Type 2 Translational Research for CKD

, ‡Division of Nephrology and, ¶Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, §College of Nursing and, ‖College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 4.61). 04/2013; 8(10). DOI: 10.2215/CJN.00130113
Source: PubMed


Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a "bench-to-bedside" paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses "clinic and community" is the core concept of type 2 translation. Specifically, this is the discipline of identifying factors and using strategies that lead to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of science-based interventions in practice. This review identifies key elements of type 2 translational research and highlights the current scope of this type of research for CKD. For type 2 translation to achieve the goals of providing high-quality care and better health outcomes, key facilitators (e.g., theory-based frameworks, adaptable interventions, and inclusion of sustainability and evaluation metrics) and essential elements (e.g., multidisciplinary team care, health information technology, and stakeholder engagement) must be integrated. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently funded five proposals that aim to improve outcomes for people with CKD, focusing on diverse components of the healthcare continuum: patient safety and transitions; delivery of high-quality, evidence-based CKD care; and elimination of disparities. The need for type 2 translational research in CKD is urgent because of preventable human suffering and unsustainable costs of providing care. Focus on the theory, framework, and approaches we have suggested may help us meet that challenge.

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are complex, have many medication-related problems (MRPs) and high rates of medication nonadherence, and are less adherent to some medications than patients with higher levels of kidney function. Nonadherence in CKD patients increases the odds of uncontrolled hypertension, which can increase the risk of CKD progression. This review discusses reasons for gaps in medication-related care for CKD patients, pharmacy services to reduce these gaps and successful models that incorporate pharmacist care. Pharmacists are currently being trained to deliver patient-centred care, including identification and management of MRPs and helping patients overcome barriers to improve medication adherence. A growing body of evidence indicates that pharmacist services for CKD patients, including medication reconciliation and medication therapy management, positively affect clinical and cost outcomes, including lower rates of decline in glomerular filtration rates, reduced mortality and fewer hospitalizations and hospital days, but more robust research is needed. Team-based models including pharmacists exist today and are being studied in a wide range of innovative care and reimbursement models. Opportunities are growing to include pharmacists as integral members of CKD and dialysis healthcare teams to reduce MRPs, increase medication adherence and improve patient outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-supported Kidney Research National Dialogue asked the scientific community to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would enhance understanding of kidney function and disease and improve clinical outcomes. An engaged and growing group of investigators working in type 2 translation (from clinical evidence to implementation in the community) identified barriers to improving patient care in CKD and suggested research priorities to test translational strategies that have been effective for other chronic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem that is associated with adverse health outcomes and high health care costs. Effective and cost-effective treatments are available for slowing the progression of CKD and preventing its complications, including cardiovascular disease. Although wealthy nations have highly structured schemes in place to support the care of people with kidney failure, less consideration has been given to health systems and policy for the much larger population of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Further, how to integrate such strategies with national and international initiatives for control of other chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) merits attention. We synthesized the various approaches to CKD control across 17 European countries and present our findings according to the key domains suggested by the World Health Organization framework for NCD control. This report identifies opportunities to strengthen CKD-relevant health systems and explores potential mechanisms to capitalize on these opportunities. Across the 17 countries studied, we found a number of common barriers to the care of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD: limited work force capacity, the nearly complete absence of mechanisms for disease surveillance, lack of a coordinated CKD care strategy, poor integration of CKD care with other NCD control initiatives, and low awareness of the significance of CKD. These common challenges faced by diverse health systems reflect the need for international cooperation to strengthen health systems and policies for CKD care. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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