Article

Effects of a Full-Body Massage on Pain Intensity, Anxiety, and Physiological Relaxation in Taiwanese Patients with Metastatic Bone Pain: A Pilot Study

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Abstract

Bone involvement, a hallmark of advanced cancer, results in intolerable pain, substantial morbidity, and impaired quality of life in 34%-45% of cancer patients. Despite the publication of 15 studies on massage therapy (MT) in cancer patients, little is known about the longitudinal effects of MT and safety in cancer patients with bone metastasis. The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility of MT and to examine the effects of MT on present pain intensity (PPI), anxiety, and physiological relaxation over a 16- to 18-hour period in 30 Taiwanese cancer patients with bone metastases. A quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-post-test design with repeated measures was used to examine the time effects of MT using single-item scales for pain (PPI-visual analog scale [VAS]) and anxiety (anxiety-VAS), the modified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MSF-MPQ), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). MT was shown to have effective immediate [t(29)=16.5, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], short-term (20-30 minutes) [t(29)=9.3, P=0.000; t(29)=10.1, P=0.000], intermediate (1-2.5 hours) [t(29)=7.9, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], and long-term benefits (16-18 hours) [t(29)=4.0, P=0.000; t(29)=5.7, P=0.000] on PPI and anxiety. The most significant impact occurred 15 [F=11.5(1,29), P<0.002] or 20 [F=20.4(1,29), P<0.000] minutes after the intervention. There were no significant time effects in decreasing or increasing HR and MAP. No patient reported any adverse effects as a result of MT. Clinically, the time effects of MT can assist health care providers in implementing MT along with pharmacological treatment, thereby enhancing cancer pain management. Randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the effectiveness of MT in this cancer population.

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... Once duplicates were removed, 1155 records were screened based on title and abstract, and 1102 were excluded because they were not within the scope of this review. We assessed the full text of 53 studies and retained 13 of them that met the inclusion criteria [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60] . One additional article (Buvanendran et al. [60] ) was identified during the final manual search among the references of [57] . ...
... With regard to the pain type, four studies enrolled patients suffering from neuropathic pain [ 47 , 48 , 57 , 59 ], mostly due to chemotherapy treatment (3/16); five studies involved patients subjected to a nociceptive stimulus (surgery [ 53 , 56 ], dental stimulation [50] , and invasive procedures [ 51 , 54 ]). Two studies looked at cancer pain in general [ 52 , 58 ], and one each at breakthrough pain episodes [55] , chronic pain [60] , and metastatic bone pain [49] . ...
... Diastolic blood pressure was found to decrease after antalgic therapy in only one [52] out of three studies [ 54 , 58 ] significantly. Mean arterial pressure was used in two studies, decreasing significantly after an antalgic therapy in one study [52] , while it did not significantly change in the other study [49] . ...
Article
Background and objective Pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms in persons with cancer. Still, its assessment is often neglected both by patients and healthcare professionals. There is increasing interest in conducting pain assessment and monitoring via physiological signals that promise to overcome the limitations of state-of-the-art pain assessment tools. This systematic review aims to evaluate existing experimental studies to identify the most promising methods and results for objectively quantifying cancer patients’ pain experience. Methods Four electronic databases (Pubmed, Compendex, Scopus, Web of Science) were systematically searched for articles published up to October 2020. Results Fourteen studies (528 participants) were included in the review. The selected studies analyzed seven physiological signals. Blood pressure and ECG were the most used signals. Sixteen physiological parameters showed significant changes in association with pain. The studies were fairly consistent in stating that heart rate, the low-frequency to high-frequency component ratio (LF/HF), and systolic blood pressure positively correlate with the pain. Conclusions Current evidence supports the hypothesis that physiological signals can help objectively quantify, at least in part, cancer patients’ pain experience. While there is much more to be done to obtain a reliable pain assessment method, this review takes an essential first step by highlighting issues that should be taken into account in future research: use of a wearable device for pervasive recording in a real-world context, implementation of a big-data approach possibly supported by AI, including multiple stratification factors (e.g., cancer site and stage, source of pain, demographic and psychosocial data), and better-defined recording procedures. Improved methods and algorithms could then become valuable add-ons in taking charge of cancer patients.
... 18 Those patients who received massage said that it reduced their distress level 19 eased tightness and provided relaxation. 20 There are many types of massage and back massage is one of the common ones. Sims defined back massage as, a massage that covers only the back area of the patient's body and different strokes are used with both hands. ...
... Those patients who received massage and experienced it, felt that it provided a soothing effect and relaxation. 20 Many studies conducted in western countries on therapeutic massage revealed that it helps to control cancer-related symptoms For example, it improves the quality of sleep, reduces pain, anxiety and distress in oncology patients. 16,[21][22][23] Massage is a famous complementary therapy among Americans and its use is increasing specifically for pain management. ...
... One pilot study conducted in Taiwan to examine the longitudinal effect of full body massage on pain intensity and other symptoms of patients with metastatic bone pain. 20 Quasi-experimental pre-post design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the time effect of massage therapy (MT) on 30 cancer patients. Duration of each massage was about 45 minutes. ...
Article
This literature review explores the effectiveness of massage therapy to reduce cancer pain. As part of the review, systematic literature search was carried out on various electronic databases and specialised journals. Included are 19 research-based articles and 8 review articles. The review suggests that cancer has become a common health problem in the world and most of the cancer patients are going through intense and unbearable pain. Studies have reported that most of the cancer patients' pain reduced with therapeutic massage. Seventy-three per cent of cancer patients use massage therapy in the USA. Few studies are available in the context of the developing world related to massage therapy and we could not find any study in the Pakistani context. There is a need to conduct an interventional study about the effectiveness of massage therapy to control cancer pain in developing countries such as Pakistan.
... It consists of the basic maneuvers of: effleurage, petrissage, friction, pinching and vibration (9) . Some authors (10) show that the perception of pain by palliative care patients decreases and this effect lasts up to 18 hours after application, while others (11) indicate that the intervention performed by a nurse specialized in therapeutic massage for 45 minutes in children with bone metastases reduces anxiety and pain, with lasting effects in the long term. ...
... In another of the analyzed articles (15) These benefits can be achieved in both inpatients and outpatients and by using different techniques such as Swedish massage and the technique of circular movements with fingers. This is concurrent with other studies (10)(11)24) not present in this review. In that sense, they have used Swedish massage in adult patients with bone metastases (11,24) or therapeutic massage in adult palliative care patients (10) , decreasing pain. ...
... This is concurrent with other studies (10)(11)24) not present in this review. In that sense, they have used Swedish massage in adult patients with bone metastases (11,24) or therapeutic massage in adult palliative care patients (10) , decreasing pain. ...
Article
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Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). Results: of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils). Conclusion: therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it.
... Also through the qualitative results enhance improvements total pain (Adams et al., 2010). This procedure significantly reduces the levels of pain (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner, 2003;Currin & Meister, 2008;Young, 2008), either immediately (Grealish, Lomasney, & Whiteman, 2000;Kutner, Smith, Corbin, Kemphill, Benton & Mellis, 2008;Sui-Whi, et al., 2011), short-term (20/30 minutes) and long term (16/18 hours) (Sui-Whi, et al., 2011), although the most significant impact occurred in the first few minutes after the intervention (Jane et al., 2009). Showed a decrease in analgesic used and consumption of rescue analgesics (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner, 2003;Deng & Cassileth, 2005), although consumption of morphine held during 10 days, although there was reduction in levels of pain after the 5th day (Ferreira & Lauretti, 2007). ...
... As for anxiety, there was a decrease of anxiety with 24% (Ferrell-Torry & Glick, 1993) and 50% (Cassileth & Vickers, 2004), however only a study anxiety increased from 3.83 to 4.75 (Toth et al., 2003). Another studies showed a significant reduction in anxiety and depression after massage therapy (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner, 2003;Hernandez-Reif, Ironson, Field, Hurley, Katz & Diego, 2004;Cassileth & Vickers, 2004;Deng & Cassileth, 2005;Young, 2008;Jane et al., 2009). ...
... Regarding to pain was found on the basis of the described studies, above that the results converge because massage therapy decreases pain levels in some so significantly (Weinrich & Weinrich, 1990;Ferrell-Torry & Glick, 1993;Grealish, Lomasney, & Whiteman, 2000;Wilkie et al., 2000;Toth et al., 2003;Post-White et al., 2003;Cassileth & Vickers, 2004;Currin & Meister, 2008;Young, 2008;Jane et al., 2009;Adams, White & Beckett, 2010;Sui-Whi, et al., 2011) and in others not (Deng & Cassileth, 2005;Ferreira & Lauretti, 2007;Kutner et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Effect of Massage Therapy in Cancer Patients Márcia Lúcia Sousa Dias Alves, Maria Helena de Agrela Gonçalves Jardim, Bárbara Pereira Gomes Abstract The increase in longevity and incidence of chronic diseases reveals an increased importance in terms of public health. The oncologic illness as such, it is a debilitating and progressive pathology with need for prevention and symptomatic relief. In order to respond to the question: “The effect of massage therapy on cancer patients?” We have done a review of empirical literature indexed in databases online, getting only 21 articles published since 1990 to 2015. It was possible to verify some of the effects of massage therapy, particularly in relieving pain, decreased anxiety, depression and nausea and increased well-being. Not found the effect of this intervention on the relief of suffering and the quality of life of patients. With the heterogeneity of methodologies, studies suggest the development of more homogeneous research, materials and methods to assess the effects of massage therapy in cancer patients Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/ijn.v3n2a11
... L'hypothèse concernant la diminution de l'anxiété semble être vérifiée et est en accord avec plusieurs études mentionnées précédemment (Chen et al., 2013;Jane et al., 2009;Sharpe et al., 2007;Sherman et al., 2010). Cet effet anxiolytique pourrait trouver des explications biochimiques. ...
... al., 2013;Jane et al., 2009;Sharpe et al., 2007;Sherman et al., 2010). En outre, nous postulons également, au vu des données de la littérature, que le massage diminue la fréquence cardiaque(Adib-Hajbaghery et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2013;Givi, 2013;Kaye et al., 2008), la fréquence respiratoire(Adib-Hajbaghery et al., 2012) et augmente la saturation pulsée en dioxygène ...
... ). De plus, au Royaume -Uni, les « physiothérapeutes » soulignent l'importance de détecter les symptômes psychologiques lors des soins concernant l'appareil musculo-Jane et al. (2009) ont montré dans un essai sur échantillon apparié de patients souffrant d'un cancer avec métastase osseuse que l'effet anxiolytique d'un massage du corps entier perdurait au moins 17 heures après une session de 45 minutes de massage suédois avec des pressions glissées de moyennes intensité. L'anxiété, mesurée par EVA, était initialement de 5,4 puis 2,5 après le massage et de 3 à 17 heures post-massage. ...
