Article

Hospitalization with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated health resource utilization: A population-based Danish cohort study

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Abstract

Objective: Health resource utilization (HRU) and outcomes associated with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are not well described. Therefore, a population-based cohort study was conducted to characterize patients hospitalized with AECOPD with regard to HRU, mortality, recurrence, and predictors of readmission with AECOPD. Methods: Using Danish healthcare databases, this study identified COPD patients with at least one AECOPD hospitalization between 2005-2009 in Northern Denmark. Hospitalized AECOPD patients' HRU, in-hospital mortality, 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, and 180-day post-discharge mortality and recurrence risk, and predictors of readmission with AECOPD in the year following study inclusion were characterized. Results: This study observed 6612 AECOPD hospitalizations among 3176 prevalent COPD patients. Among all AECOPD hospitalizations, median length of stay was 6 days (interquartile range [IQR] 3-9 days); 5 days (IQR 3-9) among those without ICU stay and 11 days (IQR 7-20) among the 8.6% admitted to the ICU. Mechanical ventilation was provided to 193 (2.9%) and non-invasive ventilation to 479 (7.2%) admitted patients. In-hospital mortality was 5.6%. Post-discharge mortality was 4.2%, 7.8%, 10.5%, and 17.4% at 30, 60, 90, and 180 days, respectively. Mortality and readmission risk increased with each AECOPD hospitalization experienced in the first year of follow-up. Readmission at least twice in the first year of follow-up was observed among 286 (9.0%) COPD patients and was related to increasing age, male gender, obesity, asthma, osteoporosis, depression, myocardial infarction, diabetes I and II, any malignancy, and hospitalization with AECOPD or COPD in the prior year. Limitations: The study included only hospitalized AECOPD patients among prevalent COPD patients. Furthermore, information was lacking on clinical variables. Conclusion: These findings indicate that AECOPD hospitalizations are associated with substantial mortality and risk of recurrence.

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... The majority of studies were conducted in the USA (n ¼ 15) [17,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42], Spain (n ¼ 13) [13,28,29,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52] and Canada (n ¼ 9) [16,[53][54][55][56][57][58][59], with 44 (77.2%) studies undertaken in the last 11 years (2008-2019). Fifty-four (94.7%) studies reported risk factors for COPD readmission, nine (16.0%) reported both risk factors and outcomes associated with readmission [14,28,35,38,46,49,[60][61][62] and three (5.4%) reported only patient-related outcomes of readmission [63][64][65]. Study sample sizes varied from 17 [65] to 696,385 [66] patients, with a total of 2,822,486 patients across all studies. ...
... The definition of readmission frequency varied in the latter seven studies. Four studies defined frequent readmission as �2 readmissions [26,27,51,74], two studies defined it as >2 readmissions [31,62], while another used �4 readmissions [77]. Two studies did not report parameter estimates (likelihood ratios) [30,42], one study [51] reported univariate analysis, and two studies reported only p values for the multivariate analysis [37,67]. ...
... Increasing/older age: Despite 13 studies indicating increasing age as a risk factor for readmission, 38 studies that included age in their analysis did not find any significant relationship with readmission. Seven of the 13 studies indicated increasing age as a risk factor for readmission [28,29,35,38,52,62,66,69,71] while six associated increased risk of readmission with the age range of 40-84 years [33,36,46,70]. ...
Article
Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of unplanned readmission. There is need to identify risk factors for, and strategies to prevent readmission in patients with COPD. Aim To systematically review and summarise the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with rehospitalisation due to COPD exacerbation. Method The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Five databases were searched for relevant studies. Results Fifty-seven studies from 30 countries met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of COPD-related readmission varied from 2.6 to 82.2% at 30 days, 11.8–44.8% at 31–90 days, 17.9–63.0% at 6 months, and 25.0–87.0% at 12 months post-discharge. There were differences in the reported factors associated with readmissions, which may reflect variations in the local context, such as the availability of community-based services to care for exacerbations of COPD. Hospitalisation in the previous year prior to index admission was the key predictor of COPD-related readmission. Comorbidities (in particular asthma), living in a deprived area and living in or discharge to a nursing home were also associated with readmission. Relative to those without readmissions, readmitted patients had higher in-hospital mortality rates, shorter long-term survival, poorer quality of life, longer hospital stay, increased recurrence of subsequent readmissions, and accounted for greater healthcare costs. Conclusions Hospitalisation in the previous year was the principal risk factor for COPD-related readmissions. Variation in the prevalence and the reported factors associated with COPD-related readmission indicate that risk factors cannot be generalised, and interventions should be tailored to the local healthcare environment.
... 4 In spite of these extensive efforts worldwide, patients are often readmitted after hospitalization due to acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). 5 The number of AECOPD incidents has been estimated to 0.6-3.5 per patient per year. 5 A number of these patients have to be admitted/readmitted to the hospital, for instance, due to the need for non-invasive or mechanical ventilation. ...
... 5 The number of AECOPD incidents has been estimated to 0.6-3.5 per patient per year. 5 A number of these patients have to be admitted/readmitted to the hospital, for instance, due to the need for non-invasive or mechanical ventilation. The admission/readmission is necessary, despite the fact that admission caused by acute exacerbation may have a negative impact and negative influence on the patient's quality of life, health care costs and so one. ...
... The admission/readmission is necessary, despite the fact that admission caused by acute exacerbation may have a negative impact and negative influence on the patient's quality of life, health care costs and so one. 5 The question remains whether it is possible to prevent a number of the exacerbations and thereby some of the admissions. ...
Article
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Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, characterized by airflow limitation. The disease has a significant impact on the lives of patients and is a challenge for the health care due to readmissions to hospitals. Objectives: This review aimed to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of discharge interventions that can reduce readmission of patients with COPD. Types of participants: Hospitalized patients, aged 18 years or over, who had been diagnosed with COPD and were admitted to hospital due to acute exacerbation. Types of interventions: Studies that evaluated discharge interventions that supported patients managing symptoms of COPD. Types of studies: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or cohort studies. Outcomes: Readmission, defined as hospitalization to the same or different hospital for any reason within the following year after discharge. Search strategy: Multiple databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, Web of Science, Turning Research Into Practice [Trip] and Scopus) were searched from 1990 to June 2015. Studies published in English or Scandinavian. Methodological quality: Two independent reviewers used the standard critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute to assess the methodological quality of studies. All studies were of good methodological quality. Data extraction: The process of data extraction was undertaken independently by two reviewers using tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis: A narrative description of each study was performed. Outcomes were reported as the event rate (ER) in the intervention and control groups. Based on the ER relative risk reduction (RRR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), the number needed to treat (NNT), and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Continuous data were reported in natural units. Results: This review includes ten studies all testing a mix of interventions. A meta-analysis included six studies, four at 30 days follow-up with RR 0.67 (0.45 to 0.98) and 180 days follow-up with RR 0.74 (0.51 to 1.08). The analysis could not identify a single set of interventions that could be recommended. Conclusions: Post discharge support and interventions in patients with COPD significantly reduce the readmission rate within 30 days after discharge from hospital and the interventions may significantly reduce readmission up to 180 days after initial discharge. This is a significant finding from the clinical and practical perspective.
... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as irreversibly impaired lung function, judged by spirometric measurement of the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and airflow obstruction defined as FEV1/forced ventilator capacity (FVC) below 0.7 [1]. Many COPD patients experience acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) [1], which accelerate progression of the disease [2] which is the most common cause of admission to medical wards in Denmark as well as worldwide [3,4]. In Denmark, patients are often referred to general medical wards, departments of internal medicine, and only the minority are admitted to highly specialised units, e.g. ...
... In a Danish study, 46% were readmitted one or several times within the first year after discharge [4]. Numerous factors have been shown to predispose patiens to further hospital admissions; previous hospital admission for AECOPD, hypercapnia, low FEV1, preadmissional long-term oxygen therapy and need for non-invasive ventilation, amongst others [2,[4][5][6][7]. ...
... The mortality is high in COPD patients and is associated with co-morbidity [3], the frequency of admission for AECOPD [2] and the degree of respiratory acidosis at admission [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is the most common cause of admission to medical wards. In Denmark, patients are often referred to general medical wards, e.g. departments of internal medicine (IM), and only a minority are admitted to highly specialised units such as departments of pulmonary diseases (DPD). Material and methods: This retrospective study investigated the risk of readmission 12 months after primary admission in 136 patients admitted to either IM or DPD due to AECOPD. Furthermore, mortality 18 months after primary admission was investigated. A subanalysis was made for patients receiving non-invasive ventilation and for patients with telehealthcare. Data were obtained from patients' case records. Results: There was no difference in readmission in patients' primary admission at DPD versus IM. The median number of readmissions for patients participating in telehealthcare was four compared with two in patients who did not (p = 0.026). In-hospital mortality during primary admission was significantly higher at DPD than at IM (relative risk (RR) = 3.54; p = 0.047). Telehealthcare participation was associated with a trend towards a lower mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in patients receiving non-invasive ventilation than in patients at DPD who did not receive non-invasive ventilation at their primary admission (RR = 5.02; p = 0.011). Conclusion: There was no difference in the risk of readmission in patients admitted to DPD and IM, respectively. Patients assigned to telehealthcare did not have a higher readmission rate, but those who were readmitted were readmitted more times (p = 0.026). Funding: not relevant. Trial registration: This trial was registered with the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. no. 2008-58-0028).
... 18 The risk trajectory of a patient being re-hospitalized following a severe AECOPD has been described, 18 and some observational studies have estimated the risk of moderate/severe/moderate-to-severe re-exacerbation within discrete time periods (for example, 90 days after the initial exacerbation). [19][20][21][22][23] However, differing study designs and definitions of AECOPD events, as demonstrated in systematic literature reviews, 24,25 may mean that comparison of such results is not wholly reliable. Exacerbation history has been identified as a potential predictor of re-exacerbation, 26 and a range of comorbidities (including heart disease, 21,23 depression, and diabetes) 22 may also be involved. ...
... [19][20][21][22][23] However, differing study designs and definitions of AECOPD events, as demonstrated in systematic literature reviews, 24,25 may mean that comparison of such results is not wholly reliable. Exacerbation history has been identified as a potential predictor of re-exacerbation, 26 and a range of comorbidities (including heart disease, 21,23 depression, and diabetes) 22 may also be involved. Patients may also be at risk of re-exacerbation if they are not prescribed an appropriate treatment following their first AECOPD. ...
Article
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Purpose: Understanding risk factors for an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is important for optimizing patient care. We re-analyzed data from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study (NCT00292552) to identify factors predictive of re-exacerbations and associated with prolonged AECOPDs. Methods: Patients with COPD from ECLIPSE with moderate/severe AECOPDs were included. The end of the first exacerbation was the index date. Timing of re-exacerbation risk was assessed in patients with 180 days' post-index-date follow-up data. Factors predictive of early (1-90 days) vs late (91-180 days) vs no re-exacerbation were identified using a multivariable partial-proportional-odds-predictive model. Explanatory logistic-regression modeling identified factors associated with prolonged AECOPDs. Results: Of the 1,554 eligible patients from ECLIPSE, 1,420 had 180 days' follow-up data: more patients experienced early (30.9%) than late (18.7%) re-exacerbations; 50.4% had no re-exacerbation within 180 days. Lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (P=0.0019), a higher number of moderate/severe exacerbations on/before index date (P<0.0001), higher St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score (P=0.0036), and season of index exacerbation (autumn vs winter, P=0.00164) were identified as predictors of early (vs late/none) re-exacerbation risk within 180 days. Similarly, these were all predictors of any (vs none) re-exacerbation risk within 180 days. Median moderate/severe AECOPD duration was 12 days; 22.7% of patients experienced a prolonged AECOPD. The odds of experiencing a prolonged AECOPD were greater for severe vs moderate AECOPDs (adjusted odds ratio=1.917, P=0.002) and lower for spring vs winter AECOPDs (adjusted odds ratio=0.578, P=0.017). Conclusion: Prior exacerbation history, reduced lung function, poorer respiratory-related quality-of-life (greater disease burden), and season may help identify patients who will re-exacerbate within 90 days of an AECOPD. Severe AECOPDs and winter AECOPDs are likely to be prolonged and may require close monitoring.
... The population eligible for the study included all patients with prevalent COPD on 1 January 2005, who had a COPD diagnosis recorded in the DNRP between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004. We considered all primary inpatient and outpatient diagnosis related to COPD as well as all primary diagnoses of respiratory failure with a secondary COPD-related diagnosis, as described previously 23 and defined in the online supplementary file. Patients aged younger than 40 years were excluded, given the low COPD prevalence in this patient group 24 and the potential for misclassifying asthma as COPD. ...
... We have previously shown that patients with no AECOPD in the year before an AECOPD are younger and have less comorbidity. 23 Even though these patients may have had more newly diagnosed, and thus less severe, COPD, it is possible that some of these patients have more severe AECOPDs because they postpone seeking medical attention due to unfamiliarity with the symptoms thereof. However, an older patient with higher comorbidity and a recent history of AECOPD may be more aware of the threatening situation and act more quickly, resulting in a lower mortality than expected in the acute phase. ...
