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To test whether individual differences in gratitude are related to sleep after controlling for neuroticism and other traits. To test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying this relationship. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with a large (186 males, 215 females) community sample (ages=18-68 years, mean=24.89, S.D.=9.02), including 161 people (40%) scoring above 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, indicating clinically impaired sleep. Measures included gratitude, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), self-statement test of pre-sleep cognitions, the Mini-IPIP scales of Big Five personality traits, and the Social Desirability Scale. Gratitude predicted greater subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and daytime dysfunction. The relationship between gratitude and each of the sleep variables was mediated by more positive pre-sleep cognitions and less negative pre-sleep cognitions. All of the results were independent of the effect of the Big Five personality traits (including neuroticism) and social desirability. This is the first study to show that a positive trait is related to good sleep quality above the effect of other personality traits, and to test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying the relationship between any personality trait and sleep. The study is also the first to show that trait gratitude is related to sleep and to explain why this occurs, suggesting future directions for research, and novel clinical implications.
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Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions
Alex M. Wood
a,
, Stephen Joseph
b
, Joanna Lloyd
c,1
, Samuel Atkins
c,1
a
School of Psychology, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK
b
University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
c
University of Warwick, Warwick, UK
Received 7 May 2008; received in revised form 4 August 2008; accepted 2 September 2008
Abstract
Objectives: To test whether individual differences in gratitude
are related to sleep after controlling for neuroticism and other
traits. To test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism
underlying this relationship. Method: A cross-sectional ques-
tionnaire study was conducted with a large (186 males, 215
females) community sample (ages=1868 years, mean=24.89, S.
D.=9.02), including 161 people (40%) scoring above 5 on the
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, indicating clinically impaired
sleep. Measures included gratitude, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
Index (PSQI), self-statement test of pre-sleep cognitions, the Mini-
IPIP scales of Big Five personality traits, and the Social
Desirability Scale. Results: Gratitude predicted greater subjective
sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and
daytime dysfunction. The relationship between gratitude and each
of the sleep variables was mediated by more positive pre-sleep
cognitions and less negative pre-sleep cognitions. All of the
results were independent of the effect of the Big Five personality
traits (including neuroticism) and social desirability. Conclusion:
This is the first study to show that a positive trait is related to
good sleep quality above the effect of other personality traits, and
to test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying
the relationship between any personality trait and sleep. The study
is also the first to show that trait gratitude is related to sleep and to
explain why this occurs, suggesting future directions for research,
and novel clinical implications.
© 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Gratitude; Personality; Sleep; Pre-sleep cognitions; Positive psychology
Introduction
Personality is an important predictor of sleep quality and
quantity [1]. Most previous research has focused on which
personality traits are related to impaired sleeping. Neuroti-
cism has emerged as a robust predictor of sleep quality, with
people who are dispositionally stressed, depressed, anxious,
and angry being shown to suffer from poor sleep [27]. This
research has been influential both in developing models of
the etiology of insomnia and in developing psychological
treatments of sleep disorders [1]. However, the positive
psychology movement has emphasized the importance of
studying positive aspects of life in addition to the more
traditional psychological focus on psychopathology [810].
Positive well-being involves more than the absence of
mental illness [11], and positive traits have been shown to
explain additional outcomes in health and well-being
variables after controlling for neuroticism [1214]. Recently,
positive psychological well-being has been linked to
improved quality of sleep [15]. It is not clear, however,
whether positive psychological traits can explain sleep
quality above the effect of other more traditionally studied
personality traits, including the negative traits represented
within the construct of neuroticism. Additionally, there is no
indication of the mechanisms which explain why positive
psychological traits are related to sleep. This study examines
these questions with regard to the specific positive
psychological trait of gratitude.
Gratitude is perhaps the quintessential positive psycho-
logy trait, involving a life orientation towards the positive in
the world [16]. In addition to feeling more grateful affect
Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66 (2009) 4348
Corresponding author. School of Psychology, University of Manchester,
Manchester, England, UK. Tel.: +44 7790 816407.
E-mail address: alex.wood@manchester.ac.uk (A.M. Wood).
1
These authors made equal scientific contributions.