Article
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Introduction La BPCO est une maladie respiratoire chronique touchant 7,5 % des habitants en France pour une population de plus de 40 ans [1]. L’activite physique se fait plus rare, du fait d’une dyspnee variable, mais etant le principal symptome [2]. De plus, les patients BPCO ont une prevalence importante de troubles anxieux, entre 10 et 55 % [3]. L’anxiete se traduit par des emotions de peur et/ou inquietudes et/ou signes physiques de stress excessifs par rapport aux dangers eventuels [4]. Elle reduit l’activite physique [3]. Toutefois, la rehabilitation respiratoire diminue cet etat anxieux [5]. L’anxiete provoque une augmentation de la frequence cardiaque de repos, de la tension arterielle [6] et de la dyspnee. Il en resulte une diminution de la qualite de vie [2]. Le massage est defini comme etant la manipulation des tissus mous [7]. Il presente des effets anxiolytiques pour une duree d’au moins 20 min [8]. Cette pratique n’est pas mentionnee dans le rapport de l’ATS ni de la HAS. Materiel, population et methode Materiel : VQ11 et HADS, oxymetre, EVA pour la dyspnee. Criteres d’inclusion : BPCO de plus de 40 ans, score > 11 a l’anxiete sur l’HADS. Criteres de non-inclusion : contre-indication medicale au massage, score < 11, troubles psychiatriques anterieurs au diagnostic de la BPCO. Criteres d’exclusion : detresse respiratoire pendant le massage, retractation du patient. Methode : remplissage des questionnaires, releve de la frequence cardiaque, de la frequence respiratoire, de la dyspnee et de la saturation avant et apres un massage de 20 min. Le massage est effectue par un seul et meme examinateur. Le patient choisit l’installation la plus confortable pour lui. Resultats Sur les 4 patients de la pre-etude, il y a une diminution moyenne de 5 points sur l’anxiete de la HADS (± point). Diminution moyenne de 5 points sur le VQ11 (± 3 points). Diminution moyenne de 3 points sur l’EVA pour la dyspnee. Diminution moyenne de 9 points pour la frequence respiratoire. Diminution moyenne de la frequence cardiaque de 10 points. Augmentation moyenne de la saturation arterielle en dioxyegne de 5 points (Figure 1). Conclusion ou discussion Le massage semble favoriser la diminution de l’anxiete, de la frequence respiratoire, de la frequence cardiaque et de la dyspnee. Il semble augmenter la qualite de vie a un temps instantane ainsi que la saturation arterielle en dioxygene. Une etude de type controlee randomisee sur le long terme est necessaire pour evaluer de facon significative les atouts de la massotherapie.
... Quanto às variáveis ansiedade e depressão constatou-se que, após a massagem terapêutica, estas melhoravam significativamente a curto prazo (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau, Wilcox & Lerner, 2003;Hernandez-Reif, Ironson, Field, Hurley, Katz & Diego, 2004;Cassileth & Vickers, 2004;Deng, Barrie & Cassileth, 2005;Downey et al., 2009;Jane, Wilkie, Gallucci, Beaton & Huang, 2009;Sui-Whi, Wilkie, Gallucci, Beaton & Huang, 2011). Existem estudos que relatam a eficácia da massagem terapêutica na depressão, a longo prazo (Downey et al., 2009;Jane et al., 2009;Sui-Whi et al., 2011). ...
... Quanto às variáveis ansiedade e depressão constatou-se que, após a massagem terapêutica, estas melhoravam significativamente a curto prazo (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau, Wilcox & Lerner, 2003;Hernandez-Reif, Ironson, Field, Hurley, Katz & Diego, 2004;Cassileth & Vickers, 2004;Deng, Barrie & Cassileth, 2005;Downey et al., 2009;Jane, Wilkie, Gallucci, Beaton & Huang, 2009;Sui-Whi, Wilkie, Gallucci, Beaton & Huang, 2011). Existem estudos que relatam a eficácia da massagem terapêutica na depressão, a longo prazo (Downey et al., 2009;Jane et al., 2009;Sui-Whi et al., 2011). ...
... Obtivemos resultados contraditórios a nível do efeito da intervenção na ansiedade e na depressão, pois apesar de uns estudos terem revelado efeitos positivos a curto (Postwhite et al., 2003;Hernandez-Reif et al., 2004;Cassileth & Vickers, 2004;Deng et al., 2005;Downey et al., 2009;Jane et al., 2009;Sui-Whi et al., 2011) e a longo prazo (Jane et al., 2009;Downey et al., 2009;Sui-Whi et al., 2011), todavia outros estudos não revelaram quaisquer efeitos (Ahles et al., 1999;Soden et al., 2004;Billhut et al., 2007;Wilkinson et al., 2007). ...
... Evidence for tactile stimulation explored primarily involves the use of some form of massage therapy, with studies of massage therapy applied to institutionalized disabled 3,4 highlighting the feasibility and acceptability of undertaking massage therapy research in this setting. Previous studies have shown that massage therapy improved mood state, including anxiety 5 and stress, 6,7 reduced pain 5,8 and improved sleep/wake behavior and fatigue. 8,9 Studies into the effectiveness of massage therapy for the relief of chronic pain have shown massage to increase deep sleep accompanied by lower pain levels 8 and improved mood. ...
... These results are not surprising, given that finding significant results in pilot studies is not expected. However, there was a significant change in immediate mood as measured by Smileometer and FAS post-massage therapy, which indicates either a short-term improvement in recipients' anxiety levels supportive of previous findings 5,7,8,11 or possible enjoyment. 28 Observation of resident data suggests that participants' positive mood immediately prior to massage increased over the study period, which may indicate possible anticipation of the therapy. ...
... A differential effect using full-body massage cannot be excluded. Previous research had indicated that massage therapy was beneficial for people suffering CP, 9,14 MS 29 and cancer, 5,11 conditions apparent in this participant pool. However, the results of this study indicate that massage may provide a positive tactile experience for disabled individuals residing in care and highlights the feasibility, and acceptability of undertaking massage therapy research in this setting. ...
Article
Background: Research into the effects of touch in disabled adults in residential care remains largely unexplored in the current literature. Evidence suggests however, that massage therapy may improve mood state, including anxiety and stress, reduce pain and improve sleep/wake behavior and fatigue. These benefits are of importance as they have substantial impact on quality of life. Purpose: This pilot study evaluated the effect of therapeutic massage on the quality of life of adults with complex care needs living in residential care. Methods: Participants were recruited from three residential homes (Queensland, Australia) for 18-65 year olds with severe disability. 25 participants were recruited and received a massage program consisting of five weeks of twice weekly massages. Structured interviews were conducted pre-post intervention. Additionally, mood was ascertained preceding and following each massage session. Results: Mood of participants improved markedly immediately following massage session (p < 0.05) and pre-massage mood was observed to increase over the study period. However, pre- and post-intervention measures indicated massage did not improve pain, sleepiness, depression or stress levels or sustain positive mood three days post-intervention. Participants' satisfaction with their current health significantly improved (Z = -2.51, p = 0.012), as did their satisfaction with their current happiness (Z = -2.06, p = 0.04), suggesting that massage therapy offered some improvement in quality of life. Conclusions: The results of this pilot indicates that massage may be of benefit to people living with high care needs and represents a practical innovation providing tactile stimulation that may be integrated into care.
... colleagues (2009, 2011) proposed the following strategies to ensure the safety of MT for patients with bone metastases: (a) confirming sites of bone metastases with the patient's radiological test and consultations with his/her primary physician for the appropriateness and safety; (b) initiating a pre-intervention evaluation and modifying the MT intervention protocol so as to employ very light and gentle pressure of strokes in the region of bony metastatic sites and avoidance of sites of superficial tumors; and (c) monitoring the patient status consistently for the presence of escalating pain during and following the massage sessions. To date, results from numerous research-based studies indicated that, with special precautions, no adverse events have been reported as a result of MT in patients with cancer including those with bone metastases (Smith et al. 2002;Totch et al. 2003;Stephenson et al. 2007;Kutner et al. 2008;Jane et al. 2009Jane et al. , 2011. Cotter et al. (2000) posited both systemic (i.e. ...
... For patients with cancer, specialized education and experience for massage therapist working with cancer patients is needed by integrating advanced training program into undergraduate curricula in the regulated provinces in Canada, or providing continuing educational program in the Canada and the USA. Nowadays, some investigations intend to explore the feasibility and efficacy of training non-massage therapist healthcare providers (Jane et al. 2009(Jane et al. , 2011 or family caregivers to provide basic massage in patients with cancer, it is due to the concern of limited availability of licensed massage therapist or the continuity of providing comfort care at patient's home Stephenson et al. 2007;Gorman et al. 2008). ...
... The primary goal of this full-body massage was to decrease pain intensity and anxiety, and improved physiological relaxation for patients with metastatic bone pain during an in-patient hospitalization. To maximize therapeutic effects, this intervention should include the following protocol Wilkie et al. 2000;Smith et al. 2002;Price et al. 2007;Jane et al. 2009). Pre-massage Preparation 1. ...
Chapter
Despite extensive progress in the scientific understanding and the control of pain, 51–77% of patients with cancer, especially for patients with advanced cancer or approaching end-of-life phase, still experience moderate to severe pain at some time during their illness. This cancer pain can and does erode the quality of life of this patient population. For this and other reasons it is important for health professionals to advocate for appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities, such as massage therapy (MT), for pain management in patients with cancer. Evidence from studies reviewed in this chapter documents that patients/subjects in massage groups appeared to have more positive outcomes compared to those in control groups in terms of decreasing pain intensity, nausea or vomiting, fatigue, distressing symptoms, anxiety, depression, and self-reports of relaxation. These and associated effects on measures of physiological arousal (blood pressure) can be documented during massages as well as 5 min, 10–20 min, and 2–3 h following massage, but not beyond 24 h. In contrast, the most notable inconsistent massage effects are more relevant to sleep, quality of life, and stress adaptation indicators (i.e. heart rate, respiratory rate, cortisol, IgA and α-amylase, natural killer cells or lymphocytes). Future studies with well-designed trials and research directed at the mechanism will clarify potential sensitive indications, subgroup effects in terms of types or dose of massage, types or stage of cancer or type of symptom as well as, the mechanism of massage and in which circumstance it does and does not work. Importantly, MT interventions examined in this systematic review appear to be safe for patients with cancer which is also feasible for patients with advanced cancer or bone metastases and MT appears to enhance the quality of life for this population.
... According to previous studies, the number and duration of massage sessions ranges from a session of 3 to 45 minutes to several sessions in several weeks. 18,17 In this study, the intervention group received 7 sessions of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) for 7 consecutive days (one session per day) for 10 minutes. The intervention done by the researchers at 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm, which was a quieter time of the day, was carried out in a private room and on the massage chair beside the patient's bedside by observing their privacy. ...
... 29 Adib Haj Bagheri Chen et al. (2013) showed that back massage significantly reduces the anxiety in patients with congestive heart failure. 17 In all of these studies, the effectiveness of slow-stroke back massage in reducing the anxiety in patients regardless of the type of disease, the research community, the research environment and research tools have been confirmed, although only in the study of Shafie et al. (2013), the DASS-42 questionnaire has been used. 9 Regarding the existence of various stressors and anxiety factors in hospitals, training the patient's family to apply slow-stroke back massage to patients in conjunction with nurses can have a significant effect on reducing their anxiety in various therapeutic situations. ...
... Also, through the qualitative results enhance improvements of total pain (Adams et al. [1]). This procedure significantly reduces the levels of pain (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner [21]; Currin & Meister [8]; Young [29]), either immediately (Grealish, Lomasney, & Whiteman [14]; Kutner, Smith, Corbin, Kemphill, Benton & Mellis [17]; Sui-Whi, et al. [24]), short-term (20/30 minutes) and long term (16/18 hours) (Sui-Whi, et al. [24]), although the most significant impact occurred in the first few minutes after the intervention (Jane et al. [16]). It also showed a decrease in analgesics used and consumption of rescue analgesics (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner [21]; Deng & Cassileth [9]), although the consumption of morphine was held for 10 days. ...
... In terms of anxiety and depression, there were also contradictory results because some have revealed positive effects that patients feel in a short term (Post-White, Kinney, Savik, Gau & Lerner [21]; Hernandez-Reif, Ironson, Field, Hurley, Katz & Diego [15]; Cassileth & Vickers [6]; Deng & Cassileth [9]; Young [29]; Jane et al. [16]), other long-term (Soden, Vincent, Craske [23]; Hernandez-Reif et al. [15]) and others did not reveal any effects (Ahles et al. [2]). ...
... Also, through the qualitative results enhance improvements of total pain [14]. This procedure significantly reduces the levels of pain [15] [20], although the most significant impact occurred in the first few minutes after the intervention [21]. It also showed a decrease in analgesics used and consumption of rescue analgesics [15] [22], although the consumption of morphine was held for 10 days Nevertheless, there was a reduction in levels of pain after the 5th day [23]. ...
... Regarding pain, it was found on the basis of the described studies above, that the results converge because massage therapy decreases pain levels in some very significantly [9]- [18] [20] [21] and in others not so much [19] [22] [23]. We also note that there is the possibility of certain studies support that massage therapy causes patients to reduce the use of painkillers and recourse to SOS [15] [22], however it was concluded that the differences are not that significant [19] [23]. ...
