Physical and Psychological Well-being of University Students: Survey of Eleven Faculties in Egypt
We examined perceived health status and physical and psychological well-being of 3,271 undergraduate students attending eleven faculties in a university in Egypt.
During 2009-2010, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic, physical and psychological health data. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from students' measured height and weight. Differences across these variables were computed by gender and participating faculties.
Whilst more females watched and rated their health favorably, they were more likely to feel psychosomatic/physical health problems, to have seen a medical practitioner or been ill that they had to stay in bed. Females were consistently more likely to feel burdened overall, and across several aspects apart from financial problems. Less females had 'normal' BMI, were satisfied with current weight, perceived their body image as 'just right', or were not worried about their shape. More males rated their quality of life favorably. About 25% of males and 32% of females were either overweight/obese. Exams, presentations, and the lack of time for studies were the frequently-reported burdens. Comparisons of health/well-being indicators across the participating faculties suggested some evidence of 'clustering': Favorable indicators would cluster at some faculties; and conversely, less favorable variables would cluster at other faculties.
Generally, the levels of some health complaints and psychological problems/burdens are higher than in other countries. Increased vigilance of university administrators and leaders to monitoring the health and well-being of their students, as well as their health needs is required if policy makers are to operate from a valid evidence base platform. Given cultural factors prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean region generally, female students might require particular attention. The clustering effects suggest the need for local (faculty-specific) health and well-being profiles as basis and guidance for relevant health promotion programs in faculty/university settings.
Available from: Joana Ivanova Simeonova
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the self rated health (SRH) of students and determining the effect of some behavioural characteristics on subjective health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 457 high schol and university students in sity of Pleven in 2012. To assess the subjective health we asked the respondents the question "How do you assess your health at the moment" on a 5-level scale. The effect of the folowing psychological ans behavioural factors was explored: physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy drinks, psycho stimulants and drug use, sexual behaviour and personal health improving startegies. We also checked for the effect of body mass index (BMI). Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical package. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were applied. RESULTS: Most of the study group (33,9%) assessed their SRH as very good. Women (p <0,001) and the older students aged over 20 yrs. (p<0, 001) rated their health lower-as good and fair. At the same time among the group with negative health change over a year (13,2%) the proportion of women is 2 times higher as compared to men. Differences between the groups were found for some behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks consumption. When we checked the effect of each variable in univariate analysis we detected significance only for some of them-age, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. We combined the categories of excellent, very good and good health in one variable-good health, and the categories of fair and poor healt-as bad health. The statistical analysis determined that most of the students at age over 20 yrs. report bad health (р=0,012). Good health was present in more than 50% of the non-smokers and among the individuals who drink alcohol rarely. Logistic regression modelling proved the age, smoking and alcohol consumption as important predictors of SRH. Probability of having a bad health is 6,4 times higher in people who drink alcohol on a daily basis, over 5 times higher in smokers (over 20 cigarettes per day), and 2,3 times higher in students aged over 20 yrs. CONCLUSION: Psychological and behavioural individual profile can be use as a reliable and valid instrument to measure the individual health at present.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities.
Available from: Rene Sebena
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender.
A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (>= 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one's academic performance in comparison with one's peers).
The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption.
The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular/ periodic monitoring of student use of alcohol, and for urgent preventive actions and intervention programmes at the universities in the UK.
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