0022-3999/09/$ see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.09.002
[17], grateful people focus on the positive in their
environment and have greater appreciation of their posses-
sions and social relationships [18]. As a trait, gratitude is
related to positive coping [19], social functioning [20], and
has a unique and causal effect on positive well-being and
social relationships [14,21,22]. The aim is to investigate
whether individual differences in gratitude are related to
sleep, after controlling for neuroticism and other personality
traits, and to test for the mediational mechanisms underling
this relationship.
Only one previous study has indicated that trait gratitude
may be related to sleep, and no previous study has
suggested mechanisms which may underlie this relation-
ship. Patients with neuromuscular disorders listed three
things for which they were grateful each night for 21
nights. Subsequently, their physical and mental well-being
was compared with a control group which simply
completed outcome measures [21]. The gratitude group
self-reported increased hours of sleep and an improved
sense of refreshment upon waking. Gratitude was selected
as the focus of this study due to this indication that trait
gratitude may be related to sleep, and due to the centrality
of gratitude as a positive trait [23]. The current study will
extend this work by testing which aspects of sleep are
related to gratitude, whether this relationship is independent
of the effects of other personality traits, and by investigat-
ing the mediational mechanisms that may explain the
relationship between gratitude and sleep quality.
It is suggested that pre-sleep cognitions may underlie the
relationship between gratitude and sleep quality. Pre-sleep
cognitions are the thoughts that people have just before
sleep. A large literature has linked pre-sleep cognitions
with sleep quality [2429], and experimental evidence has
suggested that increased pre-sleep cognitions cause
impaired sleep [3033]. Negative pre-sleep cognitions
have attracted particular empirical attention, as precursors
of impaired sleep. More recently, positive pre-sleep
cognitions are beginning to be studied [24], and there is
indication that positive cognitions are related to good sleep
quality [34,35]. As there is evidence that gratitude causes a
variety of positive cognitions, including life evaluations
[21], perceptions of social support [22] and social situations
[20], it may be that gratitude is one determinant of pre-
sleep cognitions.
Specifically, we suggest that grateful people will have less
negative pre-sleep cognitions (which impair sleep) and more
positive pre-sleep cognitions (which promote sleep). This is
the first empirical study to link trait gratitude to sleep or to
suggest mechanisms explaining why this relationship may
occur. With gratitude interventions increasingly being
promoted in clinical settings [3638],establishingthe
mechanisms linking gratitude and sleep will indicate the
potential of gratitude interventions for treatment of insomnia.
This is also the first study to investigate the potential for
positive traits to increase our understanding of sleep above
the effects of neuroticism. More generally, this is the first
study to investigate pre-sleep cognitions as a mechanism
linking any personality trait to sleep.
Method
Participants and procedure
Participants were 401 (186 male, 215 female) people
recruited from the local community by one of two research
assistants. Ages ranged from 18 to 68 years (mean=24.89,
S.D.=9.02), with 80.3% aged under 30, and 90.1% aged
under 40. Participants were either recruited from adminis-
trative workers in the head office of a large multinational
company in London (n=200) or approached at a large chain
of coffee shops in the South West of England, a community
center in East Midlands, or a local Arts Center in the East
Midlands (n=201). Participation was voluntary and without
payment, and 75% of those approached agreed to participate.
Prior to completing the questionnaire the participants read a
sheet providing details of the study and ethical information,
and participants signed a declaration of informed consent.
All measures were completed in English with pencil and
paper. Prior to data collection the study was approved
according to the institutional review procedures of the
University of Warwick, and the research followed the ethical
guidelines of the American Psychological Association.
Measures
Gratitude was measured with the GQ-6 [13]. Six items
assess the frequency and intensity with which grateful affect
is experienced, and the range of events which elicit gratitude
[e.g., I have so much in life to feel thankful for(Item 1), I
am grateful to a wide variety of people(Item 4), and When
I look at the world, I don't see much to be grateful for(Item
3, reverse coded)]. Items are rated on a 1 (strongly disagree)
to 7 (strongly agree) scale. The GQ6 has a robust one-factor
structure, convergent validity with peer reports [13], and
high testretest reliability [22].
