pulmonary disorders including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and adults. Lipogenesis is essential for the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant by type II epithelial cells lining the alveoli. This study sought to identify the role of pulmonary epithelial SREBP, a transcriptional regulator of cellular lipid homeostasis, during a critical time period of perinatal lung maturation in the mouse. Genome wide mRNA expression profiling of lung tissue from transgenic mice with epithelial-specific deletions of Scap (ScapΔ/Δ, resulting in inactivation of SREBP signaling) or Insig1 and Insig2 (Insig1/2Δ/Δ, resulting in activation of SREBP signaling) was assessed. Differentially expressed genes responding to SREBP perturbations were identified and subjected to functional enrichment analysis, pathway mapping and literature mining to predict upstream regulators and transcriptional networks regulating surfactant lipid homeostasis. Through comprehensive data analysis and integration, time dependent effects of epithelial SCAP/INSIG/SREBP deletion and defined SCAP/INSIG/SREBP-associated genes, bioprocesses and downstream pathways were identified. SREBP signaling influences epithelial development, cell death and cell proliferation at E17.5, while primarily influencing surfactant physiology, lipid/sterol synthesis, and phospholipid transport after birth. SREBP signaling integrated with the Wnt/β-catenin and glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathways during perinatal lung maturation. SREBP regulates perinatal lung lipogenesis and maturation through multiple mechanisms by interactions with distinct sets of regulatory partners.
Available from: Anthony Daniel Bird
- "Hence it is likely that the developing respiratory epithelial cells are preferentially glycolytic in nature rather than lipogenic. Gene deletion of SREBP cleavage-activating protein gene, Scap in mice have shown compensatory up-regulation of triglyceride synthesis and the accumulation of resident lipofibroblasts with the loss of lipogenesis in lung epithelial cells . This also enhances type II AEC's ability to synthesize and traffic triglycerides for incorporation into disaturated phosphatidylcholine in surfactant lipids during late gestation . "
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ABSTRACT: Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 1 (Creb1) is a transcription factor that mediates cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signalling in many tissues. Creb1(-/-) mice die at birth due to respiratory failure and previous genome-wide microarray analysis of E17.5 Creb1(-/-) fetal mouse lung identified important Creb1-regulated gene targets during lung development. The lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) showed highly reduced gene expression in Creb1(-/-) lungs. We therefore hypothesized that Creb1 plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in pulmonary lipid biosynthetic pathways during lung development. In this study we confirmed that Scd1 and Fasn mRNA levels were down regulated in the E17.5 Creb1(-/-) mouse lung while the lipogenic-associated transcription factors SrebpF1, C/ebpα and Pparγ were increased. In vivo studies using germline (Creb1(-/-) ) and lung epithelial-specific (Creb1(EpiΔ/Δ) ) Creb1 knockout mice showed strongly reduced Scd1, but not Fasn gene expression and protein levels in lung epithelial cells. In vitro studies using mouse MLE-15 epithelial cells showed that forskolin-mediated activation of Creb1 increased both Scd1 gene expression and protein synthesis. Additionally, MLE15 cells transfected with a dominant-negative ACreb vector blocked forskolin-mediated stimulation of Scd1 gene expression. Lipid profiling in MLE15 cells showed that dominant-negative ACreb suppressed forskolin-induced desaturation of ether linked lipids to produce plasmalogens, as well as levels of phosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and lysophosphatidylcholine. Taken together these results demonstrate that Creb1 is essential for the induction and maintenance of Scd1 in developing fetal mouse lung epithelial cells.
Available from: Susan E Wert
- "We recently developed a systems approach integrating previous studies and identified the interactive nature of the factors that form a genetic network regulating surfactant homeostasis . Murray et al. compared gestational lengths of 15 inbred mouse strains and found significant variability among inbred strains, while the intra-strain variation was low, supporting the concept that gestational length is genetically controlled , . For example, A/J mice were born on embryonic (E) day 20.5 (492.3±0.9 hours) and B6 mice were born on E19.5 (462.4 hours±1.0 "
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ABSTRACT: The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6<A/J). Comprehensive bioinformatics and functional genomics analyses were used to identify key regulators, bioprocesses and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5-E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5-20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm infants.
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