Article
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To examine the association between exacerbation frequency and mortality following an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Cohort study using medical databases. Northern Denmark. On 1 January 2005, we identified all patients with prevalent hospital-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had at least one AECOPD during 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We followed patients from the first AECOPD during this period until death, emigration or 31 December 2009, whichever came first. We flagged all AECOPD events during follow-up and characterised each by the exacerbation frequency (0, 1, 2 or 3+) in the prior 12-month period. Using Cox regression, we computed 0-30-day and 31-365-day age-adjusted, sex-adjusted, and comorbidity-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% CIs entering exacerbation frequency as a time-varying exposure. We identified 16 647 eligible patients with prevalent COPD, of whom 6664 (40%) developed an AECOPD and were thus included in the study cohort. The 0-30-day MRRs were 0.97 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.18), 0.90 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.15) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.32) among patients with AECOPD with 1, 2 and 3+ AECOPDs versus no AECOPD within the past 12 months, respectively. The corresponding MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.66), 1.89 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.25) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.05) for days 31-365. Among patients with AECOPD, one or more exacerbations in the previous year were not associated with 30-day mortality but were associated with an increased 31-365-day mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
... 6 The in-hospital mortality rate in our study was towards the lower end of rates reported in the literature, which range from 2% to 7.7% (median approximately 5%). [7][8][9][10][11][12][13] There was a trend towards lower mortality in patients receiving controlled oxygen therapy; however, this did not reach statistical significance. If a difference in mortality of this order could be confirmed in a larger study the number needed to harm would be of the order of 32. ...
... Length of stay was similar to other contemporary reports. 9,10 There has been some discussion in the literature about the target range. 4 In a recent review, Pilcher et al. suggested that further evidence is required to confirm the 88-92% target range. ...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether initiation of controlled oxygen therapy at ED presentation increased the proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) achieving the COPD-X guideline target SpO2 range (88-92%) at 30 min and if it impacted total hospital length of stay or in-hospital mortality. Methods: Retrospective cohort study by medical record review of patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of COPD. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of patients achieving the target SpO2 range at 30 min after ED arrival. Results: The proportion of patients with SpO2 in the target range at 30 min was higher in the controlled oxygen therapy group (32% vs 16%: difference between proportions 16% (95% CI 7-24%); number needed to treat 6) and less likely to be over-oxygenated (SpO2 > 95%), 29% versus 54%, difference between proportions 25% (95% CI 14-35%); number needed to harm 4, without an increased likelihood of hypoxia. Length of stay was not different between the groups. Mortality for the controlled oxygen group was 2.7% (95% CI 1.3-5.5%) versus 5.8% for the uncontrolled oxygen group (95% CI 2.9-11.6%); however, this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Patients with exacerbations of COPD receiving controlled oxygen therapy were more likely to achieve SpO2 within the COPD-X guideline target range without being more likely to be hypoxic. The proportion of patients with SpO2 within the target range was low, suggesting that further work on processes to optimise oxygenation in this group of patients is needed.
... This prediction is independent of stable phase lung function impairment, and mortality increases by each subsequent exacerbation. 5,[8][9][10][11] It is not known whether the association between previous exacerbations and mortality is independent of the degree of acute illness. Patients subjected to assisted ventilation constitute a group whose acute illness is severe, and the association between previous exacerbations and mortality in this group has not been elucidated. ...
... The overall short-term mortality among patients with acute exacerbations ranges from 2.1% to 20.4%, 9,12,13 but patients with severe acute COPD admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are particularly at risk with a 6-month mortality ranging from 25% to 40%. 12,14,15 In-hospital mortality rates for patients being ventilated are 5%-25% but higher in relation to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) than to noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV). ...
Article
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Background In general, previous studies have shown an association between prior exacerbations and mortality in COPD, but this association has not been demonstrated in the subpopulation of patients in need of assisted ventilation. We examined whether previous hospitalizations were independently associated with mortality among patients with COPD ventilated for the first time. Patients and methods In the Danish National Patient Registry, we established a cohort of patients with COPD ventilated for the first time from 2003 to 2011 and previously medicated for obstructive airway diseases. We assessed the number of hospitalizations for COPD in the preceding year, age, sex, comorbidity, mode of ventilation, survival to discharge, and days to death beyond discharge. Results The cohort consisted of 6,656 patients of whom 66% had not been hospitalized for COPD in the previous year, 18% once, 8% twice, and 9% thrice or more. In-hospital mortality was 45%, and of the patients alive at discharge, 11% died within a month and 39% within a year. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, sex, mode of ventilation, and comorbidity, odds ratios for in-hospital death were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.44), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.19–1.72), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.30–1.87) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Hazard ratios for death after discharge from hospital were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19–1.46), 1.76 (95% CI: 1.52–2.02), and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.80–2.38) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Conclusion Preceding hospitalizations for COPD are associated with in-hospital mortality and after discharge in the subpopulation of patients with COPD with acute exacerbation treated with assisted ventilation for the first time.
... The percentage of in-hospital mortality was 5.6% in contrast with 17.4% at 180 days after they were discharged. It was concluded that readmission was frequent and can be predicted by age and the presence of comorbidities [8]. In severe stages of COPD, respiratory failure is the most common cause of death [9]. ...
Article
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Chronic obstructive lung disease is a common and preventable disease. One of its pathophysiological consequences is the presence of carbon dioxide retention due to hypoventilation and ventilation/perfusion mismatch, which in consequence will cause a decrease in the acid/base status of the patient. Whenever a patient develops an acute exacerbation, acute respiratory hypercapnic failure will appear and the necessity of a hospital ward is a must. However, current guidelines exist to better identify these patients and make an accurate diagnosis by using clinical skills and laboratory data such as arterial blood gases. Once the patient is identified, rapid treatment will help to diminish the hospital length and the avoidance of intensive care unit. On the other hand, if there is the existence of comorbidities such as cardiac failure, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pulmonary embolism or depression, it is likely that the patient will be admitted to the intensive care unit with the requirement of intubation and mechanical ventilation.
... Previous studies examined the resource utilization and health care costs associated with exacerbations among COPD patients. [14][15][16][17] In a US managed-care population initiating COPD maintenance medications, AbuDagga et al found that exacerbation rates continued to be high, resulting in an estimated annual cost of $25,747 in the overall population and $29,861 in the patients with history of one or more exacerbations. 14 In this study, calculated total monthly costs during the 3-month follow-up period were $2,472 and $2,851 for non-roflumilast and roflumilast group, respectively, which is higher than the AbuDagga study 14 and likely due to the selection of patients with more severe COPD. ...
Article
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Background Roflumilast is approved in the United States to reduce the risk of COPD exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Exacerbation rates, health care resource utilization (HCRU), and costs were compared between roflumilast patients and those receiving other COPD maintenance drugs. Methods LifeLink™ Health Plan Claims Database was used to identify patients diagnosed with COPD who initiated roflumilast (roflumilast group) or ≥3 other COPD maintenance drugs (non-roflumilast group) from May 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Patients must have been enrolled for 12 months before (baseline) and 3 months after (postindex) the initiation date, ≥40 years old, not systemic corticosteroid dependent, and without asthma diagnosis at baseline. Difference-in-difference models compared change from baseline in exacerbations, HCRU (office, emergency visits, and hospitalizations), and total costs between groups, adjusting for baseline differences. Results A total of 14,211 patients (roflumilast, n=710; non-roflumilast, n=13,501) were included. During follow-up, the rate of overall exacerbations per patient per month decreased by 11.1% in the roflumilast group and increased by 15.9% in the non-roflumilast group (P<0.001). After controlling for baseline differences, roflumilast-treated patients experienced a greater reduction in exacerbations (0.0160 fewer exacerbations per month, P=0.01), numerically greater reductions in hospital admissions (0.003 fewer per month, P=0.57), office visits (0.46 fewer per month, P=0.26), and total costs from baseline compared with non-roflumilast patients ($116 less per month, P=0.62). Conclusion In a real-world setting, patients initiating roflumilast experienced reductions in exacerbations versus patients treated with other COPD medications.
... [2][3][4][5][6] Inhospital mortality is reported to be between 4.4% and 7.7%. [7][8][9][10] Clinicians are unable accurately to predict prognosis in patients hospitalised with AECOPD. 11 A robust prediction tool, which stratifies patients according to mortality risk, may help inform management, including Hospital at Home (HAH) or early supported discharge (ESD) for low-risk groups, and early escalation or appropriate palliation for high-risk groups. ...
Article
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Background Hospitalisation due to acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is common, and subsequent mortality high. The DECAF score was derived for accurate prediction of mortality and risk stratification to inform patient care. We aimed to validate the DECAF score, internally and externally, and to compare its performance to other predictive tools. Methods The study took place in the two hospitals within the derivation study (internal validation) and in four additional hospitals (external validation) between January 2012 and May 2014. Consecutive admissions were identified by screening admissions and searching coding records. Admission clinical data, including DECAF indices, and mortality were recorded. The prognostic value of DECAF and other scores were assessed by the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve. Results In the internal and external validation cohorts, 880 and 845 patients were recruited. Mean age was 73.1 (SD 10.3) years, 54.3% were female, and mean (SD) FEV1 45.5 (18.3) per cent predicted. Overall mortality was 7.7%. The DECAF AUROC curve for inhospital mortality was 0.83 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.87) in the internal cohort and 0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87) in the external cohort, and was superior to other prognostic scores for inhospital or 30-day mortality. Conclusions DECAF is a robust predictor of mortality, using indices routinely available on admission. Its generalisability is supported by consistent strong performance; it can identify low-risk patients (DECAF 0–1) potentially suitable for Hospital at Home or early supported discharge services, and high-risk patients (DECAF 3–6) for escalation planning or appropriate early palliation. Trial registration number UKCRN ID 14214.
... Hospitalization is common for those with advanced chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD). 1 Admission is often related to exacerbations of breathlessness, frequently recurrent, as 27% of exacerbations are followed by a second event within 8 weeks. 2 Readmission to hospital is therefore a regular pattern for people with advanced COPD, with 90 day readmission rates ranging from 16-48%. 3 Hospital episodes are not only frequent, but also extended, as the mean length of hospital stay can be around 9 days. [4][5][6] People experience being hospitalized in different ways, but generally, while people appreciate treatment, they can also associate hospitalization with uncertainty, distress and loss of control. [7][8][9] Also people have a high symptom burden that affects the physical, psychological, social and spiritual aspects of individuals during hospitalization. ...
Article
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Objectives: People with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are frequently hospitalized, reporting high physical, psychological and spiritual suffering. Existing research focused on discrete aspects of hospitalization, such as care or treatment, yet lacks a complete picture of the phenomenon. The aim of this study is to understand the lived experience of hospitalization in people with advanced COPD. Methods: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was employed to study the phenomenon of hospitalization for people with advanced COPD. Unstructured interviews were conducted during hospitalization at a tertiary care hospital in India, in 2017, audio-recorded, and then transcribed. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological analysis method guided the analysis. Results: Fifteen people with advanced COPD participated. Emergency admissions were common because of acute breathlessness, leading to repeated hospitalizations. Hospitalization gave a sense of safety but, despite this, people preferred to avoid hospitalization. Care influenced trust in hospitalization and both shaped the experience of hospitalization. Multi-dimensional suffering was central to the experience and was described across physical, psychological and spiritual domains. Discussion: Hospitalization was identified largely as a negative experience due to the perception of continued suffering. Integrating palliative care into the routine care of people with advanced COPD may enable improvements in care.
... The 12-month mortality rate was significantly and markedly lower in the DM group (1.9%) than in the UM group (14.2%), the latter of which is consistent with, or lower than, the 12-month mortality rates of 12.5% [28], 16.8% [29], 21% [30] and >23% [31] that have been reported previously for COPD patients following a hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD. That mortality was lower than expected in the DM group, rather than excessively high in the UM group, suggests that the disease management intervention reduced mortality. ...
Article
The COPD Patient Management European Trial (COMET) investigated the efficacy and safety of a home-based COPD disease management intervention for severe COPD patients. The study was an international open-design clinical trial in COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 s <50% of predicted value) randomised 1:1 to the disease management intervention or to the usual management practices at the study centre. The disease management intervention included a self-management programme, home telemonitoring, care coordination and medical management. The primary end-point was the number of unplanned all-cause hospitalisation days in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary end-points included acute care hospitalisation days, BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise) index and exacerbations. Safety end-points included adverse events and deaths. For the 157 (disease management) and 162 (usual management) patients eligible for ITT analyses, all-cause hospitalisation days per year (mean± sd ) were 17.4±35.4 and 22.6±41.8, respectively (mean difference −5.3, 95% CI −13.7 to −3.1; p=0.16). The disease management group had fewer per-protocol acute care hospitalisation days per year (p=0.047), a lower BODE index (p=0.01) and a lower mortality rate (1.9% versus 14.2%; p<0.001), with no difference in exacerbation frequency. Patient profiles and hospitalisation practices varied substantially across countries. The COMET disease management intervention did not significantly reduce unplanned all-cause hospitalisation days, but reduced acute care hospitalisation days and mortality in severe COPD patients.