Pre-sleep cognitions were measured with the self-
statement test [24]. Participants rate how frequently they
experience 60 different thoughts, in general, when trying to
initially fall asleep or get back to sleep. Items are rated on a 0
(never or hardly ever)to4(very often) scale. Items were
developed on the basis of a qualitative study of the thoughts
people experience whilst trying to fall asleep and include
both positive (e.g., enjoyable things I did during the last few
days) and negative pre-sleep cognitions (e.g., bad things
happening in the world). The self-statement test discrimi-
nates between insomniac and normal populations (known
group validity) and positive and negative thoughts load on
different factors [24].
Sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
Index (PSQI) [39]. Referring to the past month, 19
questions ask about sleep quantity (e.g., when have you
44 A.M. Wood et al. / Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66 (2009) 4348
usually gone to bed at nights?;when have you usually
gotten up in the morning?;how many actual hours of
sleep did you get at night?) and sleep quality (e.g., how
would you rate your sleep quality overall?). Responses are
made in a variety of formats; all responses are recoded on a
03 scale based on the ranges specified by the scale
development paper (the recoding also has the effect of
removing the effect of extreme outliers). A total sleep score
is formed, in addition to seven subscales representing sub-
jective sleep quality,sleep latency (how long it takes to get
asleep), sleep duration,sleep efficiency (hours spent asleep
divided by number of hours in bed), sleep disturbances,use
of sleep medicine, and daytime dysfunction (e.g., difficulty
staying awake during the day). The total sleep score and all
subscales are scored so that higher scores indicate more
impaired sleep and higher sleep dysfunction. The PSQI can
be used as a continuous measure of the continuum of
impaired sleep. Alternatively, using a total score N5 has
been shown to discriminate between groups of healthy
volunteers and groups referred to sleep disorder clinics by
physicians for sleep disorders (sensitivity and specificity of
N85%) [39]. The scale is one of the most widely used
measures of sleep in clinical research and practice.
The Big Five personality traits were measured with the
Mini-IPIP scales [40]. The personality factors of neuroti-
cism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and
openness are assessed with 20 items (four per factor,
including a mixture of positively and negatively worded
items). These five traits have been shown to represent all
of personality at the broadest level of abstraction [41,42].
The Mini-IPIP shows very good testretest reliability,
convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity,
which is comparable to the NEO and other measures of
the Big Five [40].
Social desirability was measured with the Social Desir-
ability Scale-17 [43]. Sixteen items (seven reverse coded)
provide statements with which most people would like to
agree but are probably unable to do so truthfully (e.g., ‘‘I
always accept other's opinions, even when they don't agree
with my own). (The measure originally had 17 items, but
one item was deleted in the scale validation process; we used
the revised 16-item version as recommended by the authors
[43].) Participants respond trueor falseto each item, and
higher scores represent socially desirable responding. The
measure was developed due to concerns that the items in
older measures were no longer socially desirable. The
measure shows sensitivity to socially desirable situations
(e.g., job applications), good convergent validity, and all
items have recently been rated as socially desirable [43].
Results
The total PSQI score was approximately normally dis-
tributed. The mean total PSQI score was 5.44 (S.D.=2.57),
slightly higher than representative population surveys
(mean=4.55, S.D.=3.71, t[1390]=4.45, d=.28) [44].At
the standard cut-off point of 5, 161 people (40%) could
be classified as poor sleepers (compared to 32.1% in
population surveys).
In the total sample, higher scores on the GQ-6 were
positively associated with superior sleep quality (indicated
by lower scores on the PSQI), with gratitude negatively
correlating with six measures of impaired sleep quality:
total sleep quality (r=.29, Pb.001), subjective sleep
quality (r=.25, Pb.001), sleep latency (r=.20,
Pb.001), sleep duration (r=.14, Pb.01), habitual sleep
efficiency (r=.11, Pb.05), and daytime dysfunction (r=
.27, Pb.001). Gratitude was also positively correlated
with positive pre-sleep cognitions (r=.21, Pb.001) and
negatively correlated with negative pre-sleep cognitions (r=
.11, Pb.001). A series of multiple regressions were
conducted to test whether the relationship between
gratitude and sleep was mediated by positive and negative
pre-sleep cognitions, using Baron and Kenny's [45] three
mediational steps and the Sobel test [46]. As gratitude was
positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, and
conscientiousness, and negatively correlated with neuroti-
cism (rranged from |.23| to |.35|, all Pb.001), the Big Five
traits and social desirability were also included as predictor
variables in each of the regressions in order to control for
the effects of these traits at each stage of the analysis.