Article
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The increase in longevity and incidence of chronic diseases reveals an increased importance in terms of public health. The oncologic illness is a debilitating and progressive pathology with need for prevention and symptomatic relief. In order to find the answer to the question: “What is the effect of massage therapy in cancer patients?” we have reviewed the empirical literature indexed in databases online, finding only 21 articles published between 1990 and 2015. It was possible to verify some of the effects of massage therapy, particularly in relieving pain, decreased anxiety, depression and nausea and increased well-being. However, it was not found the effect of this intervention on the relief of suffering and the quality of life of patients. With the heterogeneity of methodologies, studies suggest the development of more homogeneous research, materials and methods to assess the effects of massage therapy in cancer patients.
... Researchers have made significant findings about the effectiveness of massage therapy on anxiety and physiological parameters (13,(21)(22)(23). A study conducted by Baron and Faubert (2005) showed that anxiety decreased after massage therapy (24). ...
... However, SSBM was ineffective in reducing RR during the threeday period. Physiological indicators, including PR and BP, changed over the 30 minutes after the massage, but the effects of massage on RR were unclear (22). of the study and the drafting of the manuscript; Alia Jalalodini conducted the protocol; Kiarash Saatchi advised on the method of massage therapy, and Amir Kavousi advised on data analysis; Mahnaz Ghaljeh revised and approved the manuscript. ...
... Researchers have made significant findings about the effectiveness of massage therapy on anxiety and physiological parameters (13,(21)(22)(23). A study conducted by Baron and Faubert (2005) showed that anxiety decreased after massage therapy (24). ...
... However, SSBM was ineffective in reducing RR during the threeday period. Physiological indicators, including PR and BP, changed over the 30 minutes after the massage, but the effects of massage on RR were unclear (22). of the study and the drafting of the manuscript; Alia Jalalodini conducted the protocol; Kiarash Saatchi advised on the method of massage therapy, and Amir Kavousi advised on data analysis; Mahnaz Ghaljeh revised and approved the manuscript. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The outcomes of hospitalization anxiety are mental health disorders. One of the methods of anxiety reduction is massage, which can cause reduction of pain and changes in physiological parameters.
... Researchers have made significant findings about the effectiveness of massage therapy on anxiety and physiological parameters (13,(21)(22)(23). A study conducted by Baron and Faubert (2005) showed that anxiety decreased after massage therapy (24). ...
... However, SSBM was ineffective in reducing RR during the threeday period. Physiological indicators, including PR and BP, changed over the 30 minutes after the massage, but the effects of massage on RR were unclear (22). of the study and the drafting of the manuscript; Alia Jalalodini conducted the protocol; Kiarash Saatchi advised on the method of massage therapy, and Amir Kavousi advised on data analysis; Mahnaz Ghaljeh revised and approved the manuscript. ...
Article
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Background: The outcomes of hospitalization anxiety are mental health disorders. One of the methods of anxiety reduction is massage, which can cause reduction of pain and changes in physiological parameters. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) on hospitalization anxiety and physiological parameters in school-age children. Methods: This clinical trial study included 80 school-aged children from Ali Ebne Abi Taleb hospital, located in Zahedan, who were selected using sequential sampling and randomly divided into two groups: a massage group (40) and a control group (40). Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the state-trait anxiety inventory for children (STAIC). Subjects in the massage group received SSBM, using sesame oil, for 3 days. Massage was given three times a day, and each massage session lasted for 15 - 20 minutes. Physiological parameters and hospitalization anxiety were determined from the second to fifth days. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis data. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the mean of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and pulse rate (PR) in the massage group prior to intervention (97.05 ± 20.7, 60.35 ± 16.69 and 95.45 ± 13.02 respectively) and on the fifth day (88.32 ± 16.58, 55.95 ± 12.7 and 90.45 ± 15.1 respectively). However, no difference was observed in mean respiratory rate (RR) in the massage group from the second day (17.55 ± 3.6) to fifth day (17.62 ± 3.27) (P = 0.096). The mean of state of anxiety, which was 36.4 ± 5.1 before intervention, was reduced by the fifth day to 31.2 ± 5.1 in the massage group (P < 0.0001, t = 5.2). Conclusions: The results suggest that massage reduced hospitalization anxiety, PR, and BP. Therefore, we propose that nurses can use massage to reduce anxiety in school-age children in hospital. This method has no side-effects and is easily applicable.
... All patients in the study received medical treatment routine myocardial infarction, and therapeutic massage intervention along with their usual treatment was performed. In the first group, stroke massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11 hours) and evening (17)(18)(19) hour) was conducted, And in the second, reflexology massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11) and age (17)(18)(19) was performed. In the third group, except for routine maintenance and measurement of vital signs, we did not perform massage. ...
... All patients in the study received medical treatment routine myocardial infarction, and therapeutic massage intervention along with their usual treatment was performed. In the first group, stroke massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11 hours) and evening (17)(18)(19) hour) was conducted, And in the second, reflexology massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11) and age (17)(18)(19) was performed. In the third group, except for routine maintenance and measurement of vital signs, we did not perform massage. ...
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Introduction: Today, in many countries, the massage is used as a complementary therapy to reduce stress. In this study we evaluate the effect of reflexologic massage in comparison with stroke massage on physiological parameters of myocardial infarction patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed in 2012 on 105 patients who were randomly divided into three groups: reflexologic massage, stroke massage and control groups (each group with 35 patients). In the intervention groups each patient took massages for 15 minutes in morning and afternoon in one day. Vital signs and arterial O 2 saturation were measured before and after the massage by blood pressure cuff, thermometer, and pulse oxymeter. Paired T test and χ 2 test were used to analyze data Results: in stroke massage group, significant differentiation evaluated in oxygen saturation and with (p =0.002) in morning and afternoon in a day. No significant differences in blood oxygen saturation were seen in both reflexive massage group and control group. Conclusion: stroke massages is effective on blood oxygen saturation and it's so helpful for this patients.
... All patients in the study received medical treatment routine myocardial infarction, and therapeutic massage intervention along with their usual treatment was performed. In the first group, stroke massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11 hours) and evening (17)(18)(19) hour) was conducted, And in the second, reflexology massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11) and age (17)(18)(19) was performed. In the third group, except for routine maintenance and measurement of vital signs, we did not perform massage. ...
... All patients in the study received medical treatment routine myocardial infarction, and therapeutic massage intervention along with their usual treatment was performed. In the first group, stroke massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11 hours) and evening (17)(18)(19) hour) was conducted, And in the second, reflexology massage for 15 minutes in the morning (9-11) and age (17)(18)(19) was performed. In the third group, except for routine maintenance and measurement of vital signs, we did not perform massage. ...
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Background: Today, the use of complementary medicine alongside other treatments for relaxation and balancing Hemodynamic of cardiac patients is emphasized. So this study was to compare the effects of reflexologic massage and strokes massage on anxiety in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This clinical trial was done on105 patients who were randomly selected purposively on three groups, stroke massage, reflexology massage group and control group. In the intervention groups each patient massaged in the morning and evening for 15 minutes a day, each time. In the control group other than routine care and measure of anxiety we do not massage them. In the intervention group before the massage anxiety in morning and evening Twenty minutes after the Massage, measured by Spiel Berger Anxiety questionnaire. Findings: In intervention group between reflexology and stroke the anxiety was reduced with (P<0.005). Stroke massage reduces anxiety more than reflexive massage. In control group there are no significant differences in anxiety in morning and evening. Conclusion: According to the results, strokes massage more effective than reflexology massage in reducing anxiety. So use it to reduce the anxiety of the patients in critical care wards recommended.
... Research regarding instrument-assisted soft tissue manipulation in those with spinal neoplasm is also limited [44]. However, one study which included patients with spine metastasis found that massage therapy, a similar technique, could be safely administered and also led to significant reductions in pain [45]. ...
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Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the most common cause of spinal metastasis, and it may recur months to years after treatment. Case Report: A 41-year-old woman, recovered from breast cancer, presented to a chiropractor with acute-on-chronic 3-week history of low back pain radiating to the right leg. She had seen 2 providers previously; lumbar spondylosis had been diagnosed via radiography. Given her recent symptom progression and cancer history, the chiropractor ordered lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, revealing L5 vertebral marrow replacement, suggestive of metastasis. The chiropractor referred her to an oncologist. While awaiting biopsy and oncologic treatments, the oncologist cleared the patient to receive gentle spinal traction and soft tissue manipulation, which alleviated her back pain. The patient continued radiation and chemotherapy, with low back pain remaining improved over 18 months. A literature review identified 7 previous cases of women presenting to a chiropractor with breast cancer metastasis. Including the current case, most had spinal pain and vertebral metastasis (75%) and history of breast cancer (88%) diagnosed a mean 5±3 years prior. Conclusions: This case illustrates a woman with low back pain due to recurrent metastatic breast cancer, identified by a chiropractor, and the utility of a multidisciplinary approach to pain relief during oncologic care. Our literature review suggests that although uncommon, such patients can present to chiropractors with spinal pain from vertebral metastasis and have a known history of breast cancer. Conservative therapies should be used cautiously and under oncologic supervision in such cases.
... www.gmj.ir sage therapy on reducing pain in patients with metastatic bone and ameliorating anxiety in CHF patients, respectively [18,19]. Also, Tarja claimed that, there was a negative relationship between massage therapy and pain in patients who were admitted in ICU [20]. ...
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Background: Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is a care that increases the mobilization of several structures from both muscle and subcutaneous tissue. We planned to investigate the effect of classic CPT on pain, fatigue, satisfaction, and hospital length of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Materials and methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial that conducted on 50 patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. The patients have been randomly divided into two groups; in the group A (n=25) patients received physiotherapy at a single session of classic CPT, 4 times during 2nd to 5th days for 15 minutes in every session, in the group B (n=25) patients had not protocol of this exercise therapy (control). Results: The average age of all participants was 62.08 ±9.08 years. Of the 50 patients, 33 (66%) was male. Classic CPT significantly decreased pain (P=0.04), hospital LOS (P=0.010) and could increase in patients' satisfaction (P<0.001). However, it had no considerable effect on fatigue (P=0.725). Conclusion: According to our findings, classic CPT could improve postoperative care after off-pump CABG surgery.
... 4 A pilot longitudinal study in Taiwan on the effect of full body massage on pain intensity and anxiety found that massage yielded beneficial effect both in short-term and long-term. 5 Swedish massage treatment was found to result in a minor decrease in blood pressure. 6 Massage was found to be more likely to result in pain relief compared with static touch. ...
... Regarding the symptom pain, authors (55) show that pain perception by patients undergoing palliative care is reduced and lasts for 18 hours after the application of therapeutic massage, whereas other researchers (56) indicate that the intervention, conducted by a nurse with expertise in therapeutic massage for 45 minutes in children with osseous metastases reduces anxiety and pain and its e ects are long-lasting. Based on previous studies with both adult and pediatric populations with chronic diseases, including cancer, therapeutic massage may help reducing unpleasant symptoms, such as pain, fear, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as improving the individual's functional capacity (23,50,51,54,57) . ...
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Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of complementary therapies in the management of symptom clusters in children and adolescents with cancer undergoing palliative care. Method: Systematic review guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, resorting to the databases MEDLINE, Web of Science, Central Cochrane, and PsycINFO. The identification, selection, inclusion, extraction, and methodological assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results: Five quasi-experiments met the eligibility criteria. The heterogeneous characteristics of the studies made meta-analysis impossible. Two studies used therapeutic massage, one used Reiki, one used boswellic acid, and one used Cannabis sativa; three of them (therapeutic massage and Reiki) presented statistically significant results for the management of the cluster pain-anxiety-worry-dyspnea. Most studies presented a moderate risk of bias as per ROBINS-I tool. Conclusion: Therapeutic massage and Reiki may be effective for the symptom clusters management, especially the pain-anxiety-worry-dyspnea cluster in children and adolescents undergoing palliative care. Key words: Child; Adolescent; Palliative Care; Complementary Therapies; Oncology Nursing; Review
... Com relação ao sintoma dor, alguns autores (55) mostram que a percepção da dor por pacientes em cuidados paliativos diminui e dura até 18 horas após a aplicação da massagem terapêutica, enquanto outros pesquisadores (56) indicam que a intervenção -realizada por uma enfermeira especializada Quadro 3 -Avaliação pelo consenso de ROBINS-I entre dois revisores pelo domínio de viés. ...