... In 2010, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, but it is predicted to be the third by 2020. 2 Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), which is generally characterized by the aggravated dyspnea and the increased volumes of phlegm and phlegm purulence, had an in-hospital mortality of 4.3%-7.7%. [3][4][5] However, there are still no Dovepress Dovepress 1218 liu et al strong and effective strategies to predict the occurrence of AECOPD. Therefore, biomarkers for predicting the development and prognosis of COPD are urgently required. ...
Article
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Objectives MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the development of COPD. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate potential miRNA biomarkers in frequent and non-frequent exacerbators of COPD patients using bioinformatic analysis. Materials and methods The candidate miRNA biomarkers in COPD were screened from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset and identified using GEO2R online tool. Then, we performed bioinformatic analyses including target prediction, gene ontology (GO), pathway enrichment analysis and construction of protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. Furthermore, the expression of the identified miRNAs in peripheral blood monocular cells (PBMCs) of COPD patients was validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results MiR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were identified to be significantly downregulated in COPD patients compared with healthy controls. GO analysis showed the four miRNAs involved in apoptotic, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and innate immune response. Pathway analysis showed that the targets of these miRNAs were associated with p53, TGF-β, Wnt, VEGF and MAPK signal pathway. In healthy controls, the miR-25 and miR-224 levels were significantly decreased in smokers compared with nonsmokers (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). In COPD patients, the levels of miR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were associated with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages. Notably, miR-23a and miR-145 were significantly elevated in non-frequent exacerbators compared with frequent exacerbators (P<0.05), and miR-23a showed higher area under the receiver–operator characteristic curve (AUROC) than miR-145 (0.707 vs 0.665, P<0.05). Conclusion MiR-23a, miR-25, miR-145 and miR-224 were associated with the development of COPD, and miR-23a might be a potential biomarker for discriminating the frequent exacerbators from non-frequent exacerbators.
... Much of the cost of care in COPD involves expenses related to exacerbations of this disease (2). Hospital readmissions within 30 days in COPD are frequentwith approximately 9-20% being readmitted (3)(4)(5)(6). Hospitals will soon be financially penalized for 30-day readmissions for COPD. Risk stratification would be useful in directing scarce medical resources toward those patients most likely to be readmitted. ...
... The mean length of hospital stay of 4.5 days (0-48) in our study is in line with other studies that report mean lengths of 5-12 days [4,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. In contrast to other studies [27,28] however, our patients had a relatively short ICU stay (mean 2.1 days). ...
Article
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Background Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often require prehospital emergency treatment. This enables patients who are less ill to be treated on-site and to avoid hospital admission, while severely ill patients can receive immediate ventilatory support in the form of intubation. The emergency physician faces difficult treatment decisions, however, and prognostic tools that could assist in determining which patients would benefit from intubation and ventilator support would be helpful. The aim of the current study was to identify prehospital clinical variables associated with mortality from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As part of the study, we estimated the 30-day mortality for patients with this prehospital diagnosis. Methods A retrospective study was performed using data collected by the mobile emergency care unit in Odense, Denmark, combined with data from the patients’ medical records. Patients with the tentative diagnosis of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between 1st July 2011 and 31st December 2013 were included in the study. Results Based on data from 530 patients, we found no statistically significant associations between prehospital clinical variables and mortality, apart from a minor association between older age and higher mortality. The overall 30-day mortality was 10%, while that for patients admitted to the intensive care unit was 30%. Conclusion No specific prehospital prognostic factors for mortality were identified. Prognostic assessment and the decision to withhold treatment for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease seem inadvisable in the prehospital setting.
... Although fewer patients experienced an exacerbation than a deterioration in lung function or health status, a number of studies have shown that exacerbations are associated with faster lung function decline, reduced physical activity levels, and increased mortality risk, and so are key drivers of disease progression. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26] Given the long-term impact of such events, in our main definition a patient with an exacerbation was considered to have experienced a sustained CID (consistent with a definition used previously). 4 However, there is no single, accepted sustained CID definition. ...
Article
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Background Current pharmacological therapies for COPD improve quality of life and symptoms and reduce exacerbations. Given the progressive nature of COPD, it is arguably more important to understand whether the available therapies are able to delay clinical deterioration; the concept of “clinically important deterioration” (CID) has therefore been developed. We evaluated the efficacy of the single-inhaler triple combination beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium (BDP/FF/G), using data from three large 1-year studies. Methods The studies compared BDP/FF/G to BDP/FF (TRILOGY), tiotropium (TRINITY), and indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY; TRIBUTE). All studies recruited patients with symptomatic COPD, FEV1 <50%, and an exacerbation history. We measured the time to first CID and to sustained CID, an endpoint combining FEV1, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), moderate-to-severe exacerbations, and death. The time to first CID was based on the first occurrence of any of the following: a decrease of ≥100 mL from baseline in FEV1, an increase of ≥4 units from baseline in SGRQ total score, the occurrence of a moderate/severe COPD exacerbation, or death. The time to sustained CID was defined as: a CID in FEV1 and/or SGRQ total score maintained at all subsequent visits, an exacerbation, or death. Results Extrafine BDP/FF/G significantly extended the time to first CID vs BDP/FF (HR 0.61, P<0.001), tiotropium (0.72, P<0.001), and IND/GLY (0.82, P<0.001), and significantly extended the time to sustained CID vs BDP/FF (HR 0.64, P<0.001) and tiotropium (0.80, P<0.001), with a numerical extension vs IND/GLY. Conclusion In patients with symptomatic COPD, FEV1 <50%, and an exacerbation history, extrafine BDP/FF/G delayed disease deterioration compared with BDP/FF, tiotropium, and IND/GLY. Trial registration The studies are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: TRILOGY, NCT01917331; TRINITY, NCT01911364; TRIBUTE, NCT02579850.
... 4 COPD exacerbations are associated with long-term implications, including worsened quality of life, 4,5 faster decline in lung function, 6 and increased risk of allcause mortality. 7,8 The burden of COPD exacerbations becomes even greater among patients with longer recovery times 9 and those with frequent exacerbations. 6 Previous exacerbations are the most important predictor of future ones, 10,11 and about one in five COPD patients hospitalized for an exacerbation will require re-hospitalization within 30 days of discharge. ...
Article
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Purpose: Managing and preventing disease exacerbations are key goals of COPD care. Oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been shown to improve clinical outcomes when added to COPD standard of care. This retrospective database study compared real-world resource use and disease exacerbation among patients with COPD or chronic bronchitis prescribed either of two commonly used OPEP devices. Patients and methods: Patients using the Aerobika® (Trudell Medical International, London, ON, Canada) or Acapella® (Smiths Medical, Wampsville, New York, USA) OPEP device for COPD or chronic bronchitis were identified from hospital claims linked to medical and prescription claims between September 2013 and April 2018; the index date was the first hospital visit with an OPEP device. Severe disease exacerbation, defined as an inpatient visit with a COPD or chronic bronchitis diagnosis, and all-cause healthcare resource utilization over 30 days and 12 months post-discharge were compared in propensity score (PS)-matched Aerobika device and Acapella device users. Results: In total, 619 Aerobika device and 1857 Acapella device users remained after PS matching. After discharge from the index visit, Aerobika device users were less likely to have ≥1 severe exacerbation within 30 days (12.0% vs 17.4%, p=0.01) and/or 12 months (39.6% vs 45.3%, p=0.01) and had fewer 12-month severe exacerbations (mean, 0.7 vs 0.9 per patient per year, p=0.01), with significantly longer time to first severe exacerbation than Acapella users (log-rank p=0.01). Aerobika device users were also less likely to have ≥1 all-cause inpatient visit within 30 days (13.9% vs 20.3%, p<0.001) and 12 months (44.9% vs 51.8%, p=0.003) than Acapella users. Conclusion: Patients receiving the Aerobika OPEP device, compared to the Acapella device, had lower rates of subsequent severe disease exacerbation and all-cause inpatient admission. This suggests that Aerobika OPEP device may be a beneficial add-on to usual care and that OPEP devices may vary in clinical effectiveness.
... The diagnosis of acute respiratory failure was taken into account when measuring severe exacerbations because it is the worst prognosis following COPD exacerbation [23]. The algorithms for identifying severe COPD exacerbation has been employed previously [24,25]. The index date was defined as the date of the first occurrence of severe COPD exacerbation. ...
Article
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Background Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severely impacts the quality of life and causes high mortality and morbidity. COPD is involved with systemic and pulmonary inflammation, which may be attenuated with antidiabetic agents exerting anti-inflammatory effects. Real-world evidence is scant regarding the effects of antidiabetic agents on COPD exacerbation. Accordingly, we conducted a disease risk score (DRS)-matched nested case–control study to systemically assess the association between each class of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) and risk of severe COPD exacerbation in a nationwide COPD population co-diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We enrolled 23,875 COPD patients receiving at least one OHA for management of DM by analyzing the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015. Cases of severe exacerbation were defined as those who had the first hospital admission for COPD. Each case was individually matched with four randomly-selected controls by cohort entry date, DRS (the estimated probability of encountering a severe COPD exacerbation), and COPD medication regimens using the incidence density sampling approach. Conditional logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) of severe COPD exacerbation for each type of OHAs. Results We analyzed 2700 cases of severe COPD exacerbation and 9272 corresponding controls after DRS matching. Current use of metformin versus other OHAs was associated with a 15% (adjusted OR [aOR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.95) reduced risk of severe COPD exacerbation, whereas the reduced risk was not observed with other types of antidiabetic agents. When considering the duration of antidiabetic medication therapy, current use of metformin for 91–180 and 181–365 days was associated with a 28% (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.58–0.89) and 37% (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.51–0.77) reduced risk of severe COPD exacerbation, respectively. Similarly, 91–180 days of sulfonylureas therapy led to a 28% (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI 0.58–0.90) lower risk, and longer treatments consistently yielded 24–30% lower risks. Current use of thiazolidinediones for more than 181 days yielded an approximately 40% decreased risk. Conclusions Duration-dependent beneficial effects of current metformin, sulfonylurea, and thiazolidinedione use on severe COPD exacerbation were observed in patients with COPD and DM.
... International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2021:16 substantial mortality and risk of recurrence, with the risk of death highest after a hospitalization and increasing with the frequency of such events. 11,[37][38][39][40] Reducing exacerbation-related hospitalizations is an essential treatment goal for many patients with COPD. Typically, clinical trials have focused on the incidence of moderate and severe exacerbations combined (data for which have already been described); however, trials conducted in a population of patients at high risk of exacerbation, such as TRIBUTE, IMPACT, and ETHOS, have also assessed severe exacerbations (events leading to hospitalization or death) separately. ...
Article
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with major healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. International consortia recommend a personalized approach to treatment and management that aims to reduce both symptom burden and the risk of exacerbations. Recent clinical trials have investigated single-inhaler triple therapy (SITT) with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for patients with symptomatic COPD. Here, we review evidence from randomized controlled trials showing the benefits of SITT and weigh these against the reported risk of pneumonia with ICS use. We highlight the challenges associated with cross-trial comparisons of benefit/risk, discuss blood eosinophils as a marker of ICS responsiveness, and summarize current treatment recommendations and the position of SITT in the management of COPD, including potential advantages in terms of improving patient adherence. Evidence from trials of SITT versus dual therapies in symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation and increased risk of exacerbations shows benefits in lung function and patient-reported outcomes. Moreover, the key benefits reported with SITT are significant reductions in exacerbations and hospitalizations, with data also suggesting reduced all-cause mortality. These benefits outweigh the ICS-class effect of higher incidence of study-reported pneumonia compared with LAMA/LABA. Important differences in trial design, baseline population characteristics, such as exacerbation history, and assessment of outcomes, have significant implications for interpreting data from cross-trial comparisons. Current understanding interprets the blood eosinophil count as a continuum that can help predict response to ICS and has utility alongside other clinical factors to aid treatment decision-making. We conclude that treatment decisions in COPD should be guided by an approach that considers benefit versus risk, with early optimization of treatment essential for maximizing long-term benefits and patient outcomes.
... AECOPD requiring hospitalization are surprisingly lethal: recent in-hospital all-cause mortality rates were 5-7% 13,14 , and are much greater in those needing mechanical ventilation. This risk persists for survivors; AECOPD requiring hospitalization significantly and independently predict increased all-cause mortality over the next five years (Figs. 1 & 2) 15 . ...
... Severe cases can require hospitalisation. Exacerbations are associated with lower quality of life, more rapid decline in lung function, and higher all-cause mortality [9][10][11][12][13]. Airway clearance and physiotherapy have been mainstays in treating hypersecretion since the 1950s [9], with the first description in the literature purporting the benefits published in 1901 [14]. ...
