Article

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seed extract and its antibacterial activity

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  • Government of Maharashtra Rajaram College Kolhapur
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Abstract

A novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) by using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seed powder extract (ASPE), as a reducing agent has been reported in the present work. The seed contains Jacalin, a lectin which is a single major protein representing more than 50% of the proteins from the jackfruit crude seed extract having several biological activities. The reaction of ASPE and AgNO3 was carried out in an autoclave at 15 psi, 121 ◦C for 5 min and the biosynthesis of the AgNPs in solution was monitored by measuring the UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The AgNPs synthesized were generally found to be irregular in shapes with an average size 10.78 nm. The FTIR spectra indicated the role of amino acids, amides group I in the synthetic process. The AgNPs thus obtained showed highly potent antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) microorganisms. The results confirmed that the ASPE is a very good eco friendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of AgNPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods. Therefore, A. heterophyllus seed provides future opportunities in nanomedicine by tagging nanoparticles with jacalin.

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... Biological process or green synthesis of NPs is performed by utilizing plants [7], and microorganisms [6]. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using different plant part such as leaves [8,9], flower [10,11], fruit [12][13][14], clove [15] stem bark [16], seeds [17], root [18], and galls [19] etcetera are reported as eco-friendly methods. Ag NPs are recently reported for different applications in human wellness including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, ant oxidative and antiplasmodial [2,6], etc. all these applications attracted researcher to invent more and more about activity of green synthesized NPs. ...
... So, 30 min reaction incubation time is the maximum time for performing further reactions was decided. Similar observations were observed for the Ag NPs synthesized using different plants, such as Sasa borealis leaf extract [8], Madhuca longifolia flower extract [10], Emblica officinalis fruit extract [12] and Artocarpus heterophyllus Seed extract [17]. ...
... The formation of polydisperse nature of nanoparticles is general issue with green synthesis method [2,4,6]. Present study results are similar with those of reported studies [12][13][14][15][16][17]20,33]. ...
Article
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using plant extract has been proposed as a facile, eco-friendly and cost-effective method. The Cuscuta japonica plant is one of the well-known medicinal plant and its seed have been reported for different biomedical applications. The present study reports the use of aqueous extract from seeds of C. japonica as a reducing agent and formation of Ag NPs from silver nitrate by a green synthesis route. The development of brown color in reaction mixture were observed visually, which indicates formation of Ag NPs. UV-visible spectroscopic peak about 460 nm confirms the synthesis of Ag NPs. The spherical shapes of synthesized Ag NPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Average particles size was found 73.22 ± 3.55 nm. The synthesis procedure was optimized by varying reaction time and temperature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum reveals that the presence of components acts as a reducing and capping agents. The synthesized Ag NPs shows antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and antibacterial activity against human pathogens includes Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria.
... Samrot et al. (2017) also reported absorption maxima of magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles in the range of 230-250 nm. The SEM analysis showed spherical to irregular shaped nanoparticles with occasional agglomeration in some place, which might be due to the evaporation of solvents during sample processing (Jagtap et al. 2013). This agglomeration probably also occurred due to magnetic dipole-dipole interaction of isolated FeNPs (Da'na et al. 2018). ...
... It has been reported that the most favorable size range of magnetic nanoparticles for promoting it as an effective bio-agent ranges from 10 to 100 nm (Carneiro et al. 2011). Clustering of nanoparticles at some places may be the reason for this variation in size distribution (Jagtap et al. 2013). Moreover, increased diameter of the particles was probably due to the tendency of small ferrihydrite nanoparticles to come together forming agglomerates (Weatherill et al. 2016). ...
... Broad peak present in between 3407 and 3392 cm −1 corresponds to polyphenols indicating the roles of phenolic compounds in the reduction of Fe +3 to Fe +0 . More availability of phenolic group creates favorable molecular arrangement for the delocalization of the unpaired electrons (Jagtap et al. 2013). Roles of polyphenols in the reduction of iron were previously reported by Mystrioti (Mystrioti et al. 2015). ...
Article
In recent years, the investigation of quick, efficient, and green method of metal nanoparticles synthesis has gained considerable importance in various dimensions of nanotechnology. But there are certain limitations to this emerging interest assize, morphology, and bioactivity of nanoparticles produced through green synthesis often varies greatly corresponding to the specific condition of metallic precursor and reducing agent. Current study intends to explore optimum condition like concentration of metallic precursor, plant extract (PLX), their volumetric ratio during biogenic synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs) using aqueous extracts of mature tea leaves which is basically a waste product with no commercial importance and generally discarded after pruning of young leaves and buds. The study also deals with the characterization of nanoparticles synthesized at optimized condition, investigation of antimicrobial and antioxidant propensity of the same. The optimal reactant concentration for biosynthesis of FeNPs was claimed to be10 mM FeCl3, 100 mg/mL plant extract and volumetric ratio of FeCl3:PLX = 10:1. The FeNPs obtained through this route had a spherical to irregular morphology with crystalline nature, average TEM and hydrodynamic size of 13.09 and 75.25 nm, respectively, having a zeta potential value of + 46.2 mV indicating strong stability. Synthesized FeNPs was found to be effective against wide range of soil microbes with highest activity against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) than gram-positive bacteria. Biosynthesized nanoparticles showed dose dependent antioxidant activity against all the tested parameters with highest against DPPH and least active against nitric oxide.