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Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade de terapias complementares no manejo dos clusters de sintomas em crianças e adolescentes com câncer em cuidados paliativos. Método: Revisão sistemática guiada pelo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, com acesso às bases de dados MEDLINE, Web of Science, Central Cochrane e PsycINFO. A identificação, seleção, inclusão, extração e avaliação metodológica foram realizadas por dois revisores independentemente. Resultados: Atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade cinco quase-experimentos. As características heterogêneas dos estudos impossibilitaram a meta-análise. Dois estudos utilizaram a massagem terapêutica; um, o Reiki; um, ácido boswélico; e um, a Cannabis sativa, sendo que três deles (que usaram massagem terapêutica e Reiki) apresentaram resultados estatisticamente significantes para o manejo do cluster dor-ansiedade-preocupação-dispneia. A maioria dos estudos apresentou risco-de-viés moderado pela ferramenta ROBINS-I. Conclusão: A massagem terapêutica e o Reiki podem ser terapias efetivas para o manejo de clusters de sintomas, especialmente o cluster dor-ansiedade-preocupação-dispneia em crianças e adolescentes com câncer em cuidados paliativos. Palavras-Chave: Criança; Adolescente; Cuidados Paliativos; Terapias Complementares; Enfermagem Oncológica; Revisão
... Garner., et al. (2008) further noted that massage therapy has proved beneficial for hospitalized psychiatric patients [43]. Thus, massage therapy has promising applications in alleviating depression and anxiety [44,45]. ...
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Psychological disorders are various in their causes and manifestations. Due to exhaustive efforts, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition (DSM-V) developed operational definitions of distinct psychological conditions, disorders, determining specific criteria for their diagnoses and treatments. The World Health Organization (through the Mental Health Gap Action Programme and World Mental Health survey) investigated the prevalence of individual psychological conditions and correlations between them. Determining an accurate diagnosis remains the most significant challenge in effectively addressing mental disorders. Also, considering the latest research particularly in epigenetics, more specialized and individualized treatment programs are needed to improve treatment outcomes, ameliorate symptoms, and aid in the recovery from the condition. Medical research has determined that multiple factors can be at play in specific conditions, such as genetics, physiology (hormones), physical environment, social environment, diet, and lifestyle. Not all patients with the same condition and treatment respond similarly. Thus, non-pharmacological methods and modalities are being considered, researched, and applied as monotherapy or adjuncts to conventional pharmaceutical treatment and psychotherapy. In dietary modifications or nutritional supplementation, nutritional intervention is one of the most straightforward methods of addressing nutrition-related mental disorders. Also, proven and time-tested complementary therapies-including acupuncture, aromatherapy, eye movement desensitization reprocessing, herbal medicine, homeopathy, phototherapy, massage therapy, meditation , spiritual healing and prayer, therapy pets, and yoga-can be invaluable aids in lessening symptoms of particular psychological conditions and disorders, as reported herein.
... Some reviews have already examined the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for bone metastasis, such as those proposed by Buga et al. [7] and by Mercadante et al. [8], who include different treatments to control pain; nevertheless, they do not focus on vertebral bone metastasis, and furthermore, they are not up to date. Regarding non-pharmacological treatments, we found studies that have investigated the effectiveness of a full-body massage on pain intensity [22] and the need of doing exercise [7]; additionally, attempts have been made to use hypnosis in order to control pain [23]. ...
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There is no systematic review that has identified existing studies evaluating the pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention for pain management in patients with bone metastasis. To fill this gap in the literature, this systematic review with meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different antalgic therapies (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) in the improvement of pain of these patients. To this end, this protocol has been written according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020135762). A systematic search will be carried out in four international databases: Medline (Via PubMed), Web of Science, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS, to select the randomized controlled clinical trials. The Risk of Bias Tool developed by Cochrane will be used to assess the risk of bias and the quality of the identified studies. A narrative synthesis will be used to describe and compare the studies, and after the data extraction, random effects model and a subgroup analyses will be performed according to the type of intervention, if possible. This protocol aims to generate a systematic review that compiles and synthesizes the best and most recent evidence on the treatment of pain derived from vertebral metastasis.
... Interestingly, after 10 massage sessions, the respondents declared that they were less concerned about the future, enjoyed the present more often, were less anxious and less worried about their own health. Similar results were obtained in other groups of caregivers following massage [23,[32][33][34]. Additionally, a statistically significant decrease in the level of depression was achieved as a result of the relaxation classes, which was evident in the total score and in the emotional and somatic subscales. ...
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The aim of this pilot intervention study was to assess the effectiveness of selected forms of therapy (massage and relaxation) in reducing the perceived burden and improving the emotional status of caregivers of people with dementia and to determine which form of physical intervention is most effective. The study group was made up of 45 informal caregivers, who were divided into three subgroups (the massage group, relaxation group and control group). The Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Berlin Social Support Scale (BSSS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) were used. In the study group of caregivers, an average level of perceived burden, satisfactory life satisfaction and moderate severity of depressive symptoms were found. Massage led to a reduction in perceived burden and an improvement in mood and well-being of the examined group of caregivers. Group relaxation activities had no effect on the level of burden experienced by the caregivers, but significantly improved their mood. Both massage and relaxation were equally effective in improving the well-being of caregivers. Due to the lower cost of group activities, relaxation activities seem to be more effective and easier to organize, but further studies are necessary.
... Patients were massaged by nurses working in the same ward. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis have both reflected findings, of the present literature, on how a massage session can improve patients' physical and psychological symptoms (Kutner et al., 2008;Jane et al., 2009;Falkensteiner et al., 2011). In addition to this, a growing number of scientific studies are comparing different forms of touch and how a massage session works neurologically. ...
Article
Background. Throughout a European Erasmus + project, fifteen Italian nurses attended a 5-day seminar on complementary therapies in order to improve their knowledge and integrate it safely into oncology nursing care. Aims. This article describes a pilot-study, inspired by the project experience, on implementation of nurses delivered massage in four Italian hospitals. Methods. Nurses massaged patients over a four-month period, following a protocol. A mixed-method approach was used to gather quantitative data (30-item Therapy Impact Questionnaire-TIQ) and qualitative data (questionnaire for patients and nurses created ad-hoc). Data were collected before and after each massage session by a student nurse or a non-massaging nurse. Results. A convenience group of patients (48) was treated and 171 massage sessions were performed. Patients belonged to different units: oncology ward, general medicine and palliative. TIQ data analysis confirmed a significative reduction of physical and psychological symptoms after the massage sessions (P=0.001). Post treatments patients' interviews highlighted a general level of relaxation (50 %) and an experienced sense of wellbeing (22%). A reduction of symptoms (13.5 %) was also described, in terms of: relief, reduced anxiety, less pain, normalized breathing pattern. Conclusion. This pilot-study has helped to consider the possibility of nurse delivered massage integration within clinical practice. Moreover, nurses' positive and rewarding experience was highlighted too. Results achieved could be considered as a useful reflection for future more structured ad robust research projects.
... Massage therapy is one of the oldest complementary therapies, which had special status and popularity and used along with free medicines. A large number of years everywhere throughout the world massage has utilized for relaxation (Jane et al, 2009;O'Flaherty et al, 2012). Human beings experience the sense of touch in many ways throughout the lifetime. ...
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For several reasons study of aggression is important. Unfortunately aggression can be found frequently among players and athletes and today is the main issue of competitions. Features and personality characteristics are the most important factors in aggressive behaviors and emotions. Although there are many studies about effects of massage on psychological factors but there are few studies in field of massage on athlete’s psychological factors especially in physical competitive sports such as wrestling. Therefore in this study, we examined the effects of sports massage on the level of aggression in adolescent wrestlers. In this study, sample population was selected out of 50 male adolescent wrestler. Aggression Questionnaire used to collecting wrestlers aggression data. At the beginning of each session, groups exercised wrestling training for 60 minutes and the experimental group received sports massage during 10 sessions for 25 minutes. The results showed that sports massage significantly reduces the level of wrestler’s aggression.
... [26] Furthermore, Chen et al. previously reported that back PT can reduce anxiety and increase comfort and physiologic responses in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). [27] Patients with metastatic bone pain have also benefited from undergoing a course of PT. [28] The fact that the QoL scores significantly improved following the PT intervention represents an important finding. As our previous studies have found, QoL is an increasingly useful method of assessing the outcome of any surgical intervention. ...
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Background This study aims to assess the impact that physiotherapy (PT) has on the quality of life (QoL) of patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PT on physical and mental aspects of patients’ QoL. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 50 patients who aged between 60 and 70 years and who had previously undergone CABG surgery. The patients were randomly allocated to two groups: a PT group (n = 25) and a control group (n = 25). The physical characteristics of the participants were recorded at the outset of the study. The patients who were allocated to the PT group completed 16 sessions of classic PT. QoL assessments of all participants were performed before and after the program in the form of a short form-36 health survey. An independent sample t-test and an ANCOVA were performed for the purpose of statistical analyses. Results The QoL scores of the patients (mean age = 62.08 years) who underwent PT significantly improved after the intervention (P < 0.001). A significant difference between groups was observed (P < 0.001) in both the mental component summary and physical component summary variables. Conclusion PT can help relieve pain, reduce depression, help patients more effectively perform the tasks of everyday living, and help ease the symptoms of other disabilities associated with cardiac surgery. In the current study, the implementation of a PT program improved the patient's mental health and increased their QoL.
... The selected studies collected information for several objectives. Several focused on pain relating to postures and movement in a work environment [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]; others studied the impact of therapy and/or exercise [30][31][32][33][34][35] and a large group saught to describe pain and the experience of pain [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] and pain-related pathologies [55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68]. Other studies were aimed at understanding the relationship of pain to other factors: emotional state [69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85], social context [86][87][88], sleep [89,90], disability [91], quality of life [92][93][94][95], and fear or catastrophism [96][97][98]. ...
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Background: Monitoring of patients may decrease treatment costs and improve quality of care. Pain is the most common health problem that people seek help for in hospitals. Therefore, monitoring patients with pain may have significant impact in improving treatment. Several studies have studied factors affecting pain; however, no previous study has reviewed the contextual information that a monitoring system may capture to characterize a patient’s situation. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to (1) determine what types of technologies have been used to monitor adults with pain, and (2) construct a model of the context information that may be used to implement apps and devices aimed at monitoring adults with pain. Methods: A literature search (2005-2015) was conducted in electronic databases pertaining to medical and computer science literature (PubMed, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) using a defined search string. Article selection was done through a process of removing duplicates, analyzing title and abstract, and then reviewing the full text of the article. Results: In the final analysis, 87 articles were included and 53 of them (61%) used technologies to collect contextual information. A total of 49 types of context information were found and a five-dimension (activity, identity, wellness, environment, physiological) model of context information to monitor adults with pain was proposed, expanding on a previous model. Most technological interfaces for pain monitoring were wearable, possibly because they can be used in more realistic contexts. Few studies focused on older adults, creating a relevant avenue of research on how to create devices for users that may have impaired cognitive skills or low digital literacy. Conclusions: The design of monitoring devices and interfaces for adults with pain must deal with the challenge of selecting relevant contextual information to understand the user’s situation, and not overburdening or inconveniencing users with information requests. A model of contextual information may be used by researchers to choose possible contextual information that may be monitored during studies on adults with pain.
... Protocols for massage varied in previous studies (Jane et al, 2008). The intensity and duration of massage ranged from one session of 3-45 minutes to 15 sessions over 4 weeks (Jane et al, 2009;Post-White et al, 2003). To be consistent with the research aim to improve physical indicators, the protocol of massage for each participant in the intervention group, one session of massage therapy (for about 60 minutes) was done. ...