Baron and Kenny's [45] first step requires the predictor to
be related to the outcome. With the effects of the Big Five
and social desirability controlled, gratitude still significantly
predicted total sleep quality (β=.24, Pb.001), subjective
sleep quality (β=.25, Pb.001), sleep latency (β=.17,
P=.002), sleep duration (β=.15, P=.006), and daytime
dysfunction (β=.16, P=.003). Gratitude was not uniquely
related to sleep efficiency (β=.08 P=.144), failing Baron
and Kenny's first step; this variable was not included in any
further analysis.
The second step was conducted separately for each of the
five sleep variables with which gratitude showed a unique
relationship (these are presented as path diagrams in Fig. 1,
where each of the path values shown is independent of the
effects of social desirability and the Big Five). This step
requires the mediators (pre-sleep cognitions) to be signifi-
cantly related to the outcome (the sleep measure) after
controlling for the predictor (gratitude). As shown in Fig. 1,
this step was met in each case.
In the third step, mediation is demonstrated if controlling
for the mediator significantly reduces the relationship
between the predictor (gratitude) and the outcome (sleep)
relative to the zero-order correlation. Sobel's ztests whether
the decrease in βis statistically significant and is mathema-
tically equivalent to testing the significance of the mediated
pathway [46].Fig. 1 shows Sobel's zfor each mediated
pathway and demonstrates that either positive or negative
pre-sleep cognitions significantly mediated the relationship
between gratitude and each of the five measures of sleep
(fulfilling the third step). Positive pre-sleep cognitions
45A.M. Wood et al. / Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66 (2009) 4348
mediated the relationship between gratitude and subjective
sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep
efficiency. Negative pre-sleep cognitions mediated the
relationship between gratitude and subjective sleep quality,
sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and daytime dysfunction.
Discussion
Gratitude was uniquely related to total sleep quality,
subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, and
daytime dysfunction, after controlling for the effects of the
Big Five and social desirability. The results of the current
study also provide evidence that pre-sleep cognitions
mediate the relationship between trait gratitude and sleep
quality. When falling asleep, grateful people are less likely to
think negative and worrying thoughts, and more likely to
think positive thoughts. It appears that negative pre-sleep
cognitions impair sleep, and gratitude reduces the likelihood
of such thoughts, protecting sleep quality. Equally, it appears
that positive pre-sleep cognitions have a positive effect on
sleep, and that gratitude facilitates these thoughts, leading to
superior sleep quality.
It is notable that gratitude was related to sleep and pre-
sleep cognitions after removing the effects of the Big Five
personality traits. This suggests that gratitude is not simply
linked to sleep due to the third variable effects of broad
personality traits or dispositional affect. Increasingly, there is
Fig. 1. Tests of mediation between gratitude and five sleep measures, with standardized β's and Sobel's z. All values are after covarying the effects of social
desirability and the Big Five. ⁎⁎⁎Pb.001, ⁎⁎Pb.01, Pb.05.
46 A.M. Wood et al. / Journal of Psychosomatic Research 66 (2009) 4348
evidence that gratitude can predict well-being outcomes
above the effects of other personality traits [13,17,20,22],
including social desirability [18], coping [19], and the 30
facets of the Big Five [14]. The present results suggest that
gratitude may also uniquely be related to sleep, at least above
the broad effects of the Big Five. As positive and negative
affect are respectively represented in the Big Five traits of
extroversion and neuroticism [47], the results suggest that
the relationship between gratitude and sleep is not simply a
reflection of the relationships between gratitude and positive
affect (or happiness) or negative functioning (e.g., stress,
depression, anxiety, and negative affect). The Big Five traits
can, however, achieve broad coverage of the personality
domain at the expense of specificity [48]. Future research
should measure positive and negative affect specifically to
test whether the mechanism linking gratitude and sleep is
purely cognitive (as indicated by the current demonstration
of mediation via pre-sleep cognitions) or whether daily affect
forms a second mediational pathway.