Article
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Background Handheld oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with hypersecretory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) since the 1970s. Current devices are reusable and require regular cleaning and disinfection to prevent harbouring potentially pathogenic organisms. Adherence to cleaning regimens for respiratory devices is often poor and in response to this, a prototype disposable OPEP device—the ‘UL-OPEP’ (University of Limerick—Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure device)—was developed to mitigate the risk of contamination by pathogens. The device was previously evaluated successfully in a group of paediatric CF patients. The aim of the current study was to initially evaluate the safety of the prototype in patients with COPD over a period of 1 month to ensure no adverse events, negative impacts on lung function, exercise tolerance, or quality of life. Data on user experience of the device were also collected during post-study follow-up. Methods A sample of 50 volunteer participants were recruited from pulmonary rehabilitation clinics within the local hospital network. The patients were clinically stable, productive, and not current or previous users of OPEP devices. Participants were invited to use a prototype disposable OPEP device daily for a period of 1 month. Pre- and post-study lung function was assessed with standard spirometry, and exercise tolerance with the 6-min-walk-test (6MWT). Quality of life was assessed using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and user experience of the prototype device evaluated using a post-study questionnaire. Results 24 Participants completed the study: 9 were female. Overall median age was 67.5 years, range 53–85 years. Lung function, 6-min walk test, and SGRQ scores showed no significant change post-study. User feedback was positive overall. Conclusions The results indicate that the UL-OPEP is safe to use in patients with COPD. No adverse events were recorded during the study or in the follow-up period of 2 weeks. The device did not negatively impact patients’ lung function, exercise tolerance, or quality of life during short term use (1 month), and usability feedback received was generally positive. Larger, longer duration studies will be required to evaluate efficacy. Registration The study was approved as a Clinical Investigation by the Irish Health Products Regulatory Authority (CRN-2209025-CI0085).
... Тяжелые обострения ХОБЛ являются частой причиной госпитализаций, при этом повышается риск неблагоприятных событий, в т. ч. повторных (рецидивирующих) обострений, а также риск летального исхода, причем риск смерти наиболее высок после госпитализации и увеличивается с повышением частоты таких явлений [11,[29][30][31][32][33]. Снижение риска госпитализаций, связанных с обострениями, является важной целью лечения пациентов с ХОБЛ. ...
Article
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with significant healthcare and socioeconomic burden. International guidelines recommend a personalized approach to treatment and management that aims to reduce symptom burden and exacerbation risk. Numerous recently published clinical trials have investigated efficacy and safety of single-inhaler triple therapy (SITT) with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), long-acting β 2 -agonist (LABA), and an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for patients with COPD. Aim of the publication: to review the findings of randomized controlled trials that showed the benefit of single-inhaler triple therapy and compare this benefit with the known risk of pneumonia associated with ICSs. Conclusion. The key benefits reported with SITT are significant reductions in exacerbations and hospitalizations; the trials also suggest reduced all-cause mortality. The benefits of SITT outweigh the known risk of pneumonia with ICS use that is reported as the class-effect in COPD patients.
... The terms exacerbation recurrence or re-exacerbation were used in 11 articles (Table 2). 28,[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] Most studies defined recurrence or re-exacerbation as a worsening of symptoms (n = 3), subsequent prescription of oral corticosteroids or antibiotics (n = 2), or as a composite outcome including treatment or readmission for AECOPD following an initial AECOPD (n = 3). Only four studies specified that recovery from initial AECOPD was required prior to subsequent AECOPD and only recurrence/re-exacerbation of moderate or severe exacerbations were reported. ...
Article
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Introduction: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs) are important clinical events, with many patients experiencing multiple AECOPDs annually. The terms used in the literature to define recurring AECOPD events are inconsistent and may impact the ability to describe the true burden of these events. We undertook a systematic review to identify and summarize terms and definitions used in observational studies to describe AECOPD-related events occurring after an initial AECOPD (hereafter "subsequent AECOPD"). Methods: PubMed was searched (2000-2019) for observational studies on subsequent AECOPD events using broad search strings for "COPD", "exacerbation", and "subsequent exacerbation events". Only English-language studies were included. Small studies (n<50) and studies focusing on hospital re-admission only were excluded. Extracted data were analyzed descriptively to generate a narrative summary, using a thematic approach to group studies utilizing similar terms for subsequent AECOPD. Results: Forty-seven studies were included. No single, distinct terms or definitions were used to define and identify multiple occurrences of AECOPDs, though most (46) studies used one or more of four clustered terms and definitions: reapse (n = 13), recurrence/re-exacerbation (n = 11), treatment failure (n = 12) and non-recovery/time to recovery (n = 16). Heterogeneity was observed within and between the four clusters with respect to study setting, starting point for observing subsequent AECOPDs, time frame to identify a subsequent AECOPD (except for studies using "time to recovery"), and basis for identifying a subsequent exacerbation. Conclusion: Our review demonstrates that subsequent AECOPDs (including events such as relapse, recurrence/re-exacerbation, treatment failure, non-recovery/time to recovery) are ill-defined in the observational study literature, emphasizing the need to reach consensus on precise and objective definitions (for example, when one AECOPD ends and another begins). Use of standardized terminology and definitions may aid comparability between, and synthesis of, studies, thus improving the understanding of the natural history and burden of exacerbations in COPD patients.
... Several factors of importance for mortality in relation to AECOPD have been established, among those age, burden of comorbidity, level of consciousness at admission, nutritional status, severity of AECOPD, severity of stable phase lung function impairment, previous AECOPDs, presence of pneumonia and-in case of initial NIV-escalation to IMV [10,[15][16][17][18][19][20]. Importantly, some of these characteristics were exclusion criteria in the trials leading to NIV endorsement. ...
Article
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Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for decades in treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The impact of the changing use of assisted ventilation in acute exacerbations on outcomes has not been fully elucidated and we aimed to describe these changes in the Danish population and describe their consequences for mortality. Methods A register-based study was conducted of a cohort of 12,847 patients admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) from 2004 through 2011, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or NIV for the first time. Age, sex, in-hospital mortality rates, time to death or readmission for AECOPD were established and changes over time tracked. Results The number of admissions for AECOPD where assisted ventilation was used was 1,130 in 2004 and had increased by 145% in 2011. First time ventilations increased by 88%. This was mainly due to an increase in use of NIV accounting for 36% of the total number of assisted ventilations in 2004 and 67% in 2011. The number of IMV with or without NIV treatments remained constant. The mean age of NIV patients increased from 71.5 to 73.6 years, but remained constant at 70.0 years in IMV patients. Mortality rates both in hospital and after discharge for patients receiving NIV remained constant throughout the period. In-hospital mortality following IMV increased from 30% to 38%, but mortality after discharge remained stable. Conclusion Assisted ventilation has been increasingly used in a broader spectrum of AECOPD patients since the introduction of NIV. The changes in treatment strategies have been followed by shifts in in-hospital mortality rates following IMV.
Article
An understanding of the humanistic and economic burden of individuals with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is required to inform payers and healthcare professionals about the disease burden. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and present humanistic [health-related quality of life (HRQoL)] and economic burdens of symptomatic COPD. A comprehensive search of online databases (reimbursement or claims databases/other databases), abstracts from conference proceedings, published literature, clinical trials, medical records, health ministries, financial reports, registries, and other sources was conducted. Adult patients of any race or gender with symptomatic COPD were included. Humanistic and economic burdens included studies evaluating HRQoL and cost and resource use, respectively, associated with symptomatic COPD. Thirty-two studies reporting humanistic burden and 74 economic studies were identified. Symptomatic COPD led to impairment in the health state of patients, as assessed by HRQoL instruments. It was also associated with high economic burden across all countries. The overall, direct, and indirect costs per patient increased with an increase in symptoms, dyspnoea severity, and duration of disease. Across countries, the annual societal costs associated with symptomatic COPD were higher among patients with comorbidities. Symptomatic COPD is associated with a substantial economic burden. The HRQoL of patients with symptomatic COPD is, in general, low and influenced by dyspnoea.
Article
Objectives Pulmonary Embolism has been frequently reported in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (AE-COPD). The study aimed to determine whether COPD patients who receive anticoagulant (AC) therapy have a reduced risk of hospitalization due to AE-COPD and death. Methods This nationwide population-based study was based on data from the Danish Register of COPD (DrCOPD), which contains complete data on COPD outpatients between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2018. National registers were used to obtain information regarding comorbidities and vital status. Propensity-score matching and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess AE-COPD and death after one year. Results The study cohort consisted of 58,067 patients with COPD. Of these, 5194 patients were on AC therapy. The population was matched 1:1 based on clinical confounders and AC therapy, resulting in two groups of 5180 patients. We found no association between AC therapy and AE-COPD or all-cause mortality in the propensity-score matched population (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96-1.10, p = 0.37). These findings were confirmed in a competing risk analysis. In the sensitivity analysis, we performed an adjusted analysis of the complete cohort and found a slightly increased risk of AE-COPD or death in patients treated with AC therapy. This study found a low incidence of pulmonary embolisms and deep venous thrombosis in both groups. Conclusions AC therapy was not associated with the risk of hospitalization due to AE-COPD or all-cause mortality.
Article
Background: Few data are available for the efficacy of "triple therapy" with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We designed this study to assess efficacy of single-inhaler combination of an extra fine formulation of beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB) in COPD compared with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) treatment. Methods: TRILOGY was a randomised, parallel group, double-blind, active-controlled study done in 159 sites across 14 countries. The sites were a mixture of primary, secondary, and tertiary care providers, and specialist investigation units. Eligible patients with COPD had post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of lower than 50%, one or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation in the previous 12 months, COPD Assessment Test total score of 10 or more, and a Baseline Dyspnea Index focal score of 10 or less. Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria at screening entered a 2-week open-label run-in period where they received beclometasone dipropionate (100 μg) and formoterol fumarate (6 μg) in two actuations twice daily. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive response technology system to either continue BDP (100 μg) and FF (6 μg) or step-up to BDP (100 μg), FF (6 μg), and GB (12·5 μg) in two actuations twice daily for 52 weeks via pressurised metered-dose inhaler. The three co-primary endpoints were pre-dose FEV1, 2-h post-dose FEV1, and Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score, all measured at week 26 in the intention-to-treat population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline efficacy assessment). Safety outcomes were measured in the safety population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug). Secondary endpoints included moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation rate over 52 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01917331. Findings: Between March 21, 2014, and Jan 14, 2016, 1368 patients received either BDP/FF/GB (n=687) or BDP/FF (n=681). At week 26, BDP/FF/GB improved pre-dose FEV1 by 0·081 L (95% CI 0·052-0·109; p<0·001) and 2-h post-dose FEV1 by 0·117 L (0·086-0·147; p<0·001) compared with BDP/FF. Mean TDI focal scores at week 26 were 1·71 for BDP/FF/GB and 1·50 for BDP/FF, with a difference of 0·21 (95% CI -0·08 to 0·51; p=0·160). Adjusted annual moderate-to-severe exacerbation frequencies were 0·41 for BDP/FF/GB and 0·53 for BDP/FF (rate ratio 0·77 [95% CI 0·65-0·92]; p=0·005), corresponding to a 23% reduction in exacerbations with BDP/FF/GB compared with BDP/FF. Adverse events were reported by 368 (54%) patients with BDP/FF/GB and 379 (56%) with BDP/FF. One serious treatment-related adverse event occurred (atrial fibrillation) in a patient in the BDP/FF/GB group. Interpretation: We provide evidence for the clinical benefits of stepping up patients with COPD from an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination treatment to triple therapy using a single inhaler. Funding: Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA.
Article
α 1 -Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetically determined disorder that is associated with different clinical manifestations. We aimed to assess the prevalence of diagnosed AATD and its comorbidities using a large healthcare database. In this retrospective longitudinal observational study, we analysed data from 4 million insurants. Using International Classification of Diseases revision 10 (ICD-10) codes, we assessed the prevalence, comorbidities and healthcare utilisation of AATD patients (E88.0 repeatedly coded) relative to non-AATD patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema or asthma. In our study population, we identified 673 AATD patients (590 aged ≥30 years), corresponding to a prevalence of 23.73 per 100 000 in all age groups and 29.36 per 100 000 in those ≥30 years. Based on the number of AATD cases detected in the sample size (673 out of 2 836 585), we extrapolated that there were 19 162 AATD cases in Germany during the years studied. AATD patients had a higher prevalence of arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetes relative to non-AATD asthma or emphysema patients. When compared to non-AATD COPD patients, AATD patients had significantly more consultations and more frequent and longer hospitalisations. Our data strengthen the assumption that AATD is associated with a variety of other diseases. Healthcare utilisation appears to be higher among AATD patients as compared to patients with non-AATD-related obstructive lung diseases.