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Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the inability of the myocardium to pump enough blood to meet the body's metabolic demands. This study was conducted to assess the effects of effect of massage therapy on physiologic responses in patients with congestive heart failure. This study was a quasi-experimental, done with the permission of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences that conducted on two CCU wards of hospitals of Jahrom. Fifty participants were recruited to participate in this study within 24 hours after admission to the cardiac ward. The massages were begun 3 days after hospitalization in order not to disturb their medical treatment plan. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation data were collected 30 minutes before and after back massage. A total of 50 individuals participated in this study. After 3 days of massage, participants' systolic BP (p < 0.01), diastolic BP (p < 0.01), HR (p < 0.01), and respiratory rates (p < 0.01) were significantly decreased. Also, the participants' oxygen saturation levels showed significant improvement (p < 0.01). Based on the findings of the present study, massage therapy was effective in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate and O2 saturation in patients with CHF. Therefore we suggest that massage therapy be used as a complementary method to stabilize their vital signs.
... [25,29,[31][32][33] Swedish massage techniques used in this study were mostly calming techniques, and therefore, they could naturally reduce the heart rate and blood pressure. [34] Hosseini et al., in their study on the effects of massage therapy on coma patients admitted to ICU, observed that three 20-min massage therapy sessions in three consecutive days could significantly decrease vital signs, which could be due to reduced stress and increased calm in the patients. [35] It is possible that the same calming effects of massage techniques were responsible for reduction of pulse and respiratory rate in the current study. ...
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Background: Anxiety is an inseparable part of our lives and a serious threat to health. Therefore, it is necessary to use certain strategies to prevent disorders caused by anxiety and adjust the vital signs of people. Swedish massage is one of the most recognized techniques for reducing anxiety. This study aims to compare the effects of two massage techniques on the vital signs and anxiety of healthy women. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with a two-group, crossover design was conducted on 20 healthy women who were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to BNC (Back, Neck, and Chest) or LAF (Leg, Arm, and Face) groups. Massage therapy was carried out for a 14-week period (two 4-week massage therapy sessions and 6 weeks washout stage). Gathered data were analyzed using paired t-test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Both BNC and LAF methods caused a significant decrease in systolic BP in the first stage (P = 0.02, 0.00); however, diastolic BP showed significant decrease only in BNC group (P = 0.01). The mean average of body temperature of LAF group showed a significant decrease in the first stage (P = 0.0.3), and pulse and respiratory rate showed significant decrease in both groups during the second stage (P = 0.00). In addition, anxiety scores showed no significant difference before and after massage therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Massage therapy caused a decrease in systolic BP, pulse, and respiratory rate. It can be concluded that massage therapy was useful for decreasing the vital signs associated with anxiety in healthy women.
... The pressure generated by massage strokes generates changes in various measurable physiological phenomena on tissue and cellular levels, within the chain of electrochemical reactions in the local area of massage, as well as in the organism as a whole. 164,165 Tissue effects: Collagen deformation releases fascia restrictions and improves regional blood flow. Direct pressure releases myofascial trigger points in affected and compensatory muscle groups. ...
Article
Clinical aromatherapy is performed for the purpose of improving patients’ self-healing power and comfort by bringing symptom relief and QOL improvement through the psychological and pharmacological effects of essential oils and the physiological effects of touch by aromatherapy massage. Aromatherapy massage has been practiced in chronic diseases including cancer, care of the elderly, psychosomatic medicine, psychiatry, rehabilitation, obstetrics and gynecology, dermatology, ICU, etc., and research to verify the effectiveness is underway. In the future, clinical aromatherapy will be introduced into the nursing field as comfort care, which is expected to improve the quality of patient care.
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We tested whether territorial fish (Nile tilapia) perceive body tactile stimulation as a positive or negative resource. Individual male fish were placed for eight days in an aquarium containing a rectangular PVC frame, which was filled with vertical plastic sticks sided with silicone bristles in the middle of the tank. Fish passing this device received a tactile stimulus. The fish then underwent a preference test by choosing between areas half-with and half-without tactile bristles. Then, fish were submitted to a motivation test where they had to pass an aversive stimulus (bright light) to access the device. Fish were, then, paired to settle social rank, which occurs by way of fights (social stressor), and were assigned again to preference and motivation tests. A group without social stress was used as a control. Contrary to our expectations, fish preferred the area without tactile bristles, although subordinate fish reached tactile stimulation more than the dominant one. Social stress did not affect the preference and motivation, suggesting that fish do not perceive tactile stimulation as a stressor reliever. However, as fish did not avoid the stimulation, reached the device spontaneously, and faced an aversive stimulus to access it, we conclude that tactile stimulation is not a negative condition and, therefore, can be used in further studies regarding fish welfare.
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of back massage on postoperative vital signs, pain, and comfort levels in liver transplant patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental model with a pretest, a posttest, and a control group was used. The population of the study comprised adult patients who had liver transplantation for the first time. The study sample comprised 84 adult patients who had liver transplantation: 42 experimental (study group) and 42 control group, selected by power analysis and the random sampling method from the population. The data were collected between May and September 2016 using the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the General Comfort Scale. In the study group, the researcher performed back massage twice per day in the morning and evening in the organ transplant service. No treatment was performed in the control group. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test, a t-test for dependant groups, and a t-test for independent groups were used. Results: According to morning and evening follow-ups after liver transplantation, the mean scores of pulse rate, respiration rate, blood pressure values, and pain intensity was lower, and the mean score of sPO2 (oxygen saturation) levels and comfort levels was higher, with a statistical significance in the experimental group compared with the control group in all measurements before and after back massage (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The back massage applied to liver transplant patients positively affected vital signs, decreased the severity of pain, and increased the comfort levels of the patients.
Chapter
Although affective computing is most often associated with software intelligence, physical materials can also be programmed to promote wellbeing. Based on recent findings regarding the impact on health of interoceptive awareness and the sensation of touch, we develop the programmable Affective Sleeve, a wearable device that produces rhythmic haptic action (warmth and slight pressure along the arm) to promote calmness and reduce anxiety. Through a controlled pilot study, we demonstrate that the pace of haptic action of the sleeve can influence the participants’ breathing rate and perception of calmness. Quantitative findings indicate that faster haptic action is associated with a faster breathing rate, while qualitative self-report findings affirm a positive correlation between perceived calmness and slow pace of haptic action (equal to relaxed breathing rate), and a negative correlation between perceived calmness and fast pace of haptic action (25% faster than relaxed breathing rate).
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The massage is the first therapy that every child comes in contact after its born, every mammal after its born. It is the first touch from the mother that mimics and conveys positive energy. Viewed from today's distance, during the study for the effects of the massage as a therapy,when we get the information we formed the mosaic called massage. This publication is dedicated to all supporters of physical therapy and rehabilitation that our experiences can check in their patients, as we have shared with many, around the world. Publication like this one was missing not only in our country, but in general at all. While we were writing this publication we checked ourselves, and now we will share it with everyone who will read it as a professional literature.
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The massage is the first therapy that every child comes in contact after its born, every mammal after its born. It is the first touch from the mother that mimics and conveys positive energy. Viewed from today's distance, during the study for the effects of the massage as a therapy,when we get the information we formed the mosaic called massage. Dear readers, maybe while you are reading this book, there will be more recent knowledge, because the medical science and the effects of particular therapies today are explained at the cellular level. It was in 1996, when I first met with a massage publication by Doctor Chanev. As time went on, as we grew up as applicators in the field of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, our understanding for the specific possibilities of the massage for different patient's disease and the human's difficulties also grew. After more than 20 years, also we have personal experiences. It was difficult for us to get good literature, but today with the possibilities of electronic communication we can check whether our knowledge has been noted by other massage practitioners around the world. This publication is dedicated to all supporters of physical therapy and rehabilitation that our experiences can check in their patients, as we have shared with many, around the world. Publication like this one was missing not only in our country, but in general at all. While we were writing this publication we checked ourselves, and now we will share it with everyone who will read it as a professional literature.
Article
BACKGROUND: Palliative care aims to provide the maximum possible comfort to people with advanced and incurable diseases. The use of non-pharmacological interventions to promote comfort in palliative care settings has been increasing.However, information on implemented and evaluated interventions, their characteristics, contexts of application, and population is scattered in the literature, hampering the formulation of accurate questions on the effectiveness of those interventions and, consequently, the development of a systematic review.
Article
Introduction En clinique, les douleurs chroniques induites par les métastases osseuses font partie des syndromes douloureux les plus fréquents et les plus difficiles à traiter [1–5]. La douleur cancéreuse osseuse est considérée comme le principal facteur de dégradation de la qualité de vie des patients [6]. Même s’il existe un large panel de possibilités thérapeutiques, cette douleur n’est pratiquement jamais totalement soulagée. Les traitements sont souvent considérés comme étant insatisfaisants, fluctuants et couplés à de nombreux effets secondaires. Le massage thérapeutique est aujourd’hui reconnu en oncologie comme traitement adjuvant efficace pour soulager la douleur des patients cancéreux [7]. Cependant, malgré les recommandations d’utilisation du massage à visée antalgique chez les patients cancéreux, les modalités d’utilisation de cette thérapie restent méconnues. L’objectif de cette étude est de faire un état des lieux des informations que possèdent les thérapeutes spécialisés dans le domaine. Matériel, population et méthode Pour cela, nous avons réalisé une enquête, au travers d’un questionnaire, ciblant les masseurs-kinésithérapeutes exerçants dans les différents centres de lutte contre le cancer en France métropolitaine. Résultats L’enquête a révélé que 85 % des masseurs-kinésithérapeutes répondants utilisaient le massage afin de soulager la douleur de leurs patients cancéreux atteints de métastases osseuses. Concernant les modalités d’utilisation de cette thérapie (manœuvres utilisées, zones massées, fréquence hebdomadaire, moment de la journée choisi, durée du massage), une variabilité interthérapeutes importante à été mise en évidence, confirmant l’absence de consensus actuel. Conclusion ou discussion Le fait de posséder le savoir-faire d’une thérapie manuelle efficace sur des symptômes aussi complexes que la douleur, sans effets secondaires, ne nécessitant aucun appareillage, doit être considéré comme une inestimable richesse. Le masseur-kinésithérapeute a donc la capacité avec ses mains et ses compétences de soulager immédiatement, mais également de manière durable, la douleur de patients reconnue comme étant difficile à traiter en clinique [8]. Cependant, actuellement en France la masso-kinésithérapie souffre d’un manque de preuves scientifiques concernant l’efficacité de ses techniques, induisant par conséquent un manque de reconnaissance de la profession par la communauté médicale. Afin d’inscrire la masso-kinésithérapie parmi les traitements scientifiquement reconnus, nous avons le devoir de valider nos techniques.