More research is needed into whether other positive
traits can explain sleep and sleep disorder, in order to
develop more complete models of sleep functioning.
Research is also needed into whether increasing positive
traits improves sleep. Emmons et al. show that therapeu-
tically increasing gratitude can increase sleep quality [21].
Further work is needed to explore the efficacy of this
approach in insomnia patients to test whether including a
focus on gratitude can improve existing sleep therapies and
whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism through
which the therapy operates.
The study had some limitations, including the reliance on
self-report measures. This was partially mitigated by the use
of the PSQI measure of sleep (which discriminates between
groups of healthy people and physician-referred insomniacs
with sensitivity and specificity of N85%) [39] and through
showing that the results were not confounded with socially
desirable responding. Self-reports of sleep are also important
in themselves, given that most people self-refer to sleep
clinics. There is also evidence that mood and objective daily
performance is more strongly related to the self-report of
sleep quality than to sleep quality measured through
neuropsychological assessment [49]. However, further
research is needed into whether gratitude and other positive
traits are related to objective sleep assessment measured by
EEG (actual sleep measured through brain waves) or
actigraphy (actual sleep measured via wrist movements).
The current study also used a community sample, rather than
a sample of people clinically diagnosed with insomnia. The
community sample had the advantage of a wide range of
both personality and sleep quality, whereas a slanted clinical
sample would probably have exhibited range restrictions,
producing biased statistical analysis. However, future
research is needed into whether the findings extend to
clinical samples, perhaps using the experimental methodo-
logy discussed above. Finally, as the study was cross-
sectional it is not possible to demonstrate causality, and the
mediational analysis relies on the variables being arranged in
the correct order, which is normally inferred on the basis of
previous research [45]. However, given that gratitude has
been previously shown to cause better sleep [13], pre-sleep
cognitions have been shown to causally influence sleep [30
33], and gratitude causally influences cognitions [2022],it
seems likely the causal chain was correctly arranged in the
mediational analysis.
The results present the first indication that individual
differences in gratitude are related to sleep quality and
suggest that this is due to the mechanism of pre-sleep
cognitions. More research is needed into the role of
gratitude and other positive traits in relation to quality of
sleep in both healthy and clinical populations. Such a
positive psychology approach to sleep could potentially
provide better understanding of the etiology of sleep
disorders, explanation of positive sleep quality, and lead to
new therapies to treat sleep disorder and promote optimal
sleeping amongst the general population.
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... Justice sensitivity relates in predicted ways with wellbeing, prosocial behavior, perceived procedural injustice, and other scales (Gollwitzer, Schmitt, Schalke, & Baer, 2005;Lotz, Schlösser, Cain, & Fetchenhaur, 2013;Mohiyeddini & Schmitt, 1997;Rothmund, Baumert, & Zinkernagel, 2014;Schmitt et al., 2010;Schmitt, Gollwitzer, Maes, & Arbach, 2005). There is also evidence of similar associations for other self-report measures of virtue, including courage (Sekerka, Bagozzi, & Charnigo, 2009;Woodard, 2004;Woodard & Pury, 2007), gratitude (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002;Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009;Wood, Joseph, & Maltby, 2009), kindness (Otake, Shimai, Tanaka-Matsumi, Otsui, & Fredrickson, 2006), compassion (Canevello & Crocker, 2010), forgiveness (Brown, 2003;Rye et al., 2001;Witvliet, Ludwig, & Vander Laan, 2001), and humility (Krause, 2010(Krause, , 2012Piff, Dietze, Feinberg, Stancato, & Keltner, 2015). This suggests that multiple self-report measures have at least a minimal degree of construct validity. ...
... These mild correlations indicate that the constructs are related but relatively independent given that the maximum shared variance among the measures was 12%. In addition, three sets of researchers (Lambert, Clark, Durtschi, Fincham, & Graham, 2010;McCullough et al., 2002;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009) reported that measures of gratitude were positively related to indicators of well-being while controlling for social desirability. ...
