Standard Operating Procedures for Serum and Plasma Collection: Early Detection Research Network Consensus Statement Standard Operating Procedure Integration Working Group

Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0725, USA.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 4.25). 01/2009; 8(1):113-7. DOI: 10.1021/pr800545q
Source: PubMed


Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.

    • ") was obtained on all participants collected in the L-methylfolate study, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (Montgomery and Asberg, 1979) was obtained on the participants collected at UAB. Blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum extracted using standard methods and stored at À80 C until assayed (Tuck et al., 2009). The timing of the blood sample was not controlled in the study and the participants were not fasting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many people with major depressive disorder (MDD) show evidence of systemic inflammation, including elevations in inflammatory factors, but the cause is unclear. The purpose of this analysis was to determine if obesity might contribute to the pro-inflammatory state in MDD patients. Blood was obtained from 135 MDD patients and 50 controls. Serum was extracted and assayed for interleukin (IL) -1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin using single- or multi-plex human immunoassay kits. The primary analysis contrasted IL-6, TNFα, and CRP between MDD and control groups with body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. The other analytes were compared in an exploratory fashion. IL-6 (but not TNFα or CRP) showed significant differences between MDD and controls even after covarying for BMI. Obese controls and obese MDD groups were significantly higher in IL-6 than both lean groups, but the two obese groups did not differ from each other. In the exploratory analyses, the IL-2 level showed robust and significant differences between MDD and controls even after covarying for BMI. Both lean and obese MDD were higher than lean and obese controls. Adiponectin levels were also lower in the MDD sample than controls. Prior findings of higher IL-6, and CRP in MDD patients may be explained, at least in part, based on obesity. High IL-2, however, was associated with depression and not obesity. The results have significant implications for the understanding of pathophysiology and, potentially treatment of MDD.
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    • "Serum samples were collected following uniform processing protocols recommended by the EDRN [49]. All samples were allowed to clot and serum was recovered by centrifugation within 2–8 hours of collection and stored at -80°C. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background CT screening for lung cancer is effective in reducing mortality, but there are areas of concern, including a positive predictive value of 4% and development of interval cancers. A blood test that could manage these limitations would be useful, but development of such tests has been impaired by variations in blood collection that may lead to poor reproducibility across populations. Results Blood-based proteomic profiles were generated with SOMAscan technology, which measured 1033 proteins. First, preanalytic variability was evaluated with Sample Mapping Vectors (SMV), which are panels of proteins that detect confounders in protein levels related to sample collection. A subset of well collected serum samples not influenced by preanalytic variability was selected for discovery of lung cancer biomarkers. The impact of sample collection variation on these candidate markers was tested in the subset of samples with higher SMV scores so that the most robust markers could be used to create disease classifiers. The discovery sample set (n = 363) was from a multi-center study of 94 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 269 long-term smokers and benign pulmonary nodule controls. The analysis resulted in a 7-marker panel with an AUC of 0.85 for all cases (68% adenocarcinoma, 32% squamous) and an AUC of 0.93 for squamous cell carcinoma in particular. This panel was validated by making blinded predictions in two independent cohorts (n = 138 in the first validation and n = 135 in the second). The model was recalibrated for a panel format prior to unblinding the second cohort. The AUCs overall were 0.81 and 0.77, and for squamous cell tumors alone were 0.89 and 0.87. The estimated negative predictive value for a 15% disease prevalence was 93% overall and 99% for squamous lung tumors. The proteins in the classifier function in destruction of the extracellular matrix, metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Conclusions Selecting biomarkers resistant to sample processing variation led to robust lung cancer biomarkers that performed consistently in independent validations. They form a sensitive signature for detection of lung cancer, especially squamous cell histology. This non-invasive test could be used to improve the positive predictive value of CT screening, with the potential to avoid invasive evaluation of nonmalignant pulmonary nodules.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical Proteomics
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    • "Blood samples from TT immunized and unimmunized animals were collected and the sera was separated using reported standard protocol (Tuck et al., 2009). To this equimolar concentrations of TT and CsAuNPs (TT:CsAuNPs) were incubated at 37 C and subjected to particle size and zeta potential analysis at predetermined intervals (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h). "
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    ABSTRACT: Many biotherapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles make use of conjugated or adsorbed protein moieties. Physical parameters of association such as particle size, morphology, surface chemistry, temperature influences the protein-nanoparticle association and thereby their interaction with the biological environment. In present study, effect of size of chitosan reduced gold nanoparticles (CsAuNPs) and association temperature on structure and function of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine has been investigated. CsAuNPs were synthesized in the sizes of 20±3, 40±5 and 80±7nm followed by loading of TT. Binding process of CsAuNPs with TT was investigated at their predetermined micro molar concentrations. Upon binding of TT onto CsAuNPs, particle surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. CD spectroscopic evaluation of TT bound 20nm CsAuNPs led to 75% reduction in secondary structure of TT and thereby compromised immune function. Binding of TT with 40 and 80nm sized CsAuNPs did not cause significant modifications in secondary structure or function of TT. Thermodynamic studies using temperature dependent fluorescence spectroscopy revealed an increase in association constants with the temperature. Based on thermodynamic data three phases in CsAuNPs and TT association process were traced. Samples from these distinct phases were also investigated for immunological recognition. Ex-vivo interaction of TT-CsAuNPs with TT positive and negative sera followed by relative change in particle size and zeta potential was studied. The findings here suggests prominent role of particle size and association temperature on adsorbed TT structure and function. Such studies may help in engineering functional nanotherapeutics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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