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Background: Massage and aromatherapy massage are used to relieve cancer-related symptoms. A number of claims have been made for these treatments including reduction of pain, anxiety, depression, and stress. Other studies have not shown these benefits. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of massage with or without aromatherapy on pain and other symptoms associated with cancer. Search methods: We searched the following databases and trials registries up to August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), PubMed Cancer Subset, SADCCT, and the World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP. We also searched clinical trial registries for ongoing studies. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled studies (RCTs) reporting the effects of aromatherapy or massage therapy, or both, in people with cancer of any age. We applied no language restrictions. Comparators were massage (using carrier oil only) versus no massage, massage with aromatherapy (using carrier oil plus essential oils) versus no massage, and massage with aromatherapy (using carrier oil plus essential oils) versus massage without aromatherapy (using carrier oil only). Data collection and analysis: At least two review authors selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data relating to pain and other symptoms associated with cancer, using standardised forms. We assessed the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and created two 'Summary of findings' tables. Main results: We included 19 studies (21 reports) of very low quality evidence with a total of 1274 participants. We included 14 studies (16 reports) in a qualitative synthesis and five studies in a quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). Thirteen studies (14 reports, 596 participants) compared massage with no massage. Six studies (seven reports, 561 participants) compared aromatherapy massage with no massage. Two studies (117 participants) compared massage with aromatherapy and massage without aromatherapy. Fourteen studies had a high risk of bias related to sample size and 15 studies had a low risk of bias for blinding the outcome assessment. We judged the studies to be at unclear risk of bias overall. Our primary outcomes were pain and psychological symptoms. Two studies reported physical distress, rash, and general malaise as adverse events. The remaining 17 studies did not report adverse events. We downgraded the GRADE quality of evidence for all outcomes to very low because of observed imprecision, indirectness, imbalance between groups in many studies, and limitations of study design. Massage versus no-massage groupsWe analysed results for pain and anxiety but the quality of evidence was very low as most studies were small and considered at an unclear or high risk of bias due to poor reporting. Short-term pain (Present Pain Intensity-Visual Analogue Scale) was greater for the massage group compared with the no-massage group (one RCT, n = 72, mean difference (MD) -1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.67 to -0.53). Data for anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-state) relief showed no significant difference in anxiety between the groups (three RCTs, n = 98, combined MD -5.36, 95% CI -16.06 to 5.34). The subgroup analysis for anxiety revealed that the anxiety relief for children was greater for the massage group compared with the no-massage group (one RCT, n = 30, MD -14.70, 95% CI -19.33 to -10.07), but the size of this effect was considered not clinically significant. Furthermore, this review demonstrated no differences in effects of massage on depression, mood disturbance, psychological distress, nausea, fatigue, physical symptom distress, or quality of life when compared with no massage. Massage with aromatherapy versus no-massage groupsWe analysed results for pain, anxiety, symptoms relating to the breast, and quality of life but the quality of evidence was very low as studies were generally at a high risk of bias. There was some indication of benefit in the aromatherapy-massage group but this benefit is unlikely to translate into clinical benefit. The relief of medium- and long-term pain (medium-term: one RCT, n = 86, MD 5.30, 95% CI 1.52 to 9.08; long-term: one RCT, n = 86, MD 3.80, 95% CI 0.19 to 7.41), anxiety (two RCTs, n = 253, combined MD -4.50, 95% CI -7.70 to -1.30), and long-term symptoms relating to the breast in people with breast cancer (one RCT, n = 86, MD -9.80, 95% CI -19.13 to -0.47) was greater for the aromatherapy-massage group, but the results were considered not clinically significant. The medium-term quality of life score was lower (better) for the aromatherapy-massage group compared with the no-massage group (one RCT, n = 30, MD -2.00, 95% CI -3.46 to -0.54). Massage with aromatherapy versus massage without aromatherapy groupsFrom the limited evidence available, we were unable to assess the effect of adding aromatherapy to massage on the relief of pain, psychological symptoms including anxiety and depression, physical symptom distress, or quality of life. Authors' conclusions: There was a lack of evidence on the clinical effectiveness of massage for symptom relief in people with cancer. Most studies were too small to be reliable and key outcomes were not reported. Any further studies of aromatherapy and massage will need to address these concerns.
Chapter
Lung cancer is a serious illness with a myriad of harmful effects due to both the disease itself and its treatments. Many patients with lung cancer use both complementary and alternative therapies to alleviate symptoms and sometimes for treatment. It is important for healthcare practitioners to be aware of the prevalence and use of these therapies by their patients because of their potential biological effects, which may interact with current therapies including chemotherapy, biological therapy, and radiation treatments. Practitioners must help patients distinguish between “complementary” and “alternative” therapies in oncology care because complementary care incorporates the use of nonpharmacological interventions in addition to evidence-based medicine, while alternative care is often given in place of traditional medicine with little or no existing information regarding safety and efficacy. Recognizing patients’ interest in both complementary and alternative options and the importance of having a patient-centered approach to cancer care, the use of complementary therapies has gradually been incorporated into the oncology care in the United States through integrative therapy programs. Research on both complementary and alternative therapies in oncology is in the infancy stage due to difficulty designing high-quality randomized clinical trials, lack of funding, and use of these interventions by patients without scientific evidence of their efficacy. Therefore, more rigorous research is needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of these modalities. This chapter summarizes the current research on complementary therapies that are available to patients with lung cancer.
Chapter
Supportive care services are an integral component of comprehensive cancer care for patients with bone metastases. One critical aspect of supportive care services is the psychosocial needs of patients, families, and caregivers. Supportive care services are broad and best attended to with a multidisciplinary team approach that should include an oncology trained mental health provider. Patients with metastatic bone disease have a variety of needs physically, medically, practically, and psychologically that should be followed and managed through the end-of-life. Appropriate psychosocial care includes screening for distress, assessing and treating adjustment and mood disorders, assessing and treating suicide ideation, providing therapeutic interventions with families and caregivers, referring patients to community resources, and facilitating end-of-life discussions. Licensed mental health providers with expertise in oncology are skilled at incorporating different and appropriate treatment modalities throughout cancer treatment which ultimately results in better overall health care. Patients with substance abuse disorders or preexisting psychiatric disorders will require more care and navigation throughout their cancer treatment. Spiritual and religious needs are important psychosocial considerations and may affect treatment decisions and end-of-life planning. Diversity is a critical component of psychosocial care and should be thoughtfully considered with regard to race, ethnicity, and culture as well as the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients. The needs of these marginalized and underserved populations should be thoughtfully addressed by medical providers in conjunction with mental health providers skilled in recognizing their needs and barriers to care. Comprehensively addressing the psychosocial needs of patients with bone metastases enhances quality-of-life, improves treatment compliance, reduces distress, decreases unnecessary care, and may reduce time and costs of patient care for providers.
Article
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated autonomic abnormalities in various pain conditions. However, few have investigated heart rate variability (HRV) in young women with primary dysmenorrhea, and the conclusions have been inconsistent. More evidence is required to confirm the reported trend for consistent fluctuation of HRV parameters in dysmenorrhea. Purpose: The study's aim was to determine whether significant differences exist between young women with and without dysmenorrhea for heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and HRV parameters during menses. Design: A prospective comparison design with repeated measures was used. Setting and participants: Sixty-six women aged 18-25 with dysmenorrhea and 54 eumenorrheic women were recruited from a university in northern Taiwan. Methods: High-frequency and low-frequency HRV parameters (HF and LF), LF/HF ratio, BP, and HR were measured daily between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. from Day 1 to Day 6 during menses. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of group, time, and Group × Time interaction on these variables. Results: HF values were significantly lower in the dysmenorrhea than in the eumenorrhea group, but there were no differences in BP, HR, LF, or LF/HF ratio. Conclusion: Reduced HF values reflect reduced parasympathetic activity and autonomic instability in young women with dysmenorrhea. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to examine autonomic regulation in menstrual pain of varying intensities associated with dysmenorrhea-related symptoms and to clarify the causal relationship between dysmenorrhea and HRV fluctuations.
Article
The presence of bone metastases predicts the presence of pain and is the most common cause of cancer-related pain. Although bone metastases do not involve vital organs, they may determine deleterious effects in patients with prolonged survival. Bone fractures, hypercalcaemia, neurologic deficits and reduced activity associated with bone metastases result in an overall compromise in the patient’s quality of life. A metastasis is a consequence of a cascade of events including a progressive growth at the primary site, vascularization phase, invasion, detachment, embolization, survival in the circulation, arrest at the site of a metastasis, extravasion, evasion of host defense and progressive growth. Once cancer cells establish in the bone, the normal process of bone turnover is disturbed. The different mechanisms responsible for osteoclast activation correspond to typical radiologic features showing lytic, sclerotic or mixed metastases, according to the primary tumour. The release of chemical mediators, the increased pressure within the bone, microfractures, the stretching of periosteum, reactive muscle spasm, nerve root infiltration and compression of nerves by the collapse of vertebrae are the possible mechanisms of malignant bone pain. Pain is often disproportionate to the size or degree of bone involvement. The use of analgesics according to the WHO ladder is recommended. The difficulty with incident pain is not a lack of response to systemic opioids, but rather that the doses required to control the incidental pain produce unacceptable side effects at rest. Opioids should be carefully used to balance background analgesia and breakthrough pain. Once analgesic optimization is achieved there are several options to treat breakthrough pain, including opioids with a fast onset.
Article
BACKGROUND: Nurses should interact with people in health status or disease, improving their socio-cultural context and its process transition. These interactions are organized with a purpose in which nurses use therapeutic actions to promote health. Therapeutic massage is to press and rub the body or parts thereof for therapeutic purposes. AIM: Evaluate the effect of massage therapy intervention in the mental health of people with cancer pathology. METHODS: Systematic literature review through the descriptors "patients", "oncology" and "massage", from 2000 to 2012 studies, in databases and online search engines. RESULTS: The study was composed of 15 items and shows that massage therapy reduces, either immediately or the long term, anxiety and depression. However, there are studies in which there were no differences in these variables. This intervention improves, immediately, relaxation, emotional well-being and sleep patterns, pain, physical and emotional discomfort and fatigue. There were no statistically significant differences which would support improved quality of life, stress and suffering. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic massage has beneficial effects in the short term in the mental health of people with cancer pathology. However, with regard to anxiety and depression the results analyzed are contradictory, reporting for future investigations. We suggest further research to most empirical consistency on the effect of massage therapy intervention, mental health of people with cancer pathology and thus contribute to the practice of nursing excellence based on evidence.
Article
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Massage is a commonly sought therapy by patients with cancer. Recent research indicates that massage is a valid application for cancer pain, anxiety, nausea and vomitting, lymphedema, and carer support. However, complications such as coagulation disorders, metastatsis to bone, open wounds, and dermatitis require medical management. The evidence supports that massage therapists can offer treatment for patients with cancer with confidence.
Article
Caring for persons with bone metastasis at the end of life is complex. There are a variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures that have been shown to provide patients with relief and comfort. Through the use of a case narrative, this article demonstrates the complexity of palliative care as it relates to the pain management of bone metastasis at end of life from both the pharmacological and psychosocial perspectives. Treatment interventions for pain in each of these domains is explored, illustrating that metastatic bone pain at end of life is a multifaceted experience and therefore requires a multimodal approach to care.
Article
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In humans, physical stimulation, such as massage therapy, reduces stress and has demonstrable health benefi ts. Grooming in primates may have similar effects but it remains unclear whether the positive effects are due to physical contact or to its social value. Here we show that physical stimulation reduces stress in a coral reef fi sh, the surgeonfi sh Ctenochaetus striatus. These fi sh regularly visit cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus to have ectoparasites removed. The cleanerfi sh infl uences client decisions by physically touching the surgeonfi sh with its pectoral and pelvic fi ns, a behaviour known as tactile stimulation. We simulated this behaviour by exposing surgeonfi sh to mechanically moving cleanerfi sh models. Surgeonfi sh had signifi cantly lower levels of cortisol when stimulated by moving models compared with controls with access to stationary models. Our results show that physical contact alone, without a social aspect, is enough to produce fi tness-enhancing benefi ts, a situation so far only demonstrated in humans.
Article
In the course of an oncologic disease, importance of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increases, especially if tumour-specific therapy can no longer cure or at least mitigate progression of the disease. This review deals with reviews and recent studies on CAM methods often used for the treatment of psychological distress, especially depression, and anxiety which together with fatigue so often severely reduce quality of life in the advanced palliative situation. Some yoga techniques, acupuncture, some massage techniques, and aromatherapy may have short-lasting positive effects on depression. Anxiety may be treated successfully by some yoga techniques, music therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acupuncture, some massage techniques, and aromatherapy. Fatigue may respond to acupuncture. Exercise seems to be a valuable option at least in patients who are not in the advanced stage of their disease, while ginseng even may harm. However, the studies are often limited due to small size, lack of control, short duration, and nonspecific aspects.
Article
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A visual analogue scale to evaluate fatigue severity (VAS-F) was developed and tested in a sample of 75 healthy individuals and a sample of 57 patients undergoing medical evaluation for sleep disorders. The scale consists of 18 items related to fatigue and energy, has simple instructions, and is completed with minimal time and effort. The VAS-F compares favorably with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Profile of Mood States, and its internal consistency reliabilities are high. Healthy subjects demonstrated significant differences between their evening and morning scores on the VAS-F, while sleep-disordered patients did not.