... Researchers have also assessed the relationships among trait gratitude and Big Five traits, and associations have ranged from .11 to .49 (McCullough et al., 2002;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009;Wood, Maltby, Stewart, Linley, & Joseph, 2008). In one study, the Big Five traits taken together accounted for 21% of the variance in gratitude (McCullough et al., 2002). ...
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Numerous scholars have claimed that positive ethical traits such as virtues are important in human psychology and behavior. Psychologists have begun to test these claims. The scores of studies on virtue do not yet constitute a mature science of virtue because of unresolved theoretical and methods challenges. In this article, we addressed those challenges by clarifying how virtue research relates to prosocial behavior, positive psychology, and personality psychology and does not run afoul of the fact-value distinction. The STRIVE-4 (Scalar Traits that are Role sensitive, include Situation × Trait Interactions, and are related to important Values that help to constitute E udaimonia) model of virtue is proposed to help resolve the theoretical and methods problems and encourage a mature science of virtue. The model depicts virtues as empirically verifiable, acquired scalar traits that are role sensitive, involve Situation × Trait interactions, and relate to important values that partly constitute eudaimonia (human flourishing). The model also holds that virtue traits have four major components: knowledge, behavior, emotion/motivation, and disposition. Heuristically, the STRIVE-4 model suggests 26 hypotheses, which are discussed in light of extant research to indicate which aspects of the model have been assessed and which have not. Research on virtues has included survey, intensive longitudinal, informant-based, experimental, and neuroscientific methods. This discussion illustrates how the STRIVE-4 framework can unify extant research and fruitfully guide future research.
... Another well-established finding is the association of gratitude with lower risks of depression and reduced anxiety (Kendler et al., 2003;Froh et al., 2007Froh et al., , 2011. Further health benefits were reported concerning reduced stress (Wood et al., 2008) and improved sleep patterns (Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Wood et al., 2009). In addition, gratitude relates to interpersonal benefits, such as the ability to form and maintain stronger interpersonal bonds (Algoe, 2012;Bartlett et al., 2012) and promoting prosocial behaviors (Bartlett and DeSteno, 2006). ...
Article
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The Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6; McCullough et al., 2002) is a well-established instrument for measuring gratitude. Recently, the Multi-Component Gratitude Measure (MCGM) was developed as a more holistic approach (Morgan et al., 2017). While the GQ-6 mainly focuses on the emotional component of gratitude, the MCGM encompasses conceptual, attitudinal, and behavioral aspects. As of today, there is no validated German measure for gratitude. In order to close that research gap, the present study focused on validating the German versions of the GQ-6 (GQ-6-G) and of the MCGM (MCGM-G). In addition, multi-group comparisons were conducted to test for cultural measurement invariance. Construct validity was tested similar to original validation studies of the two scales focusing on affect, well-being, empathy, anxiety and depression. The online survey was completed in random order by 508 participants. The one-factor model of the GQ-6-G and the hierarchical structure of the MCGM-G could be replicated. However, the model fit of the Gratitude Questionnaire was significantly better after eliminating one item (GQ-5-G). Multi-group comparisons revealed cultural measurement invariance was established for the GQ-5-G and partial measurement invariance for five of six factors of the MCGM-G, respectively. Reliability analyses revealed good internal consistency for both instruments, and measures for criterion-related and discriminant validity have shown hypothesized relationships. Thus, the GQ-5-G and the MCGM-G are two instruments with good reliability and validity for measuring gratitude in Germany.
