Cortico-Cortical Modulation Induced by 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Temporal Cortex

Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Journal of Clinical Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.7). 04/2013; 9(2):75-82. DOI: 10.3988/jcn.2013.9.2.75
Source: PubMed


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has potential as a noninvasive neuromodulation treatment method for various neuropsychiatric disorders, and repeated sessions of rTMS are more likely to enhance the therapeutic efficacy. This study investigated neurophysiologic and spatiodynamic changes induced by repeated 1-Hz rTMS of the temporal cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) indices and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).
Twenty-seven healthy subjects underwent daily 1-Hz active or sham rTMS of the right temporal cortex for 5 consecutive days. TMS indices of motor cortical excitability were measured in both hemispheres daily before and after each rTMS session, and 2 weeks after the last stimulation. FDG-PET was performed at baseline and after the 5 days of rTMS sessions.
All subjects tolerated all of the sessions well, with only three of them (11.1%) reporting mild transient side effects (i.e., headache, tinnitus, or local irritation). One-Hz rTMS decreased motor evoked potential amplitudes and delayed cortical silent periods in the stimulated hemisphere. Statistical parametric mapping of FDG-PET data revealed a focal reduction of glucose metabolism in the stimulated temporal area and an increase in the bilateral precentral, ipsilateral superior and middle frontal, prefrontal and cingulate gyri.
Repeated rTMS sessions for 5 consecutive days were tolerated in all subjects, with only occasional minor side effects. Focal 1-Hz rTMS of the temporal cortex induces cortico-cortical modulation with widespread functional changes in brain neural networks via long-range neural connections.

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Available from: Hee-Jin Kim, May 07, 2014
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    • "It has been shown, that rTMS over the temporal cortex can induce changes in motor cortex excitability. In a sham-controlled study 27 healthy subjects showed decreased motor evoked potential amplitudes and delayed cortical silent period (CSP) after five days of 1Hz rTMS of the right temporal cortex [14]. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by a decrease in glucose metabolism in the stimulated temporal cortex and an increase in cingulate and frontal areas but also in motor cortex. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Motor cortex excitability was found to be changed after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex highlighting the occurrence of cross-modal plasticity in non-invasive brain stimulation. Here, we investigated the effects of temporal low-frequency rTMS on motor cortex plasticity in a large sample of tinnitus patients. In 116 patients with chronic tinnitus different parameters of cortical excitability were assessed before and after ten rTMS treatment sessions. Patients received one of three different protocols all including 1 Hz rTMS over the left temporal cortex. Treatment response was defined as improvement by at least five points in the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). Variables of interest were resting motor threshold (RMT), short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). Results After rTMS treatment RMT was decreased by about 1% of stimulator output near-significantly in the whole group of patients. SICI was associated with significant changes with respect to treatment response. The group of treatment responders showed a decrease of SICI over the course of treatment, the group of non-responders the reverse pattern. Conclusions Minor RMT changes during rTMS treatment do not necessarily suggest the need for systematic re-examination of the RMT for safety and efficacy issues. Treatment response to rTMS was shown to be related to changes in SICI that might reflect modulation of GABAergic mechanisms directly or indirectly related to rTMS treatment effects.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. 75 in vol. 9, PMID: 23626644.].
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Clinical Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of post-stroke fatigue is poorly understood although it is thought to be a consequence of central nervous system pathophysiology. In this study we investigate the relationship between corticomotor excitability and self-reported non-exercise related fatigue in chronic stroke population. Seventy first-time non-depressed stroke survivors (60.36 ± 12.4 years, 20 females, 56.81 ± 63 months post-stroke) with minimal motor and cognitive impairment were included in the cross-sectional observational study. Fatigue was measured using two validated questionnaires: Fatigue Severity Scale 7 and Neurological Fatigue Index - Stroke. Perception of effort was measured using a 0-10 numerical rating scale in an isometric biceps hold-task and was used as a secondary measure of fatigue. Neurophysiological measures of corticomotor excitability were performed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Corticospinal excitability was quantified using resting and active motor thresholds and stimulus-response curves of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Intracortical M1 excitability was measured using paired pulse paradigms: short and long interval intracortical inhibition in the same hand muscle as above. Excitability of cortical and subcortical inputs that drive M1 output was measured in the biceps muscle using a modified twitch interpolation technique to provide an index of central activation failure. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the explanatory variables that significantly accounted for variance in the fatigue and perception scores. Resting motor threshold (R = 0.384; 95% confidence interval = 0.071; P = 0.036) accounted for 14.7% (R(2)) of the variation in Fatigue Severity Scale 7. Central activation failure (R = 0.416; 95% confidence interval = -1.618; P = 0.003) accounted for 17.3% (R(2)) of the variation in perceived effort score. Thus chronic stroke survivors with high fatigue exhibit high motor thresholds and those who perceive high effort have low excitability of inputs that drive motor cortex output. We suggest that low excitability of both corticospinal output and its facilitatory synaptic inputs from cortical and sub-cortical sites contribute to high levels of fatigue after stroke. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Brain
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