Article
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Complementary therapies are increasingly used to reduce side effects of cancer treatment, without evidence for their effectiveness. In a randomized, prospective, 2-period, crossover intervention study, the authors tested the effects of therapeutic massage (MT) and healing touch (HT), in comparison to presence alone or standard care, in inducing relaxation and reducing symptoms in 230 subjects. MT and HT lowered blood pressure, respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR). MT lowered anxiety and HT lowered fatigue, and both lowered total mood disturbance. Pain ratings were lower after MT and HT, with 4-week nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use less during MT. There were no effects on nausea. Presence reduced RR and HR but did not differ from standard care on any measure of pain, nausea, mood states, anxiety, or fatigue. MT and HT are more effective than presence alone or standard care in reducing pain, mood disturbance, and fatigue in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.
Article
Aromatherapy and massage have gained wide popularity among nurses in clinical practice in recent years. Many nurses in palliative care settings are using these therapies with the assumption that they improve patients' quality of life, but no research has yet investigated their effectiveness. A study was set up to assess the effects of massage and aromatherapy massage on cancer patients receiving palliative care. Patients received three full body massages over a 3-week period, with or without the essential oil Roman Chamomile. The measurements used were the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Post-test scores for all patients improved. These were statistically significant in the aromatherapy group on the RSCL physical symptom subscale, quality of life subscale and state anxiety scale. Responses to the post-therapy questionnaire indicate that patients consider the massage or aromatherapy to be beneficial in reducing anxiety, tension, pain and depression.
Article
The pathophysiology and options for management of bone metastases as well as criteria for determining response to therapy are reviewed. Bone metastases are frequently one of the first signs of disseminated disease in cancer patients. In the majority of patients, the primary tumor is in the breast, prostate, or lungs. Although almost all patients will die of their disease, a proportion of the patients will survive for several years. Treatment is primarily palliative: the intention is to relieve pain, prevent fractures, maintain activity and mobility, and, if possible, to prolong survival. Therapeutic options include local treatment with radiotherapy and/or surgery, and systemic treatment using chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radioisotopes, agents such as diphosphonates, which inhibit resorption of bone, as well as analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. The mechanisms by which pain is relieved by several of these therapies remain unclear but actions beyond a simple tumoricidal effect appear to be important. There have been few randomized trials comparing the therapeutic options, and the criteria for assessing response to therapy have, in general, been poorly defined. There is a need for rigorous clinical investigations that assess the efficacy of the various therapeutic possibilities by using well-defined and validated criteria of response.
Article
Eight hundred consecutive patients with advanced cancer were followed at home and studied in order to investigate the prevalence and causes of pain. Of these 745 were followed until death and 71 per cent of them experienced pain. Most patients had two or more pain sites (39 and 48 per cent, respectively). Tumour growth was the most common cause of pain (73.3 per cent), while the combination of tumour growth and pain secondary to cancer treatment was the second most frequent cause (15.4 per cent). Pain associated with cancer therapy and not combined with tumour growth had a low incidence (5.5 per cent). Pain unrelated to cancer was rare (3.1 per cent). These epidemiological data could serve as therapeutic guides. It is important to identify in every patient the causes of the cancer pain in order to understand its mechanism and consequently be able to institute appropriate treatment.
Article
This article describes the findings of an empirical study on the use of foot massage as a nursing intervention in patients hospitalized with cancer. The study was developed from the earlier work of Ferrell-Torry and Glick (1992). In a sample of 87 subjects, a 10-minute foot massage (5 minutes per foot) was found to have a significant immediate effect on the perceptions of pain, nausea, and relaxation when measured with a visual analog scale. The use of foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simple nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. Further research into its effectiveness in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted.
Article
Massage and aromatherapy are being used increasingly by nurses to enhance the wellbeing of patients in palliative care settings, yet little evaluation of these therapies has been undertaken. This article reports a quasi experimental study comparing the effects of an 8-week course of massage, with or without the addition of a blend of essential oils, on patients undergoing cancer treatment. Findings from the study suggest that massage has a significant effect on anxiety and this was found to be greater where essential oils were used, although the small sample prevented this from being established conclusively. Massage was reported to be universally beneficial by patients, it assisted relaxation and reduced physical and emotional symptoms. The authors call for more research to be conducted in this area with larger cohorts of patients. Copies of the full research report for this study may be obtained from the Macmillan Practice Development Unit, Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care Studies, Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ. Price £6.00.
Article
This article describes the validation of a simple and rapid (one-minute) self-re ort questionnaire designed to assess dysphoric mood. It consists ofsix h e a r analog self-assessment ( U S A ) scales derived from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Tests for associations between the POMS-LASA scales and two established questionnaires, the Symptom Checklist-90 (revised) and the POMS, have shown a good relationship. This technique has been demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in mood following group therapy. The use of the instrument in clinical settings and research protocols is discussed.
Article
Aims: In a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCCT), we examined the effects of four massages on pain intensity, prescribed IM morphine equivalent doses (IMMSEQ), hospital admissions, and quality of life (QoL). Methods: Of 173 referred patients, 29 (14 control, 15 massage) completed this pilot study. Subjects were 69% male and aged 63 years on average. Licensed therapists administered four, twice-weekly massages. Baseline and outcome measurements were obtained by other team members before the first and after the fourth massages. Results: Pain intensity, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were significantly reduced immediately after the massages. At study entry, the massage group reported higher pain intensity (2.4 ± 2.8 vs. 1.6 ± 2.1) which decreased by 42% (1.4 ± 1.5) compared to a 25% reduction in the control group (1.2 ± 1.3) (p > .05). IMMSEQ doses were stable or decreased for eight patients in each group and increased for seven massage and six control group patients. One massage group and two control group patients were hospitalized. All initial QoL scores were higher in the massage group than in the control group, but only current QoL was statistically significant. Both groups reported improved global QoL. The control group reported slight improvement in current QoL and satisfaction with QoL whereas these two aspects of QoL declined in the massage group even though their average QoL scores were higher than the control group at the end of the study. Conclusions: We demonstrated feasibility of conducting an RCCT in which we systematically implemented massage as a nonpharmacologic comfort therapy along with our usual hospice care. The massage intervention produced immediate relaxation and pain relief effects. A power analysis based on trends in the longer-term effects indicate that a study with 80 subjects per group is likely to detect statistically significant effects of usual hospice care with twice-weekly massage therapy sessions on pain intensity, analgesic dosages, and quality of life. Lessons we learned from conducting this pilot study are being used to improve documentation of our hospice program outcomes and to plan a definitive study. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com <Website: http://www.haworthpressinc.com>]
1.1. Connective tissue massage produces relief of pain and increases microcirculation in a number of vascular beds.2.2. The concentration of plasma β-endorphins has been measured in 12 volunteers before and 5, 30 and 90 min after a 30-min session of connective tissue massage.3.3. There was a moderate mean increase of 16% in β-endorphin levels from 20.0 to 23.2 pg/0.1 ml (P = 0.025), lasting for about 1 hr with a maximum in the test 5 min after termination of the massage.4.4. It is assumed that the release of β-endorphins is linked with the pain relief and feeling of warmth and well-being associated with the treatment.
Article
Findings from studies of massage, one of the most commonly used nonpharmacological nursing interventions for managing cancer pain, are inconsistent. The purpose of this article was to elucidate the methodological underpinnings of these inconsistencies with a systematic review of study design, methods, and massage efficacy in adult patients with cancer. A total of 15 studies published in English between 1986 and 2006 were identified by searching in 6 electronic databases. An author-developed tool and an adapted assessment tool were used to extract information from each study and examine the quality of reviewed studies. Methodological issues that potentially account for discrepancies across studies included less rigorous inclusion criteria, failure to consider potential confounding variables, less than rigorous research designs, inconsistent massage doses and protocols, measurement errors related to sensitivity of instruments and timing of measurements, and inadequate statistical power. Areas for future study include determination of appropriate cutoff values of selected outcome measures, delivery of equal doses along with standardized massage protocols, examination of length of massage effects over time, and use of single-blinding randomized clinical trials with large sample sizes.
Article
The pathophysiology and options for management of bone metastases as well as criteria for determining response to therapy are reviewed. Bone metastases are frequently one of the first signs of disseminated disease in cancer patients. In the majority of patients, the primary tumor is in the breast, prostate, or lungs. Although almost all patients will die of their disease, a proportion of the patients will survive for several years. Treatment is primarily palliative: the intention is to relieve pain, prevent fractures, maintain activity and mobility, and, if possible, to prolong survival. Therapeutic options include local treatment with radiotherapy and/or surgery, and systemic treatment using chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radioisotopes, agents such as diphosphonates, which inhibit resorption of bone, as well as analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs. The mechanisms by which pain is relieved by several of these therapies remain unclear but actions beyond a simple tumoricidal effect appear to be important. There have been few randomized trials comparing the therapeutic options, and the criteria for assessing response to therapy have, in general, been poorly defined. There is a need for rigorous clinical investigations that assess the efficacy of the various therapeutic possibilities by using well-defined and validated criteria of response.
Article
Causes of pain were analysed in 200 patients referred to a specialized cancer pain clinic. Pain caused by tumour growth was found in 158 patients, pain secondary to cancer or its treatment in 116 patients and pain unrelated to cancer in 33 patients. Visceral involvement (74 cases), bone metastases (68 cases), soft tissue invasion (56 cases) and nerve/plexus pressure or infiltration (39 cases) were the most frequent causes of pain due to tumour growth. Myogenic pain (68 cases) was the most frequent cause of secondary pain. The patients presented with a multitude of different combinations of causes of pain, the majority having at least two separate causes. Since pain treatment in cancer patients should be determined by its aetiology, a detailed analysis of the pain condition in each patient should form the basis for a rational therapy.
Article
Fatigue is regarded as a universal and unavoidable side effect of cancer therapy, yet its epidemiology and prevalence in populations of people with cancer have not been well-documented. Using the conceptual framework of Piper, et al., this study examined and described the perception and manifestations of fatigue and its physiological, biochemical, and behavioral correlates. A convenience sample (N = 77) of people with lung (n = 33) or breast cancer (n = 44) completed several instruments: a brief questionnaire, the Rhoten Fatigue Scale, a visual analogue scale (VAS), the Rhoten Fatigue Checklist, and the shortened version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Data on other factors thought to influence fatigue were collected via medical record audit. Seventy-five of 76 people (99%) completing the VAS experienced some level of fatigue. Significant correlates of fatigue included level of pain and POMS scores. Preliminary findings suggest that fatigue is a common problem with a complex etiology and that nurses must consider potential contributing factors when assessing fatigue and its impact on the individual.
Article
Evaluating the effectiveness of nursing interventions in decreasing pain is a top priority for clinical research. Unfortunately, most of the research on cancer pain relief has been limited to treatment studies involving the administration of analgesics. Research is needed to determine which nonanalgesic methods of pain control are effective and under what conditions. Consequently, an experimental study was designed to test the effectiveness of massage as an intervention for cancer pain. Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to a massage or control group. The patients in the massage group were given a 10 minute massage to the back; the patients in the control group were visited for 10 minutes. For males, there was a significant decrease in pain level immediately after the massage. For females, there was not a significant decrease in pain level immediately after the massage. There were no significant differences between pain 1 hour and 2 hours after the massage in comparison with the initial pain for males or females. Massage was shown to be an effective short-term nursing intervention for pain in males in this sample.
Article
Assessment of the reliability of physical measures that yield continuous data (e.g., physiological measures such as blood pressure and anthropometric measures such as weight) should include the following statistics and procedures: mean, minimal and maximal differences; standard deviation of the net differences; technical error of measurement; and clinically meaningful indices of agreement. Displaying differences graphically and using Exploratory Data Analysis are excellent methods of summarizing differences. In those situations where any measurement error is important, regardless of its direction, the absolute value of the differences should be used to describe average differences. Correlation coefficients are not recommended because they are not adequate tests of reliability.