... This result is consistent with the findings, mentioned previously in the literature, of those studies showing that gratitude education is effective on students (Eliüşük Bülbül, 2018;Emmons and Crumpler 2000;Froh, Bono and Emmons, 2010;Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski and Miller, 2009;Froh et al., 2008;Froh, Yurkewicz and Kashdan, 2009; https://sites.google.com/a/pride.hofstra.edu/jeffrey-j-froh/publications; Koo, Algoe, Wilson and Gilbert, 2008;Ma, Kibler and Sly, 2013;Sheldon and Lyubomirsky, 2006) or adults (Bartlett and DeSteno, 2006;Frias, Watkins, Webber and Froh, 2010;Geraghty, Wood and Hyland, 2010;Hill, Allemand and Roberts, 2013;Kam, 2015;Kashdan, Uswatte and Julian, 2006;Killen and Macaskill, 2015;McCullough et al., 2002;McCullough et al., 2004;Pohling et al., 2018;Wood, Joseph and Linley, 2007;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd and Atkins, 2009;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley and Joseph, 2008;Szczesny, 2014) at various ages, in general, and of those studies showing its positive effects specially on teachers (Chan, 2010;Chin-Ting and Yin Yeh, 2014;Howells and Cumming, 2011). In addition, there are several reasons highlighting the findings of this study among all these findings in the literature. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to develop and examine the effectiveness of the "Thank You-T" Gratitude Education Program (TYGEP-T) for Turkish elementary school teachers. TYGEP-T aims to contribute elementary school teachers to develop their skills to recognize and express gratitude and review the school-based activities they can do to make gratitude a part of their "school culture". A pre-test, post-test, and follow-up experimental design with one treatment and one none-treatment control group were used to examine the effectiveness of the program, with a sample of 23 elementary school teachers. Results revealed that after the TYGEP-T a significant difference appeared between the total gratitude scores of the experimental group and the control group. This difference disappeared in the follow-up test. Moreover, in this study in a more different way than the former studies, the effects of the program on the sub-dimensions of gratitude, Lack of Sense of Deprivation (LOSD), Simple Appreciation (SA) and Appreciation of Others (AO), were examined. In terms of subscale scores, while the program is considered effective in increasing LOSD and AO scores, permanency was only observed in AO scores.
... The purpose of Module V is to deepen a sense of gratitude for others. Gratitude has been previously associated with a host of positive health benefits including better sleep quality, decreased depression, and overall wellbeing (Wood et al. 2009(Wood et al. , 2010. Gratitude is also associated with increased social affiliation (Bartlett et al. 2012) and prosocial behavior (Bartlett and DeSteno 2006;Tsang and Martin 2019). ...
Preprint
Across cultures and belief systems, compassion is widely considered to be beneficial for the development of personal and social wellbeing. Research indicates that compassion-training programs have broad health benefits, but how and why compassion-training programs are effective is still relatively unknown. This paper describes the theoretical underpinnings of a specific compassion-training program, CBCT® (Cognitively-Based Compassion Training), and proposes an integrative model that draws on existing health behavior constructs to identify CBCT’s core components and hypothesizes their directionality and interaction. The model includes two primary categories of skill development: (1) intrapersonal skills leading to greater resiliency, and (2) interpersonal skills leading to greater compassion. It is hypothesized that these two pathways are mutually reinforcing and both contribute to greater wellbeing. This model provides a foundation for theory-driven research on the underlying mechanisms in CBCT training. An understanding of CBCT’s mechanisms is a critical step towards optimizing and personalizing the intervention to meet the needs of specific populations.
... For instance, the combined effect of mindfulness meditation, known to promote acceptance strategies, and cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) revealed that 61% of participants no longer had clinically significant insomnia during the 12 months following treatment (Ong, Shapiro, & Manber, 2009). Additionally, preliminary recommendations suggest that therapeutically targeting regret (Wrosch, Bauer, Miller, & Lupien, 2007) or improving other emotions, such as gratitude (Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009), may be efficacious in increasing subjective sleep quality. Acceptance-based therapeutic techniques could accordingly help individuals with insomnia to develop management of thoughts and decrease negative self-referent emotions, and instead generate thoughts promoting self-compassion. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between bedtime counterfactual thoughts, depressive symptoms, nocturnal counterproductive thought-control strategies and insomnia disorder. Six hundred and fifty adults from the general population were recruited and provided data on their counterfactual thoughts' frequency at bedtime, depressive symptoms and use of nocturnal maladaptive strategies of thought control. In addition, all participants followed a face-to-face clinical interview for the diagnosis of insomnia disorder. A model positing moderated mediation was tested using conditional process modelling. Overall, 19% of participants met diagnostic criteria for a chronic insomnia diagnosis. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the association of bedtime counterfactual processing and insomnia diagnosis is mediated by depressive symptoms (B = 0.035, SE = 0.007, bootstrapped 95% CI = 0.023, 0.051). Furthermore, the effects of such a mediation model were significantly larger among individuals with high levels of aggressive suppression than those with low levels of aggressive suppression (B = 0.002, SE = 0.001, bootstrapped 95% CI = 0.001, 0.004). A second model in which a worry strategy moderates the relationship between bedtime counterfactual processing and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (B = 0.0036, SE = 0.013, p = .78). The present study adds to the literature on the importance of self-attacking thoughts and negative affects at bedtime. We recommend the evaluation of the impact of adding self-attacks management strategies to cognitive behavior therapy for individuals with an insomnia disorder.