Article
Introduction: Bundles of care are gaining popularity for treating acute severe illness. Objective: To describe compliance with bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle') for patients treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Retrospective observational study of patients presenting in the 2014 calendar year with an ED diagnosis of COPD. The primary outcomes of interest were compliance with key bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle'). Analysis is descriptive. Results: 381 patients were studied. Median age was 71 (IQR 64-80), 59% were male and 77% arrived by ambulance. Median duration of symptoms was 3 days (IQR 2-6 days). Compliance with the bundle elements was 90% for administration of controlled oxygen therapy (if oxygen given), 87% for administration of inhaled bronchodilators, 79% for administration of systemic corticosteroids, 75% of administration of antibiotics if evidence of infection, 77% for taking of a blood gas in non-mild disease, 98% for taking of a chest xray and 74% for administration of NIV if pH <7.3. Compliance with all appropriate elements of the defined bundle of care was 49%. There was no difference in mean length of stay for admitted patients (p=0.44), in-hospital mortality (p=1.00) or re-admission within 30 days (p=0.72) by bundle compliance Conclusion: Compliance with individual assessment and treatment recommendations was generally high, however compliance with the overall recommended bundle was only 49%. This indicates that there is an opportunity to improve care in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Background: Limited data are available for the efficacy of triple therapy with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared treatment with extrafine beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB; fixed triple) with tiotropium, and BDP/FF plus tiotropium (open triple). Methods: For this double-blind, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial, eligible patients had COPD, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of less than 50%, at least one moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation in the previous 12 months, and a COPD Assessment Test total score of at least 10. After a 2-week run-in period receiving one inhalation per day via single-dose dry-powder inhaler of open-label 18 μg tiotropium, patients were randomised (2:2:1) using a interactive response technology system to 52 weeks treatment with tiotropium, fixed triple, or open triple. Randomisation was stratified by country and severity of airflow limitation. The primary endpoint was moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation rate. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in pre-dose FEV1 at week 52. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01911364. Findings: Between Jan 21, 2014, and March 18, 2016, 2691 patients received fixed triple (n=1078), tiotropium (n=1075), or open triple (n=538). Moderate-to-severe exacerbation rates were 0·46 (95% CI 0·41-0·51) for fixed triple, 0·57 (0·52-0·63) for tiotropium, and 0·45 (0·39-0·52) for open triple; fixed triple was superior to tiotropium (rate ratio 0·80 [95% CI 0·69-0·92]; p=0·0025). For week 52 pre-dose FEV1, fixed triple was superior to tiotropium (mean difference 0·061 L [0·037 to 0·086]; p<0·0001) and non-inferior to open triple (-0·003L [-0·033 to 0·027]; p=0·85). Adverse events were reported by 594 (55%) patients with fixed triple, 622 (58%) with tiotropium, and 309 (58%) with open triple. Interpretation: In our TRINITY study, treatment with extrafine fixed triple therapy had clinical benefits compared with tiotropium in patients with symptomatic COPD, FEV1 of less than 50%, and a history of exacerbations. Funding: Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA.
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Background: Hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are associated with increased mortality and decreased quality of life. Replicate hospital discharge studies were initiated to examine efficacy and safety of once-daily tiotropium HandiHaler® versus placebo, in addition to usual care, in patients discharged from the hospital after an AECOPD. Methods: Both studies were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, with inclusion/exclusion criteria providing a diverse COPD patient cohort hospitalized for ≤14 days with AECOPD. Patients received tiotropium or placebo, initiated within 10 days post-discharge. Target recruitment was 604 patients/study and planned duration was event-driven, ending after 631 clinical outcome events across both studies. Inability to reach targeted site numbers and patient recruitment/retention difficulties led to early study termination. Recruitment/retention challenges and protocol amendment impacts were assessed qualitatively to understand the major issues. Results: Over 18 months, 219 patients were enrolled; 158 were randomized and 61 failed screening. Premature treatment discontinuation occurred in 49(31%) patients, of whom 20(41%) completed health status follow-up. All-cause, 30-day hospital readmission was low (8[5%] patients). A total of 154(98%) patients had a concomitant diagnosis and most took pulmonary medication pre-randomization (143[91%]) and during study treatment (144[92%]). Inclusion/exclusion criteria changes failed to improve recruitment. Recruitment/retention barriers were identified, relating to patient and clinician factors, health care infrastructure, and clinical practices. Conclusions: Although AECOPD hospitalization is clinically important and incurs high costs, significant challenges exist in studying this population in clinical trials after hospitalization. Studies are needed to evaluate effective management of AECOPD patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes.
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Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, with high associated costs. Most of the cost burden results from acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD), events associated with heightened symptoms and mortality. Cellular mechanisms underlying AE-COPD are poorly understood, likely because they arise from dysregulation of complex immune networks across multiple tissue compartments. Methods To gain systems-level insight into cellular environments relevant to exacerbation, we applied data-driven modeling approaches to measurements of immune factors (cytokines and flow cytometry) measured previously in two different human tissue environments (sputum and peripheral blood) during the stable and exacerbated state. Results Using partial least squares discriminant analysis, we identified a unique signature of cytokines in serum that differentiated stable and AE-COPD better than individual measurements. Furthermore, we found that models integrating data across tissue compartments (serum and sputum) trended towards being more accurate. The resulting paracrine signature defining AE-COPD events combined elevations of proteins associated with cell adhesion (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1) and increased levels of neutrophils and dendritic cells in blood with elevated chemoattractants (IP-10 and MCP-2) in sputum. Conclusions Our results supported a new hypothesis that AE-COPD is driven by immune cell trafficking into the lung, which requires expression of cell adhesion molecules and raised levels of innate immune cells in blood, with parallel upregulated expression of specific chemokines in pulmonary tissue. Overall, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for using data-driven modeling approaches to generate new insights into cellular processes involved in complex pulmonary diseases.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global problem in modern medicine. In recent years, the medical community’s understanding of COPD has changed significantly, which is primarily due to the emergence of a new classification and the identification of various phenotypes of the disease. These changes could not affect the tactics of COPD treatment. The article discusses not only the debatable issues of treating COPD; it provides an overview of changes in international (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2018) and national (2019) recommendations, but also the significance and benefits of triple therapy in terms of evidence-based medicine as well as the benefits of extra-fine drugs in the treatment of bronchial obstructive syndrome.
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Objectives This study was conducted to assess the association between the Dyspnea, Eosinopenia, Consolidation, Acidemia and Atrial Fibrillation (DECAF) scores and the prognosis of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), to evaluate the specific predictive and prognostic value of DECAF scores and to explore the effectiveness of different cut-off values in risk stratification of patients with AECOPD. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants Adult patients diagnosed with AECOPD (over 18 years of age). Primary and secondary outcome measures Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Embase and the WOS, and the reference lists in related articles were searched for studies published up to September 2019. The identified studies reported the prognostic value of DECAF scores in patients with AECOPD. Results Seventeen studies involving 8329 participants were included in the study. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that elevated DECAF scores were associated with high mortality risk (weighted mean difference=1.87; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.56). In the accuracy analysis, DECAF scores showed good prognostic accuracy for both in-hospital and 30-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.83 (0.79–0.86) and 0.79 (0.76–0.83), respectively). When the prognostic value was compared with that of other scoring systems, DECAF scores showed better prognostic accuracy and stable clinical values than the modified DECAF; COPD and Asthma Physiology Score; BUN, Altered mental status, Pulse and age >65; Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood pressure and age >65; or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. Conclusion The DECAF score is an effective and feasible predictor for short-term mortality. As a specific and easily scored predictor for patients with AECOPD, DECAF score is superior to other prognostic scores. The DECAF score can correctly identify most patients with AECOPD as low risk, and with the increase of cut-off value, the risk stratification of DECAF score in high-risk population increases significantly.
Article
Rationale: Acute exacerbations negatively impact quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of hospitalized exacerbations on quality of life is not clear. We hypothesized that patients with hospitalized exacerbations would benefit from hospitalization and experience improvement in general and disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) and the medical outcomes study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36)) compared to those without exacerbations, or with non-hospitalized acute exacerbations. Methods: 1219 COPD patients enrolled in either the simvastatin for the prevention of exacerbations in moderate-to severe COPD Trial (STATCOPE) or azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations of COPD trial (MACRO) were analyzed. Demographic information, spirometry, and symptom scores were noted at baseline. Exacerbation events and changes in quality of life scores were assessed over a mean of 538 days of follow-up. Results: Of patients studied, 25.6% were hospitalized, 44.0% had at least one outpatient exacerbation, and 30.4% had no exacerbation. Baseline SGRQ and SF-36 scores were severely impaired in all groups studied. Over time, SF-36 scores did not change significantly between groups. SGRQ symptom domain scores improved in other groups but did not improve in those hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation. Conclusions: At baseline, patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD had more impaired quality of life scores. Over time, SGRQ symptom domain scores improved in other groups but did not in those who were hospitalized. Other measurements of quality of life were not improved by hospitalization for COPD.
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare rates of different types of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) and healthcare utilization among patients with different severities of COPD. Methods: Data for this study was obtained from the PHARMO Database Network, which includes drug dispensing records from pharmacies, hospitalization records and information from general practitioners. Patients with moderate to very severe COPD (GOLD II-III-IV) and a moderate or severe AECOPD between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. Moderate and severe AECOPDs were defined by drug use and hospitalizations respectively. Study patients were followed from the first AECOPD to end of registration in PHARMO, death or end of study period, whichever occurred first. During follow-up, all recurrent AECOPDs were characterized and healthcare utilization was assessed. Results: Of 886 patients in the study, 52% had GOLD-II, 34% GOLD-III and 14% had GOLD-IV. The overall AECOPD recurrence rate per person year (PY) increased from 0.63 for patients with GOLD-II to 1.09 for patients with GOLD-III and 1.33 for patients with GOLD-IV. The rate of severe AECOPD was 0.06, 0.14 and 0.17 per PY, respectively. Conclusion: AECOPD recurrence rates and healthcare utilization are significantly higher among patients with more severe COPD.
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Background Overlap syndrome of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common condition, which is not well understood. This study describes the characteristics and hospital impact of patients suffering from this condition. Methods The data are comprised of the hospital discharge registry data maintained by National Institute for Health and Welfare [Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (THL)] between 1972 and 2009 covering the entire Finnish population (5.35 million inhabitants in 2009). In THL, treatment periods for patients with the primary or secondary diagnosis of asthma or COPD were selected. From that data, patients over 34 years and their treatment periods starting and ending 2000-2009 with a principal or secondary diagnosis of asthma [International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10: J45-J46] or COPD (ICD 10: J41-J44) were picked up. There were 105122 such patients who had 343420 treatment periods altogether. ResultsPatients with asthma were younger than patients with COPD and overlap syndrome, while COPD and overlap syndrome patients' age distribution was very similar. Patients with both asthma and COPD had 30.4% of all treatment periods, even though the percentage of all patients in this group was only 16.1%. These patients had an increased number of hospitalisation episodes across all age groups. Average number of treatment periods during 2000-2009 was 2.1 in asthma, 3.4 in COPD and 6.0 in overlap syndrome. Hospital impact of the same period in asthma was 939900 days in COPD 1517308 and 1000724 days in overlap syndrome. Conclusion Overlap syndrome of asthma and COPD is a common condition with high hospital impact for patients with this condition.
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Exacerbations affect morbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to evaluate the association between exacerbation frequency and spirometric and health status changes over time using data from a large, long-term trial. This retrospective analysis of data from the 4-year UPLIFT(®) (Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium) trial compared tiotropium with placebo. Annualized rates of decline and estimated mean differences at each time point were analyzed using a mixed-effects model according to subgroups based on exacerbation frequency (events per patient-year: 0, >0-1, >1-2, and >2). Spirometry and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were performed at baseline and every 6 months (also at one month for spirometry). In total, 5992 patients (mean age 65 years, 75% male) were randomized. Higher exacerbation frequency was associated with lower baseline postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) (1.40, 1.36, 1.26, and 1.14 L) and worsening SGRQ scores (43.7, 44.1, 47.8, and 52.4 units). Corresponding rates of decline in postbronchodilator FEV(1) (mL/year) were 40, 41, 43, and 48 (control), and 34, 38, 48, and 49 (tiotropium). Values for postbronchodilator forced vital capacity decline (mL/year) were 45, 56, 74, and 83 (control), and 43, 57, 83, and 95 (tiotropium). The rates of worsening in total SGRQ score (units/year) were 0.72, 1.16, 1.44, and 1.99 (control), and 0.38, 1.29, 1.68, and 2.86 (tiotropium). The proportion of patients who died (intention-to-treat analysis until four years [1440 days]) for the entire cohort increased with increasing frequency of hospitalized exacerbations. Increasing frequency of exacerbations worsens the rate of decline in lung function and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. Increasing rates of hospitalized exacerbations are associated with increasing risk of death.
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The long-term natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of successive severe exacerbations and mortality is unknown. The authors formed an inception cohort of patients from their first ever hospitalisation for COPD during 1990-2005, using the healthcare databases from the province of Quebec, Canada. Patients were followed until death or 31 March 2007, and all COPD hospitalisations occurring during follow-up were identified. The hazard functions of successive hospitalised COPD exacerbations and all-cause mortality over time were estimated, and HRs adjusted for age, sex, calendar time and comorbidity. The cohort included 73 106 patients hospitalised for the first time for COPD, of whom 50 580 died during the 17-year follow-up, with 50% and 75% mortality at 3.6 and 7.7 years respectively. The median time from the first to the second hospitalised exacerbation was around 5 years and decreased to <4 months from the 9th to the 10th. The risk of the subsequent severe exacerbation was increased threefold after the second severe exacerbation and 24-fold after the 10th, relative to the first. Mortality after a severe exacerbation peaked to 40 deaths per 10 000 per day in the first week after admission, dropping gradually to 5 after 3 months. The course of COPD involves a rapid decline in health status after the second severe exacerbation and high mortality in the weeks following every severe exacerbation. Two strategic targets for COPD management should include delaying the second severe exacerbation and improving treatment of severe exacerbations to reduce their excessive early mortality.