Article
A short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) has been developed. The main component of the SF-MPQ consists of 15 descriptors (11 sensory; 4 affective) which are rated on an intensity scale as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate or 3 = severe. Three pain scores are derived from the sum of the intensity rank values of the words chosen for sensory, affective and total descriptors. The SF-MPQ also includes the Present Pain Intensity (PPI) index of the standard MPQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The SF-MPQ scores obtained from patients in post-surgical and obstetrical wards and physiotherapy and dental departments were compared to the scores obtained with the standard MPQ. The correlations were consistently high and significant. The SF-MPQ was also shown to be sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate differences due to treatment at statistical levels comparable to those obtained with the standard form. The SF-MPQ shows promise as a useful tool in situations in which the standard MPQ takes too long to administer, yet qualitative information is desired and the PPI and VAS are inadequate.
Article
The linear analogue score can be used in Chinese patients with relative accuracy provided it has been well explained. The error from employing a vertical presentation is significantly less than that from a horizontal one. The choice of upward or downward orientation is a matter of convenience. Younger patients and those with higher intelligence are quicker to understand the concept and can make better judgement in placing a mark where they wish it to be. A linear analogue scale seems to be a suitable method to record and study pain in a Chinese population.
Article
Poorly controlled cancer pain is a significant public health problem throughout the world. There are many barriers that lead to undertreatment of cancer pain. One important barrier is inadequate measurement and assessment of pain. To address this problem, the Pain Research Group of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Symptom Evaluation in Cancer Care has developed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a pain assessment tool for use with cancer patients. The BPI measures both the intensity of pain (sensory dimension) and interference of pain in the patient's life (reactive dimension). It also queries the patient about pain relief, pain quality, and patient perception of the cause of pain. This paper describes the development of the Brief Pain Inventory and the various applications to which the BPI is suited. The BPI is a powerful tool and, having demonstrated both reliability and validity across cultures and languages, is being adopted in many countries for clinical pain assessment, epidemiological studies, and in studies of the effectiveness of pain treatment.
Article
This study was done to investigate a nonpharmacological means of relaxation with 30 hospice clients. The purpose was to examine the effects of slow stroke back massage (SSBM) on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and skin temperature. SSBM was associated with decreases in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and heart rate and with an increase in skin temperature. SSBM was shown to produce modest clinical, but statistically significant changes in vital signs which were indicative of relaxation. It is a cost-effective treatment which adds to the comfort of hospice clients.
Article
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of therapeutic massage (consisting of effleurage, petrissage, and myofascial trigger point therapy) on pain perception, anxiety, and relaxation levels in hospitalized patients experiencing significant cancer pain. Thirty minutes of therapeutic massage was administered on two consecutive evenings to nine hospitalized males diagnosed with cancer and experiencing cancer pain. The subjects' self-reports of pain and relaxation (measured by Visual Analogue Scales) as well as anxiety (measured by the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory) were recorded before and immediately after the intervention. The objective physiologic measures of heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were obtained before, immediately after, and, finally, 10 min after the massage intervention. Massage therapy significantly reduced the subjects' level of pain perception (average = 60%) and anxiety (average = 24%) while enhancing their feelings of relaxation by an average of 58%. In addition to these subjective measures, all physiological measures (heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure) tended to decrease from baseline, providing further indication of relaxation. In conclusion, although the exact mechanism is not known, therapeutic massage is a beneficial nursing intervention that promotes relaxation and alleviates the perception of pain and anxiety in hospitalized cancer patients.
Article
Twenty-nine gay men (20 HIV+, 9 HIV-) received daily massages for one month. A subset of 11 of the HIV+ subjects served as a within subject control group (one month with and without massages). Major immune findings for the effects of the month of massage included a significant increase in Natural Killer Cell number, Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity, soluble CD8, and the cytotoxic subset of CD8 cells. There were no changes in HIV disease progression markers (CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio, Beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin). Major neuroendocrine findings, measured via 24 hour urines included a significant decrease in cortisol, and nonsignificant trends toward decrease of catecholamines. There were also significant decreases in anxiety and increases in relaxation which were significantly correlated with increases in NK cell number. Thus, there appears to be an increase in cytotoxic capacity associated with massage. Implications for HIV+ men as those with other illnesses, particularly cancer, are discussed.
Article
The skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer, and tumors arising from the breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and kidney possess a special propensity to spread to bone. Breast carcinoma, the most prevalent malignancy, causes the greatest morbidity. Of great clinical importance is the observation that metastatic bone disease may remain confined to the skeleton. In these patients, the decline in quality of life and eventual death is due almost entirely to skeletal complications and their subsequent treatment. Bone pain is the most common complication of metastatic bone disease, resulting from structural damage, periosteal irritation, and nerve entrapment. Recent evidence suggests that pain caused by bone metastasis may also be related to the rate of bone resorption. Hypercalcemia occurs in 5-10% of all patients with advanced cancer but is most common in patients with breast carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and squamous carcinomas of the lung and other primary sites. Pathologic fractures are a relatively late complication of bone involvement. The clinical courses of breast and prostate carcinoma are relatively long, with a median survival of 2-3 years. For patients with breast carcinoma, good prognostic factors for survival after the development of bone metastases are good histologic grade, positive estrogen receptor status, bone disease at initial presentation, a long disease free interval, and increasing age. In addition, patients with disease that remains confined to the skeleton have a better prognosis than those with subsequent visceral involvement. For patients with prostate carcinoma, adverse prognostic features include poor performance status, involvement of the appendicular skeleton and visceral involvement, whereas for patients with multiple myeloma, the levels of serum beta2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase and the immunologic phenotype are the most important factors. These prognostic factors may be useful in planning the rational use of bisphosphonates in the treatment of advanced cancer.
Article
Twenty-eight adult patients with burns were randomly assigned before debridement to either a massage therapy group or a standard treatment control group. State anxiety and cortisol levels decreased, and behavior ratings of state, activity, vocalizations, and anxiety improved after the massage therapy sessions on the first and last days of treatment. Longer-term effects were also significantly better for the massage therapy group including decreases in depression and anger, and decreased pain on the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Present Pain Intensity scale, and Visual Analogue Scale. Although the underlying mechanisms are not known, these data suggest that debridement sessions were less painful after the massage therapy sessions due to a reduction in anxiety, and that the clinical course was probably enhanced as the result of a reduction in pain, anger, and depression.
Article
Twenty-six pregnant women were assigned to a massage therapy or a relaxation therapy group for 5 weeks. The therapies consisted of 20-min sessions twice a week. Both groups reported feeling less anxious after the first session and less leg pain after the first and last session. Only the massage therapy group, however, reported reduced anxiety, improved mood, better sleep and less back pain by the last day of the study. In addition, urinary stress hormone levels (norepinephrine) decreased for the massage therapy group and the women had fewer complications during labor and their infants had fewer postnatal complications (e.g., less prematurity).
Article
Pain and fatigue are two of the most common problems experienced by oncology patients. This study evaluated 24 oncology patients who were receiving radiation therapy for bone metastases to (1) describe the patterns of pain intensity and fatigue severity over a 48-hour period; (2) evaluate for sleep disturbances; (3) describe the relationships between these symptoms and various treatment characteristics; and (4) describe the self-care strategies used by patients to manage pain and fatigue. Patients reported moderate amounts of pain and fatigue. Average pain scores did not vary significantly over a 48-hour period. However, patients reported significantly lower fatigue scores in the morning compared to the evening. In addition, patients experienced significant sleep disturbances, with a mean sleep efficiency index of 70.7% (estimated using wrist actigraphy). Patients with lower Karnofsky Performance Status scores reported more sleep disturbances. In addition, patients who had received a higher percentage of their radiation treatment reported more sleep disturbances. Patients used a variety of self-care strategies to manage pain and fatigue. Additional research is warranted to describe more completely the patterns of pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances in oncology outpatients receiving radiation therapy.
Article
The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of massage therapy on psychological, physical, and psychophysiological measures in patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients scheduled to undergo BMT were randomly assigned to receive either (a) massage therapy, consisting of 20-minute sessions of shoulder, neck, head, and facial massage, or (b) standard treatment. Overall effects of massage therapy on anxiety, depression, and mood were assessed pretreatment, midtreatment, and prior to discharge using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Brief Profile of Mood States, respectively. The immediate effects of massage were measured via the State Anxiety Inventory, Numerical Scales of Distress, Fatigue, Nausea, and Pain and indices of psychophysiological arousal (heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate), collected prior to and following patients' first, fifth, and final massage (on Days--7, midtreatment, and predischarge). Analysis of the data evaluating the immediate effects of massage showed that patients in the massage therapy group demonstrated significantly larger reductions in distress, fatigue, nausea, and State Anxiety than the standard treatment group at Day-7, in State Anxiety at midtreatment, and in fatigue at the predischarge assessment. The overall measures of psychological symptoms measured at pretreatment, midtreatment, and prior to discharge showed no overall group differences, although the massage group scored significantly lower on the State Anxiety Inventory than the standard care group at the midtreatment assessment. The two groups together showed significant declines through time on scores from the Profile of Mood States and State and Trait Anxiety Inventories.
Article
This article describes the findings of an empirical study on the use of foot massage as a nursing intervention in patients hospitalized with cancer. The study was developed from the earlier work of Ferrell-Torry and Glick (1992). In a sample of 87 subjects, a 10-minute foot massage (5 minutes per foot) was found to have a significant immediate effect on the perceptions of pain, nausea, and relaxation when measured with a visual analog scale. The use of foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simple nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. Further research into its effectiveness in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted.
Article
Twenty-four women meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PDD) were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a relaxation therapy group. The massage group showed decreases in anxiety, depressed mood and pain immediately after the first and last massage sessions. The longer term (5 week) effects of massage therapy included a reduction in pain and water retention and overall menstrual distress. However, no long-term changes were observed in the massaged group's activity level or mood. Future studies might examine the effects of a longer massage therapy program on these symptoms. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that massage therapy may be an effective adjunct therapy for treating severe premenstrual symptoms.
Article
To investigate the effects of massage on pain reaction and anxiety during labour. Labour pain is a challenging issue for nurses designing intervention protocols. Massage is an ancient technique that has been widely employed during labour, however, relatively little study has been undertaken examining the effects of massage on women in labour. A randomized controlled study was conducted between September 1999 and January 2000. Sixty primiparous women expected to have a normal childbirth at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=30) or the control (n=30) group. The experimental group received massage intervention whereas the control group did not. The nurse-rated present behavioural intensity (PBI) was used as a measure of labour pain. Anxiety was measured with the visual analogue scale for anxiety (VASA). The intensity of pain and anxiety between the two groups was compared in the latent phase (cervix dilated 3-4 cm), active phase (5-7 cm) and transitional phase (8-10 cm). In both groups, there was a relatively steady increase in pain intensity and anxiety level as labour progressed. A t-test demonstrated that the experimental group had significantly lower pain reactions in the latent, active and transitional phases. Anxiety levels were only significantly different between the two groups in the latent phase. Twenty-six of the 30 (87%) experimental group subjects reported that massage was helpful, providing pain relief and psychological support during labour. Findings suggest that massage is a cost-effective nursing intervention that can decrease pain and anxiety during labour, and partners' participation in massage can positively influence the quality of women's birth experiences.
Article
Massage is increasingly applied to relieve symptoms in patients with cancer. This practice is supported by evidence from small randomized trials. No study has examined massage therapy outcome in a large group of patients. At Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, patients report symptom severity pre- and post-massage therapy using 0-10 rating scales of pain, fatigue, stress/anxiety, nausea, depression and "other." Changes in symptom scores and the modifying effects of patient status (in- or outpatient) and type of massage were analyzed. Over a three-year period, 1,290 patients were treated. Symptom scores were reduced by approximately 50%, even for patients reporting high baseline scores. Outpatients improved about 10% more than inpatients. Benefits persisted, with outpatients experiencing no return toward baseline scores throughout the duration of 48-hour follow-up. These data indicate that massage therapy is associated with substantive improvement in cancer patients' symptom scores.
Comparison of the effects of back massage and relaxation training in reducing chemotherapy induced fatigue
  • T W Huang
Pain assessment: global use of the brief pain inventory
  • Cleeland
A simple, rapid method for assessing psychological distress in cancer patients: evidence of validity for linear analog scales
  • Sutherlan
The effects of back massage on surgical stress responses and postoperative pain
  • C C Chin