... Relatedly, workplace humor-another positive psychology topic-has been shown to contribute to important outcomes, including task persistence (Cheng & Wang, 2015) and organizational citizenship behaviors (Cooper, Kong, & Crossley, 2018). From an intervention perspective, quality workplace relationships and/or humor may contribute to improved sleep, given positive affect and social support predict better sleep outcomes (Kent, Uchino, Cribbet, Bowen, & Smith, 2015;Steptoe, O'Donnell, Marmot, & Wardle, 2008;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009). ...
Chapter
Research on how sleep influences social behavior at work—particularly sleep’s impact on job performance—is growing, yet still in relatively early stages. This chapter provides an overview of existing research on sleep and job performance and proposes avenues for further examination. We focus specifically on sleep’s relationship to social aspects of performance including leadership, customer service performance (emotional labor and emotion performance), organizational citizenship behaviors, and counterproductive work behaviors. This chapter is organized into three sections: First, we define job performance and provide an overview of research on the direct effects of sleep on job performance components. Second, we discuss potential mediators and moderators of the sleep-job performance relationship. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps, chart directions for future research, and offer methodological suggestions. Overall, to effectively advance the body of knowledge on this topic, organizational behavior scholars should seek out and integrate relevant research and methods from other scientific disciplines, and, when possible, form multidisciplinary research teams.
... The SST:60þ was also used in a sample composed mainly of young adults. The frequency of positive thoughts was negatively associated with subjective SOL, while the frequency of negative thoughts was positively associated with the same measure [61]. ...
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Objective: the low sleep quality and pain in girls with primary dysmenorrhea, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of self-compassion training and positive attitude to experience sleep quality and decrease of pain intensity in girls with primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: The research was semi-experienced that was conducted as a multi-group, pre-test, and post-test. The sample of the study was girls with primary dysmenorrhea, which were characterized among students in the first district of Rasht City (first and second high school) and were placed in three experimental and control groups. To collect the data and to screen the questionnaire for premenstrual symptoms, Peters Burg’s sleep quality questionnaire, and McGill’s intensity of pain questionnaire were applied. A one-way Analysis Of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used for analyzing data. Results: Positive thinking training and self-compassion training were effective in increasing sleep quality and decreased intensity of pain in girls with primary dysmenorrhea (P
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification.
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Gratitude, like other positive emotions, has inspired many theological and philosophical writings, but it has inspired very little vigorous, empirical research. In an effort to remedy this oversight, this book brings together prominent scientists from various disciplines to examine what has become known as the most-neglected emotion. The volume begins with the historical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of gratitude, and then presents the current research perspectives from social, personality, and developmental psychology, as well as from primatology, anthropology, and biology. The volume also includes a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of research on gratitude. This work contributes a great deal to the growing positive psychology initiative and to the scientific investigation of positive human emotions. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers and students in social, personality, developmental, clinical, and health psychology, as well as to sociologists and cultural anthropologists.
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Trait concepts are used extensively in psychopathology research, but much of this research has failed to consider recent advances in the dimensional structure of personality. Many investigators have discounted the importance of this structural research, arguing that (a) little progress has been made in this area, (b) structural models have little direct relevance for psychopathology research, and (c) the principal methodological tool of structural research--factor analysis--is too subjective to yield psychologically meaningful results. We dispute each of these objections. Specifically, we offer an integrative hierarchical model--composed of four higher order traits--that is congruent with each of the major structural subtraditions within personality. We also discuss the implications of this integrative scheme for basic trait research, for the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology, and for the etiology of disorder.