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Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are a leading cause of hospitalizations in the United States and the major cost driver of COPD. This study determined the national inpatient burden of AECOPD and assessed the association of co-morbidities and hospital characteristics with inpatient costs and mortality. Discharge records from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2006 was utilized. Outcomes of costs and mortality were assessed for AECOPD hospitalizations in cases ≥40 years of age. Multivariate regression analyses using a generalized linear model framework were conducted to determine predictors of inpatient costs and mortality controlling for patient demographics, primary payer, co-morbidity index, length of stay, hospital region, mechanical ventilation, and admission period. Overall, 1,254,703 hospitalizations for AECOPD were observed with mean costs of $9545(±12,700) and total costs of $11.9 billion. In-hospital mortality was 4.3% (N = 53,748). Discharges averaged 70.6 (±11.9) years of age. The majority were female (52.8%) and of white race (83.6% of reported race). Several co-morbidities were significantly associated with both costs and mortality (p < 0.001): acute myocardial infarction; congestive heart failure; cerebrovascular disease; lung cancer; cardiac arrhythmias; pulmonary circulation disorders; and weight loss. Significantly higher costs (p < 0.001) were associated with large and urban hospitals. The importance of co-morbidities in AECOPD is indicated in their association with prognosis and inpatient costs. Future research should determine if better management of these conditions can favorably impact the COPD disease burden.
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Many patients with breathlessness and chronic obstructive lung disease are diagnosed with either asthma, COPD, or-frequently-mixed disease. More commonly, patients with uncharacterized breathlessness are treated with therapies that target asthma and COPD rather than one of these diseases. This common practice represents the difficulty in distinguishing these disorders clinically, particularly in patients with a history that does not easily differentiate asthma from COPD. A common clinical scenario is an older former smoker with partially reversible or fixed airflow obstruction and evidence of atopy, demonstrating "overlap" features of asthma and COPD. We stress that asthma-COPD overlap syndrome becomes more prevalent with advancing age as patients respond less favorably to guideline-recommended drug therapy. We review the similarities and differences in clinical characteristics between these disorders, and their physiologic and inflammatory profiles within the context of the aging patient. We underscore the difficulties in differentiating asthma from COPD in current or former smokers, share our institutional experience with overlap syndrome, and highlight the need for new research to better characterize and investigate this important clinical phenotype.
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The patterns and outcomes of noninvasive, positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) use in patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nationwide are unknown. To determine the prevalence and trends of noninvasive ventilation for acute COPD. We used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample to assess the pattern and outcomes of NIPPV use for acute exacerbations of COPD from 1998 to 2008. An estimated 7,511,267 admissions for acute exacerbations occurred from 1998 to 2008. There was a 462% increase in NIPPV use (from 1.0 to 4.5% of all admissions) and a 42% decline in invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) use (from 6.0 to 3.5% of all admissions) during these years. This was accompanied by an increase in the size of a small cohort of patients requiring transition from NIPPV to IMV. In-hospital mortality in this group appeared to be worsening over time. By 2008, these patients had a high mortality rate (29.3%), which represented 61% higher odds of death compared with patients directly placed on IMV (95% confidence interval, 24-109%) and 677% greater odds of death compared with patients treated with NIPPV alone (95% confidence interval, 475-948%). With the exception of patients transitioned from NIPPV to IMV, in-hospital outcomes were favorable and improved steadily year by year. The use of NIPPV has increased significantly over time among patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD, whereas the need for intubation and in-hospital mortality has declined. However, the rising mortality rate in a small but expanding group of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation after treatment with noninvasive ventilation needs further investigation.
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The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) was established in 1977, and it is considered to be the finest of its kind internationally. At the onset the register included information on inpatient in somatic wards. The content of the register has gradually been expanded, and since 2007 the register has included information on all patients in Danish hospitals. Although the NPR is overall a sound data source, both the content and the definitions of single variables have changed over time. Changes in the organisation and provision of health services may affect both the type and the completeness of registrations. The NPR is a unique data source. Researchers using the data should carefully consider potential fallacies in the data before drawing conclusions.
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The Charlson comorbidity index is often used to control for confounding in research based on medical databases. There are few studies of the accuracy of the codes obtained from these databases. We examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of the ICD-10 diagnostic coding in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) for the 19 Charlson conditions. Among all hospitalizations in Northern Denmark between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007 with a first-listed diagnosis of a Charlson condition in the NRP, we selected 50 hospital contacts for each condition. We reviewed discharge summaries and medical records to verify the NRP diagnoses, and computed the PPV as the proportion of confirmed diagnoses. A total of 950 records were reviewed. The overall PPV for the 19 Charlson conditions was 98.0% (95% CI; 96.9, 98.8). The PPVs ranged from 82.0% (95% CI; 68.6%, 91.4%) for diabetes with diabetic complications to 100% (one-sided 97.5% CI; 92.9%, 100%) for congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, mild and severe liver disease, hemiplegia, renal disease, leukaemia, lymphoma, metastatic tumour, and AIDS. The PPV of NRP coding of the Charlson conditions was consistently high.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become a major cause of death worldwide. Studies on the variability in the estimates of key epidemiological parameters of COPD may contribute to better assessment of the burden of this disease and to helpful guidance for future research and public policies. In the present study, we examined differences in the main epidemiological characteristics of COPD derived from studies across countries of the European Union, focusing on prevalence, severity, frequency of exacerbations and mortality, as well as on differences between the studies' methods. This systematic review was based on a search for the relevant literature in the Science Citation Index database via the Web of Science and on COPD mortality rates issued from national statistics. Analysis was finally based on 65 articles and Eurostat COPD mortality data for 21 European countries. Epidemiological characteristics of COPD varied widely from country to country. For example, prevalence estimates ranged between 2.1% and 26.1%, depending on the country, the age group and the methods used. Likewise, COPD mortality rates ranged from 7.2 to 36.1 per 10(5) inhabitants. The methods used to estimate these epidemiological parameters were highly variable in terms of the definition of COPD, severity scales, methods of investigation and target populations. Nevertheless, to a large extent, several recent international guidelines or research initiatives, such as GOLD, BOLD or PLATINO, have boosted a substantial standardization of methodology in data collection and have resulted in the availability of more comparable epidemiological estimates across countries. On the basis of such standardization, severity estimates as well as prevalence estimates present much less variation across countries. The contribution of these recent guidelines and initiatives is outlined, as are the problems remaining in arriving at more accurate COPD epidemiological estimates across European countries. The accuracy of COPD epidemiological parameters is important for guiding decision making with regard to preventive measures, interventions and patient management in various health care systems. Therefore, the recent initiatives for standardizing data collection should be enhanced to result in COPD epidemiological estimates of improved quality. Moreover, establishing international guidelines for reporting research on COPD may also constitute a major contribution.
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Population-based prescription databases in Nordic countries have become a mainstay of epidemiologic research. Denmark has both national and regional population-based prescription databases. Aarhus University Prescription Database collects data on reimbursed medications dispensed at all community pharmacies of the North Denmark Region and the Central Denmark Region. The regions have a combined population of 1.8 million inhabitants, or one-third of the Danish population. Denmark's primary health care sector, which includes general practitioners, specialists, and dentists, generates about 96% of the prescription sales, most of which are reimbursable and are dispensed by the community pharmacies. The Aarhus University Prescription Database combines the region's pharmacy records in a single database, maintained and updated for research purposes. Each dispensation record contains patient-, drug-, and prescriber-related data. Dispensation records retain patients' universal personal identifier, which allows for individual-level linkage to all Danish registries and medical databases. The linked data have many applications in clinical epidemiology, including drug utilization studies, safety monitoring, etiologic research, and validation studies.
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Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) determine disease-associated morbidity, mortality, resource burden and healthcare costs. Acute exacerbation care requirements range from unscheduled primary care visits to emergency room, inpatient or intensive care, generating significant costs in COPD. Even after an exacerbation resolves, respiratory, physical, social and emotional impairment may persist for prolonged time. Frequent exacerbations, mainly in patients with severe COPD, accelerate disease progression and mortality. Thus, patients with frequent exacerbations have a more rapid decline in lung function, worse quality of life and decreased exercise performance. Management of COPD directed to reduce incidence and severity of exacerbations improves long-term health status and conserves health care resources and costs.
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Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are a frequent cause of hospital admission and are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, high readmission rates and high resource utilization. More accurate prediction of survival and readmission in patients hospitalized with AECOPD should help to optimize clinical management and allocation of resources, including targeting of palliative care and strategies to reduce readmissions. We have reviewed the published retrospective and prospective studies in this field to identify the factors most likely to be of value in predicting in-hospital and post-discharge mortality, and readmission of patients hospitalized for AECOPD. The prognostic factors which appear most important vary with the particular outcome under consideration. In-hospital mortality is related most clearly to the patient's acute physiological state and to the development of acute comorbidity, while post-discharge mortality particularly reflects the severity of the underlying COPD, as well as specific comorbidities, especially cardiac disease. Important factors influencing the frequency of readmission include functional limitation and poor health-related quality of life. Large prospective studies which incorporate all the potentially relevant variables are required to refine prediction of the important outcomes of AECOPD and thus to inform clinical decision making, for example on escalation of care, facilitated discharge and provision of palliative care.
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Traditionally, patients with acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are believed to have a poor outcome. A study was undertaken to explore both hospital and long term outcome in this group and to identify clinical predictors. A retrospective review was carried out of consecutive admissions to a tertiary referral ICU over a 6 year period. This group was then followed prospectively for a minimum of 3 years following ICU admission. A total of 74 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure due to COPD during the study period. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 0.74 (0.34) l. Eighty five per cent of the group underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 2 days (range 1-17). The median duration of stay in the ICU was 3 days (range 2-17). Survival to hospital discharge was 79.7%. Admission arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and APACHE II score were independent predictors of hospital mortality on multiple regression analysis. Mortality at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years was 40.5%, 48.6%, 58.1%, and 63.5%, respectively. There were no independent predictors of mortality in the long term. Despite the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in most of the study group, good early survival was observed. Mortality in the long term was significant but acceptable, given the degree of chronic respiratory impairment of the group.
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Factors determining in-hospital mortality and long-term survival of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are not precisely understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the parameters related to in-hospital mortality and long-term survival after hospitalisation of patients with AECOPD. Clinical and epidemiological parameters on admission in 205 consecutive patients hospitalised with AECOPD were prospectively assessed. Patients were followed-up for 3 yrs. Factors determining short- and long-term mortality were analysed. In total, 17 patients (8.3%) died in hospital. In-hospital mortality was significantly associated with lower arterial oxygen tension (P(a,O2)), higher carbon dioxide arterial tension, lower arterial oxygen saturation and longer hospital stay. The overall 6-month mortality rate was 24%, with 1-, 2- and 3-yr mortality rates of 33%, 39% and 49%, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that long-term mortality was associated with longer disease duration (relative risk (RR) = 1.158), lower albumin (RR = 0.411), lower P(a,O2) (RR = 0.871) and lower body mass index (RR = 0.830). When the model was run for the time elapsed since first hospitalisation, it also appeared as statistically significant (RR = 1.195). These findings show that patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have poor short- and long-term survival. Prediction of survival status may be enhanced by considering arterial oxygen tension, albumin, body mass index, disease duration and time elapsed since the first hospitalisation.
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The epidemiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed with particular reference to the definition, frequency, time course, natural history and seasonality, and their relationship with decline in lung function, disease severity and mortality. The importance of distinguishing between recurrent and relapsed exacerbations is discussed.
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The aim of the present study was to analyse the role of potential selection processes and their impact when evaluating risk factors for 30-day mortality among patients hospitalised for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 26,039 patients aged > or = 35 yrs and hospitalised with COPD were enrolled. A 30-day follow-up was carried out using both the cause mortality register (CMR) and the hospital discharge register (HDR). Individual and hospital factors associated with 30-day mortality were studied using both mortality outcomes. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.21.1,000 patient-days(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.29) using the CMR, and 1.06.1,000 patient-days(-1) (95% CI 0.98-1.13) using the HDR. Male patients, the most poorly educated, those who resided outside Rome and those who had more than one hospitalisation in the previous 2 yrs were more likely to die after discharge than when hospitalised. The most frequent cause of in-hospital death was respiratory disease and after discharge, heart disease. Older age, male sex, comorbidities, previous hospitalisations for respiratory failure, and admission to a ward not appropriate to treat respiratory diseases were the most important predictors of 30-day mortality. Using in-hospital 30-day mortality provides a significantly different estimate of the role of specific risk factors.
