Allen, N. E. et al. Plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 88, 1567-1575

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 01/2009; 88(6):1567-75. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26205
Source: PubMed


Some evidence indicates that a low selenium intake may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma selenium concentration with subsequent prostate cancer risk and to examine this association by stage and grade of disease and other factors.
A nested case-control study was performed among men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The association between plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk was assessed in 959 men with incident prostate cancer and 1059 matched controls.
Overall, plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of selenium concentration compared with the lowest fifth was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.31; P for trend = 0.25). There were no significant differences in the association of plasma selenium with risk when analyzed by stage or grade of disease. Similarly, the association of selenium with risk did not differ by smoking status or by plasma alpha- or gamma-tocopherol concentration.
Plasma selenium concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men.

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    • "A: Dose-response analysis of data on plasma/serum selenium and total prostate cancer risk extracted from publications by Vogt et al, 2003 (33); Hardell et al, 1995 (34); Nomura et al, 2000 (3); Goodman et al, 2001 (35); Li et al, 2004 (2); Peters et al, 2007 (36); Allen et al, 2008 (11); Gill et al 2009, (37); and Brooks et al, 2001 (38), according to methods and protocol. B: Best-fitting cubic spline plot for data from publications by Li et al, 2004 (2); Nomura et al, 2000 (3); Goodman et al, 2001 (35); Peters et al, 2007 (36); Allen et al, 2008 (11); and Gill et al, 2009 (37), representing the association between plasma/serum selenium and advanced prostate cancer risk. The data points from the included studies are indicated by the tick marks on the inside of the x axis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. Several human studies have shown a potentially protective effect of selenium, but the conclusions from published reports are inconsistent. The objective was to examine the evidence for relations between selenium intake, selenium status, and prostate cancer risk. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and prospective cohort studies. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project database was searched up to September 2010. The studies included reported measurements of selenium intake or status (plasma, serum, or toenail selenium), assessments of prostate cancer cases (number of events), and the RR in the adult population. Meta-analyses were performed, and study quality, heterogeneity, and small study effects were assessed. Dose-response meta-analyses were used, with restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials for nonlinear trends, to investigate the association between selenium status and prostate cancer risk. Twelve studies with a total of 13,254 participants and 5007 cases of prostate cancer were included. The relation between plasma/serum selenium and prostate cancer in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis showed that the risk decreased with increasing plasma/serum selenium up to 170 ng/mL. Three high-quality studies included in the meta-analysis of toenail selenium and cancer risk indicated a reduction in prostate cancer risk (estimated RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.61) with a toenail selenium concentration between 0.85 and 0.94 μg/g. The relation between selenium status and decreased prostate cancer risk was examined over a relatively narrow range of selenium status; further studies in low-selenium populations are required.
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    • "To regulate ROS production and fight against their deleterious effect, the organism responds with a large and complex battery of antioxidants including enzymes, proteins, iron chelators, low molecular weight compounds, trace elements, and antioxidants arising from our diet; among them, vitamins C and E, carotenoids and polyphenols are particularly important. Many epidemiological and clinical studies have also shown that the lower the antioxidant status, the higher the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and cancer [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. A few prospective, large-scale, European studies have shown a negative correlation between vitamin C plasma levels and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several factors, including fruit and vegetables intakes, have been shown to significantly influence the plasma concentrations of the two antioxidants vitamin C and β-carotene. Deficiency levels of 6 mg/L (34.2 μM) for vitamin C and of 0.22 mg/L (0.4 μM) for β-carotene have been suggested below which cardiovascular risk might be increased. The present study performed on 897 presumably healthy subjects aged 40-60 years aimed to examine how modifiable lifestyle factors may be related to vitamin C and/or β-carotene deficiency. Gender, smoking, lack of regular physical activity and of daily fruit consumption (≥2/day), and social status (in particular, unemployment) were found to be significant risk factors for vitamin C deficiency. For β-carotene deficiency, the same factors were identified except social status; moreover, overweight and OC use in women were also found to have a deleterious effect. For non exposed subjects, the probability of developing vitamin C deficiency was 4% in men and 2.4% in women. This probability increased to 66.3% for men and to 44.3% for women (and even to 50.4% under OC use), when all risk factors were present. For β-carotene deficiency, the corresponding probabilities were equal to 29.7% in men and 13.7% in women (no risk factor present), and to 86.1% for men and 69.9% (91.6% for OC use) for women (all factors present), respectively.
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    • "Therefore, dietary intake of 105–315 lg of organic selenium from BIOFORT wheat biscuits in addition to 158 lg from other habitual dietary sources (calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire) in South Australia is unlikely to cause beneficial or adverse health outcomes in the short term based on the biomarkers of cancer and cardiovascular disease risk we used. These observations are in accord with results of the SELECT trial and the EPIC study [Allen et al., 2008; Lippman et al., 2009] "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased intake of selenium (Se) may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases including cancer but excessive intake may be toxic. Wheat is a major source of dietary Se in humans. However, the effect of Se from wheat that is agronomically biofortified with Se on biomarkers of human health status is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether improving Se status, by increased dietary intake of Se-biofortified wheat, affects biomarkers of cancer risk, cardiovascular disease risk, oxidative stress, and immune function in healthy South Australian men. A 24-week placebo-controlled double-blind intervention was performed in healthy older men (n = 62), with increased dose of Se intake every 8 weeks. Wheat was provided as 1, 2, and 3 puffed wheat biscuits, during weeks 1-8, 9-16, and 17-24, respectively. Blood was collected to measure a wide range of disease risk biomarkers. Consumption of Se-biofortified wheat was found to increase plasma Se concentration from a baseline level of 122 to 192 microg/L following intake of three biscuits/day, which provided 267 microg Se. Platelet glutathione peroxidase, chromosome aberrations, and DNA damage in lymphocytes measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay and with the Comet assay, plasma F2-isoprostanes, protein carbonyls, plasma C-reactive protein, and leukocyte number were unaffected by the improved Se status. Improvement of Se status by consumption of Se-biofortified wheat did not substantially modify the selected biomarkers of degenerative disease risk and health status in this apparently selenium-replete cohort of healthy older men in South Australia.
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