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The aim of the present prospective multicentric study was to develop a simple rule for the prediction of poor outcome in patients presenting to emergency departments with initially non-life threatening-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in a real-life setting. All patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD visiting the emergency departments of 103 hospitals during a 3-month period were included, except those who immediately required intensive care unit admission and/or ventilatory support. The data collected included patient characteristics, in-hospital outcomes (mortality and length of stay) and mode of discharge (unsupported or need for post-hospital assistance). The in-hospital mortality rate was 7.4% (59 out of 794). Independent prognostic factors were age, number of clinical signs of severity (among cyanosis, impaired neurological status, lower limb oedema, asterixis and use of accessory inspiratory or expiratory muscles) and dyspnoea grade in the stable state. The need for post-hospital support was also predicted by female sex. In order to construct and validate a prediction score for mortality based on these items, patients were randomly allocated to a derivation and a validation cohort. The prediction score showed good discrimination, with a c-statistic of 0.79 in the derivation cohort and 0.83 in the validation cohort. Thus simple purely clinical factors can reliably predict the risk of death and requirement for post-hospital support in an initially non-life threatening-acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their use needs to be prospectively validated.
Article
The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
Article
Study objectives The prognosis of patients with COPD requiring admission to the ICU is generally believed to be poor. There is a paucity of long-term survival data. We undertook a study to examine both the in-hospital and 5-year mortality rates and to identify the clinical predictors of these outcomes. Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 57 patients admitted to the ICU between January 1999 and December 2000 for acute respiratory failure attributable to COPD. Results The mean (±sd) age of the study population was 70±8 years. More than 90% of patients required intubation, and the mean duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was 2.3±2.2 days. The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 24.5%. The mortality rates at 6 months and 1, 3, and 5 years were 39.0%, 42.7%, 61.2%, and 75.9%, respectively, following admission to the ICU. The median survival time for all patients was 26 months. The mortality rate at 5 years was 69.6% for patients who were discharged alive from the hospital. Using multivariate analysis, hospital mortality correlated positively with age, previous history of MV, long-term use of oral corticosteroids, ICU admission albumin level, APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score, and duration of hospitalization. No factors predictive of mortality at 5 years were identified. Conclusions We support previous findings of good early survival and significant but acceptable long-term mortality rates in patients who have been admitted to the ICU for acute exacerbation of COPD. Increased age, previous history of MV, poor nutritional status, and higher APACHE II score on ICU admission could be identified as risk factors associated with increased mortality rates. Long-term survival of patients with COPD who required MV for an acute exacerbation of their disease cannot be predicted simply from data available at the time of intubation. Physicians should incorporate these factors in their decision-making process.
Article
Comorbidities are frequent in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, but little is known about their relation with short-term mortality and hospital readmissions. Our hypothesis is that the frequency and type of comorbidities impair the prognosis within 12 weeks after discharge. A longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation with spirometric confirmation was performed. Comorbidity information was collected using the Charlson index and a questionnaire that included other common conditions not included in this index. Dyspnea, functional status, and previous hospitalization for COPD or other reasons among other variables were investigated. Information on mortality and readmissions for COPD or other causes was collected up to 3 months after discharge. We studied 606 patients, 594 men (89.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 72.6 (9.9) years and a postbronchodilator FEV1 of 43.2% (21.2). The mean Charlson index score was 3.1 (2.0). On admission, 63.4% of patients had arterial hypertension, 35.8% diabetes mellitus, 32.8% chronic heart failure, 20.8% ischemic heart disease, 19.3% anemia, and 34% dyslipemia. Twenty-seven patients (4.5%) died within 3 months. The Charlson index was an independent predictor of mortality (P < .003; OR,1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.40), even after adjustment for age, FEV1, and functional status measured with the Katz index. Comorbidity was also related with the need for hospitalization from the ED, length of stay, and hospital readmissions for COPD or other causes. Comorbidities are common in patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation, and they are related to short-term prognosis.
Article
The Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) was established in 1968, and all persons alive and living in Denmark were registered for administrative use. CRS includes individual information on the unique personal identification number, name, gender, date of birth, place of birth, citizenship, identity of parents and continuously updated information on vital status, place of residence and spouses. Since 1968, CRS has recorded current and historical information on all persons living in Denmark. Among persons born in Denmark in 1960 or later it contains complete information on maternal identity. For women born in Denmark in April 1935 or later it contains complete information on all their children. CRS contains complete information on immigrations and emigrations from 1969 onwards, permanent residence in a Danish municipality from 1971 onwards, and full address in Denmark from 1977 onwards. CRS in connection with other registers and biobanks will continue to provide the basis for significant knowledge relevant to the aetiological understanding and possible prevention of human diseases.
Article
This issue provides a clinical overview of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, practice improvement, and patient information. Readers can complete the accompanying CME quiz for 1.5 credits. Only ACP members and individual subscribers can access the electronic features of In the Clinic. Non-subscribers who wish to access this issue of In the Clinic can elect "Pay for View." Subscribers can receive 1.5 category 1 CME credits by completing the CME quiz that accompanies this issue of In the Clinic. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including PIER (Physicians' Information and Education Resource) and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing division and with assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from PIER and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult www.acponline.org, http://pier.acponline.org, and other resources referenced within each issue of In the Clinic.
Article
We examined the positive predictive value of diagnoses of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Danish National Patient Registry. We also examined the negative predictive value of acute pneumonia or respiratory failure discharge diagnoses for absence of underlying COPD. We identified all patients aged 30 years or older with acute hospital admission in Denmark from January 1st to December 31st 2008. Physicians at 34 Danish hospitals retrieved and reviewed medical records for 1581 patients with a discharge diagnosis of COPD, and for 1546 patients with a discharge diagnosis of either pneumonia or respiratory failure but no COPD diagnosis. Presence of COPD was assessed based on medical history, clinical symptoms and findings, and spirometry results. The overall positive predictive value for COPD was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 91-93%). Among patients coded with pneumonia or respiratory failure but not COPD, 19% (95% CI = 17-21%) had COPD, corresponding to a negative predictive value for COPD of 81% (95% CI = 79-83%). The positive predictive value of acute COPD discharge diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry is high. At the same time, there is a substantial underrecording of COPD during hospitalizations with other acute respiratory disorders like pneumonia and respiratory failure.
Article
Little is known about long-term survival of patients surviving the first episode of type II respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV). We aimed to determine the 1-, 2- and 5-year survival, cause of death and potential prognostic indicators in this patient cohort. We retrospectively identified 100 sequential COPD patients (mean age 70, mean FEV(1) 37% predicted) treated with NIV for the first time. Mortality and data on hospital morbidity and potential prognostic factors were collected from patient records and a State Health Data Linkage Service. Survival at 1, 2 and 5 years was 72%, 52% and 26%, respectively. Respiratory failure secondary to COPD was the commonest cause of death (56.8%), followed by cardiovascular events (25.7%). Readmission rate at 1 year was 60% for those who survived 2 years or more and 52% for those deceased within 2 years. Recurrent respiratory failure requiring NIV was observed in 31% of the cohort. Only advance age (P = 0.04), BMI ( P = 0.014) and prior domiciliary oxygen use (P = 0.03) correlated with death within 5 years. Severity of respiratory failure did not correlate with mortality. The 2- and 5-year mortality rates for patients with COPD surviving their first episode of respiratory failure requiring NIV are high. Physiological measures of the severity of respiratory failure at presentation do not predict subsequent survival and nor does the time interval between first and second admissions requiring NIV. Age, BMI and prior need for domiciliary oxygen are the main predictors of mortality at 5 years.
Article
In Scandinavia no large audits of hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been performed, and data on adherence to national guidelines are scarce. The aims of the present study were to audit hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations in three Scandinavian hospitals with respect to incidence, patient population and standards of hospital care. Retrospectively all hospitalizations in the Departments of Internal and Respiratory Medicine in Ostersund Hospital (Sweden), Aalesund Hospital (Norway) and Trondheim University Hospital (Norway) from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2005, with discharge ICD-10 diagnoses J43-J44, J96 + J44 or J13-18 + j44 were registered. A total of 1144 admissions (731 patients) were identified from patient administrative systems and medical charts. Among the admitted patients 27% were >80 years old, >50% had COPD stage III or IV, and 14% had respiratory acidosis at admittance. Patients with 3 or more admissions (13%) during 2005 accounted for 36% of all hospitalizations. One third of the patients were current smokers. Non-invasive ventilation was used in 14% of the admissions, with large variation between centres. In-hospital mortality was 3.7%. In this first large Scandinavian audit of COPD-hospitalizations, all centres had low in-hospital mortality. We consider this as an indication of good clinical practice in the three studied centres and possibly due to the frequent use of non-invasive ventilation.
Article
There is a paucity of survival data regarding the prognosis of elderly patients following acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). We undertook a study to examine long-term mortality rates and to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of these outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 786 consecutive elderly (>65 years) patients admitted to general medicine acute-care wards for AECOPD. Factors determining short- and long-term mortality were analysed. The mean (+/-SD) age of the study population was 75.8 +/- 7.3 years (range 65-100 years). The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 7.25%. The risk of mortality at 1, 3 and 5 years was 28%, 47% and 54%, respectively. In univariate analysis age (hazard ratio 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.91), FEV(1) (1.45; 1.73-2.35), active cancer (1.23; 1.64-2.32), current smoking (1.74; 1.35-2.11), ischaemic heart disease (1.58; 1.28-2.02), congestive heart failure (1.55; 1.23-2.26) and maintenance use of oral glucocorticosteroids (1.58; 1.11-2.79) were significantly associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (1.89; 1.18-1.93), ischaemic heart disease (1.41; 1.07-1.68), PaCO(2) on admission (1.49; 1.03-1.60), hospital readmission (2.23; 1.40-2.18) and FEV(1) (1.41; 1.12-1.54) were independent predictors of mortality. This study provides new insights into the predictive factors associated with long-term prognosis in elderly patients admitted for acute exacerbations of COPD, which differ from those previously identified for younger patients.
Article
The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
Article
In order to describe the outcomes of patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and determine the relationship between patient characteristics and length of survival, we studied a prospective cohort of 1,016 adult patients from five hospitals who were admitted with an exacerbation of COPD and a PaCO2 of 50 mm Hg or more. Patient characteristics and acute physiology were determined. Outcomes were evaluated over a 6 mo period. Although only 11% of the patients died during the index hospital stay, the 60-d, 180-d, 1-yr, and 2-yr mortality was high (20%, 33%, 43%, and 49%, respectively). The median cost of the index hospital stay was $7,100 ($4,100 to $16,000; interquartile range). The median length of the index hospital stay was 9 d (5 to 15 d). After discharge, 446 patients were readmitted 754 times in the next 6 mo. At 6 mo, only 26% of the cohort were both alive and able to report a good, very good, or excellent quality of life. Survival time was independently related to severity of illness, body mass index (BMI), age, prior functional status, PaO2/FI(O2), congestive heart failure, serum albumin, and the presence of cor pulmonale. Patients and caregivers should be aware of the likelihood of poor outcomes following hospitalization for exacerbation of COPD associated with hypercarbia.
Article
To identify variables associated with mortality in patients admitted to the hospital for acute exacerbation of COPD. Prospective cohort study. Acute-care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). One hundred thirty-five consecutive patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of COPD, between October 1996 and May 1997. Clinical, spirometric, and gasometric variables were evaluated at the time of inclusion in the study. Socioeconomic characteristics, comorbidity, dyspnea, functional status, depression, and quality of life were analyzed. Mortality at 180 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 13.4%, 22%, and 35.6%, respectively. Sixty-four patients (47.4%) were dead at the end of the study (median follow-up duration, 838 days). Greater mortality was observed in the bivariate analysis among the oldest patients (p < 0.0001), women (p < 0.01), and unmarried patients (p < 0.002). Hospital admission during the previous year (p < 0.001), functional dependence (Katz index) [p < 0.0004], greater comorbidity (Charlson index) [p < 0.0006], depression (Yesavage Scale) [p < 0.00001]), quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]) [p < 0.01], and PCO(2) at discharge (p < 0.03) were also among the significant predictors of mortality. In the multivariate analysis, the activity SGRQ subscale (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.62; confidence interval [CI], 1.43 to 4.78), comorbidity (p < 0.005; OR, 2.2; CI, 1.26 to 3.84), depression (p < 0.004; OR, 3.6; CI, 1.5 to 8.65), hospital readmission (p < 0.03; OR, 1.85; CI, 1.26 to 3.84), and marital status (p < 0.0002; OR, 3.12; CI, 1.73 to 5.63) were independent predictors of mortality. Quality of life, marital status, depressive symptoms, comorbidity, and prior hospital admission provide relevant information of prognosis in this group of COPD patients.
Article
COPD continues to cause a heavy health and economic burden both in the United States and around the world. Some of the risk factors for COPD are well-known and include smoking, occupational exposures, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and certain genetic variations, although many questions, such as why < 20% of smokers develop significant airway obstruction, remain. Precise definitions of COPD vary and are frequently dependent on an accurate diagnosis of the problem by a physician. These differences in the definition of COPD can have large effects on the estimates of COPD in the population. Furthermore, evidence that COPD represents several different disease processes with potentially different interventions continues to emerge. In most of the world, COPD prevalence and mortality are still increasing and likely will continue to rise in response to increases in smoking, particularly by women and adolescents. Resources aimed at smoking cessation and prevention, COPD education and early detection, and better treatment will be of the most benefit in our continuing efforts against this important cause of morbidity and mortality.
Article
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a frequent cause of hospitalization in the United States. Previous studies of selected populations of patients with COPD have estimated in-hospital mortality to range from 4% to 30%. Our objective was to obtain a generalizable estimate of in-hospital mortality from acute exacerbation of COPD in the United States and to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality using administrative data. We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing the 1996 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a data set of all hospitalizations from a 20% sample of nonfederal US hospitals. The study population included 71 130 patients aged 40 years or older with an acute exacerbation of COPD at hospital discharge. The primary outcome assessed was in-hospital mortality. In-hospital mortality for patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD was 2.5%. Multivariable analyses identified older age, male sex, higher income, nonroutine admission sources, and more comorbid conditions as independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Mortality during hospitalization in this nationwide sample of patients with acute exacerbations of COPD was lower than that of previous studies of select populations. This estimate should provide optimism to both clinicians and patients regarding prognoses from COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Our results indicate that the use of administrative data can help to identify subsets of patients with acute exacerbations of COPD that are at higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
Article
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined independently of exacerbations, which are largely a feature of moderate-to-severe disease. This article is the result of a workshop that tried to define exacerbations of COPD for use in clinical, pharmacological and epidemiological studies. The conclusions represent the consensus of those present. This review describes definitions, ascertainment, severity assessments, duration and frequency, using varying sources of data including direct patient interview, healthcare databases and symptom diaries kept by patients in studies. The best general definition of a COPD exacerbation is the following: an exacerbation of COPD is a sustained worsening of the patient's condition, from the stable state and beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset and may warrant additional treatment in a patient with underlying COPD. A more specific definition for studies where a bacteriological cause of exacerbation is being studied is included, as well as simpler definitions for retrospective identification from database sources. Prospective diary card assessments are best recorded as changes from an agreed baseline, rather than absolute symptom severities. Diary cards identify many unreported exacerbations, which on average have similar severities to reported exacerbations. A scale for exacerbation severity is proposed that incorporates in- and outpatient assessments. Exacerbation duration, which also relates to severity, is defined from diary card reports. Healthcare utilisation is not an adequate substitute for severity, depending on many unrelated social and comorbidity factors. It is an outcome in its own right.
Article
The aim of this study was to describe the prognosis after hospitalization after exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A retrospective study of 300 consecutively admitted patients with exacerbation of COPD in three departments of internal medicine with special interest in respiratory medicine. Data were collected from patient charts. The mean age was 71.3 years. 59.7% were women and 60.9% had cor pulmonale. In 44% of the patients hypoxia was documented at the time of admission. Twentysix(9%) patients died during hospitalization. After three and 12 months mortality was 19% and 36%, respectively. Age, cor pulmonale and hypoxia at the time of admission were associated with increased mortality, whereas impaired lung function, long term oxygen treatment, and a record of hospitalization with the same diagnosis in the previous 30 days were associated with increased mortality in univariate analysis, but not when adjusted for age, gender, and hypoxia at admission. The risk of readmission was increased in cor pulmonale, while cessation of smoking during hospitalization reduced this risk. Patients who have been hospitalized with exacerbation of COPD has a high mortality and a high risk of readmission.
Article
The purpose of this study was to understand the outcomes for patients admitted to hospital for an acute exacerbation of COPD, and to determine the factors influencing quality of life and health service utilization of patients with COPD. Hospital outcomes of 282 patients with moderate and severe COPD, for an acute exacerbation, were retrospectively evaluated. After 24 months of follow up, health-related quality of life (QoL) and health service utilization (emergency room (ER) visit and readmission) in 54 patients admitted previously, were surveyed by questionnaires. Of 282 COPD patients admitted for an acute exacerbation, 28 patients (9.9%) died during hospitalization, 241 patients (85.5%) were discharged home, and only 13 patients (4.6%) needed long-term care facilities. Although over 50% of the patients had survived over 2 years after discharge, their QoL was poor. Patients who frequently went to the ER or were admitted, were those with poor QoL, severe dyspnoea and frequent exacerbation. COPD exacerbation and dyspnoea were the main factors influencing QoL of the patients. Age, comorbidity, QoL, FEV1, frequency of COPD exacerbation, long-term oxygen therapy, and family doctor were the factors determining the likelihood of patients visiting the ER. Frequency of COPD exacerbation, family doctor and living alone were the factors determining which patients were likely to be admitted to hospital. The outcomes and QoL of patients admitted for an acute exacerbation of COPD were poor. The major factors influencing QoL were frequency of COPD exacerbation and severity of dyspnoea. Improvement of social and medical networks (e.g. reducing the number of patients living alone and providing family doctors for patients) may reduce health care service utilization.
Article
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often present with severe acute exacerbations requiring hospital treatment. However, little is known about the prognostic consequences of these exacerbations. A study was undertaken to investigate whether severe acute exacerbations of COPD exert a direct effect on mortality. Multivariate techniques were used to analyse the prognostic influence of acute exacerbations of COPD treated in hospital (visits to the emergency service and admissions), patient age, smoking, body mass index, co-morbidity, long term oxygen therapy, forced spirometric parameters, and arterial blood gas tensions in a prospective cohort of 304 men with COPD followed up for 5 years. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 71 (9) years and forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 46 (17)%. Only older age (hazard ratio (HR) 5.28, 95% CI 1.75 to 15.93), arterial carbon dioxide tension (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12), and acute exacerbations of COPD were found to be independent indicators of a poor prognosis. The patients with the greatest mortality risk were those with three or more acute COPD exacerbations (HR 4.13, 95% CI 1.80 to 9.41). This study shows for the first time that severe acute exacerbations of COPD have an independent negative impact on patient prognosis. Mortality increases with the frequency of severe exacerbations, particularly if these require admission to hospital.
Article
The prognosis of patients with COPD requiring admission to the ICU is generally believed to be poor. There is a paucity of long-term survival data. We undertook a study to examine both the in-hospital and 5-year mortality rates and to identify the clinical predictors of these outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 57 patients admitted to the ICU between January 1999 and December 2000 for acute respiratory failure attributable to COPD. The mean (+/-SD) age of the study population was 70 +/- 8 years. More than 90% of patients required intubation, and the mean duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was 2.3 +/- 2.2 days. The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 24.5%. The mortality rates at 6 months and 1, 3, and 5 years were 39.0%, 42.7%, 61.2%, and 75.9%, respectively, following admission to the ICU. The median survival time for all patients was 26 months. The mortality rate at 5 years was 69.6% for patients who were discharged alive from the hospital. Using multivariate analysis, hospital mortality correlated positively with age, previous history of MV, long-term use of oral corticosteroids, ICU admission albumin level, APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score, and duration of hospitalization. No factors predictive of mortality at 5 years were identified. We support previous findings of good early survival and significant but acceptable long-term mortality rates in patients who have been admitted to the ICU for acute exacerbation of COPD. Increased age, previous history of MV, poor nutritional status, and higher APACHE II score on ICU admission could be identified as risk factors associated with increased mortality rates. Long-term survival of patients with COPD who required MV for an acute exacerbation of their disease cannot be predicted simply from data available at the time of intubation. Physicians should incorporate these factors in their decision-making process.
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a general review of the current literature on the factors associated with the outcomes of hospitalizations, survival and health-related quality of life in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), highlighting the limitations and the complexities in interpretation of the results of current studies. There is no consensus definition for AECOPD; onsets may be difficult to define and the determination of duration elusive. The prevalence of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) in the community appears to be underestimated as exacerbations are underreported by patients and their doctors. Hospitalization for COPD is due mainly to severe AECOPDs which drive the cost of care. There are few longitudinal epidemiological studies on factors associated with hospitalizations for AECOPD. The results of current studies do not allow clear differentiation between associations that are predictors of event, the consequences of the event, or indicators of severity. Strategies to reduce severe exacerbations of COPD include pharmacological treatment, vaccinations, pulmonary rehabilitation, and home care programs. The optimal strategy for the reduction of hospitalization in COPD remains unclear. Long-term interventional studies are needed to provide clearer information for the prevention of exacerbations and hospitalizations in COPD.
Article
To describe the mortality after emergency department (ED) visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Retrospective cohort study of ED patients with COPD exacerbation. Setting. Administrative data analysis. Patients age 55 and over who visited the ED during a 2-year period with primary ICD-9 codes of 491, 492, or 496. Demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, hospital utilization for COPD, and vital status. During the study period, there were 482 index visits with a median follow-up of 1,128 days (3.1 years). Demographic characteristics of the cohort were as follows: mean age 72 years, 56% female, 93% White, and 37% currently married. Mortality increased over time: 5% at 30 days, 9% at 60 days, 11% at 90 days, 16% at 180 days, 23% at 1 year, 32% at 2 years, and 39% at 3 years. At the end of follow-up, 220 (46%) patients had died. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were increasing age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3 per 5-year increase, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), having congestive heart failure (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1), having metastatic solid tumor (HR 3.3, 95% CI 2.0-5.5), and hospital utilization for COPD exacerbation during past year (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6). The mortality rate after an ED visit for COPD exacerbation is quite high. Mortality is related to older age, specific comorbid conditions, and history of prior COPD exacerbations.
Article
Patients who survive a severe exacerbation of COPD are at high risk of rehospitalization for COPD and death. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of these events in a large cohort of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients. We identified 51,353 patients who were discharged after an exacerbation of COPD in the VA health-care system from 1999 to 2003, and determined the rates of rehospitalization for COPD and death from all causes. Potential risk factors were assessed with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. On average, the cohort was elderly (mean age, 69 years), predominately white (78% white, 13% black, 3% other, and 6% unknown), and male (97%), consistent with the underlying VA population. The risk of death was 21% at 1 year, and 55% at 5 years. Independent risk factors for death were age, male gender, prior hospitalizations, and comorbidities including weight loss and pulmonary hypertension; nonwhite race and other comorbidities (asthma, hypertension, and obesity) were associated with decreased mortality. The risk of rehospitalization for COPD was 25% at 1 year, and 44% at 5 years, and was increased by age, male gender, prior hospitalizations, and comorbidities including asthma and pulmonary hypertension. Hispanic ethnicity and other comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) were associated with a decreased risk of rehospitalization. Age, male gender, prior hospitalizations, and certain comorbid conditions were risk factors for death and rehospitalization in patients discharged after a severe COPD exacerbation. Nonwhite race and other comorbidities were associated with decreased risk.
Article
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and predicts hospitalisation for acute exacerbation, in-hospital death and post-discharge mortality. Although beta blockers improve cardiovascular outcomes, patients with COPD often do not receive them owing to concerns about possible adverse pulmonary effects. There are no published data about beta blocker use among inpatients with COPD exacerbations. A study was undertaken to identify factors associated with beta blocker use in this setting and to determine whether their use is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. Administrative data from the University of Alabama Hospital were reviewed and patients admitted between October 1999 and September 2006 with an acute exacerbation of COPD as a primary diagnosis or as a secondary diagnosis with a primary diagnosis of acute respiratory failure were identified. Demographic data, co-morbidities and medication use were recorded and subjects receiving beta blockers were compared with those who did not. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of in-hospital death after controlling for known covariates and the propensity to receive beta blockers. 825 patients met the inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 5.2%. Those receiving beta blockers (n = 142) were older and more frequently had cardiovascular disease than those who did not. In multivariate analysis adjusting for potential confounders including the propensity score, beta blocker use was associated with reduced mortality (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99). Age, length of stay, number of prior exacerbations, the presence of respiratory failure, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease or liver disease also predicted in-hospital mortality (p<0.05). The use of beta blockers by inpatients with exacerbations of COPD is well tolerated and may be associated with reduced mortality. The potential protective effect of beta blockers in this population warrants further study.
Article
To identify clinical outcomes and variables associated with 6-month mortality in very elderly patients admitted for nonacidotic acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Prospective cohort study. General medicine acute care ward. Two hundred forty-four elderly patients with COPD (mean age+/-standard deviation 82+/-7, 55.7% female) admitted to the hospital because of non-acidotic AECOPD. Cognitive and mood status and physiological variables were measured. Self-reported comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. In-hospital and long-term mortality and clinical outcomes were recorded. At admission, this elderly population with AECOPD had low cognitive performance (mean Mini-Mental State Examination score 21+/-5), no presence of significant depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale score 4+/-3), good nutritional status (body mass index (BMI) 25.1+/-5.5), moderate comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index 4.0+/-1.9), high functional disability (Barthel Index (BI) 52+/-34), and moderate severity of acute exacerbation (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score 9.7+/-4.2). Two hundred twenty-five inpatients with AECOPD were successfully discharged, whereas 15 were transferred to the intensive care unit, and four died in the hospital. The 6-month cumulative mortality rate in discharged patients with AECOPD was 20%. Multivariate Cox analysis shows that lower BMI (beta=-0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.73-0.99), higher APACHE II score (beta=0,17; 95% CI=1.03-1.36), and lower BI at discharge (beta=-0.02; 95% CI=0.96-0.99) were independently associated with 6-month mortality. Malnutrition, severity of exacerbation and disability status could be identified as risk factors associated with 6-month mortality of elderly patients admitted for nonacidotic AECOPD.