... Ag NPs typically having plasmonic resonance wavelength (λ max values) in the visible range of 400-500 nm [33]. SPR absorbance is extremely sensitive to the size and shape of the nanoparticles and surrounding media [34]. The shift to longer wavelength and broadening of peak plasmon resonance indicate the increasing diameters of Ag NPs, and broad SPR can be attributed to different particle sizes and the formation of anisotropic particles [35]. ...
... Ag NPs typically having plasmonic resonance wavelength (λma in the visible range of 400-500 nm [33]. SPR absorbance is extremely sensitive to and shape of the nanoparticles and surrounding media [34]. The shift to longe length and broadening of peak plasmon resonance indicate the increasing diam Ag NPs, and broad SPR can be attributed to different particle sizes and the form anisotropic particles [35]. ...
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Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been gaining great interest due to the increasing need for eco-friendly manufacturing and application of nanomaterials. Metal nanoparticles, especially silver nanoparticles, are widely used in water treatments and as environmental remedy. Here we present a method to synthesize silver nanoparticles at room temperature using green tea extract under visible light irradiation, along with an application for enhanced photocatalytic degradation on methylene blue (MB) dye. Ag nanoparticles were synthesized under different photoreduction times and then further characterized. The photocatalytic rate of synthesized nanoparticles was also investigated and compared with TiO2 nanowires under UV and visible light irradiations. The results showed that Ag nanoparticles can directly degrade MB dye through plasmonic excitation and electron transferring under visible light, and Ag nanoparticles can further enhance TiO2 photonic degradation by enhanced e-h separation with UV and/or a wide band light, including UV light. Ag nanoparticles under visible light photoreduction for 0.5 h presented better behavior for two kinds of plasmonic enhanced photodegradation; the average size of the nanoparticles is about 30 nm. Therefore, the green synthesized Ag nanoparticles exhibit promising prospects in chemical and biological pollutant treatment.
... By contrast, a single peak is visible at room temperature [40]. Bio-reduction of Ag + through biomolecules found in the propolis could be the reason behind this observation [41]. In addition, the solution was diluted by using deionized water ( Figure S6A). ...
... By contrast, a single peak is visible at room temperature [40]. Bioreduction of Ag + through biomolecules found in the propolis could be the reason behind this observation [41]. In addition, the solution was diluted by using deionized water ( Figure S6A). ...
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The emergence and evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is considered a public health concern. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that cause high mortality and morbidity rates in humans, animals, and poultry annually. In this work, we developed a combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with bacteriophage (phage) as an antimicrobial agent to control microbial growth. The synthesized AgNPs with propolis were characterized by testing their color change from transparent to deep brown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The phage ZCSE2 was found to be stable when combined with AgNPs. Both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated for AgNPs, phage, and their combination. The results indicated that MIC and MBC values were equal to 23 µg/mL against Salmonella bacteria at a concentration of 107 CFU/mL. The combination of 0.4× MIC from AgNPs and phage with Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) 0.1 showed an inhibitory effect. This combination of AgNPs and phage offers a prospect of nanoparticles with significantly enhanced antibacterial properties and therapeutic performance.
... Despite a great deal of research in nanotechnology using physicochemical approaches, the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) NPs is widely exploited using green synthesis. However, a relatively modest number of studies have attempted to elucidate the biosynthesis and potential applications of other metallic and semiconductor NPs [34][35][36][37][38]. ...
... Results showed that Ag NPs at 200 µg/mL led to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures [13]. Artocarpus heterophyllus assisted Ag NPs reduction, showing excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with an inhibition zone of 15 mm diameter compared to the other bacterial strains used [37]. Antibacterial activity of phytosynthesized Ag NPs from Boerhaavia diffusa L. extract were tested against fish bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium branchiophilum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens; and they demonstrated high antibacterial activity towards Flavobacterium branchiophilum when compared to other two fish bacterial pathogens [48]. ...
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Nanoparticles (NPs) are elements derived from a cluster of atoms with one or more dimensions in the nanometer scale in the range of 1–100 nm. The bio nanofabrication of metallic NPs is now an important dynamic area of research, with major significance in applied research. Biogenic synthesis of NPs is more desirable than physical and chemical synthesis due to its eco-friendliness, non-toxicity, lower energy consumption, and multifunctional nature. Plants outperform microorganisms as reducing agents as they contain large secondary biomolecules that accelerate the reduction and stability of the NPs. The produced NPs can then be studied spectroscopically (UV-Visible, XRD, Raman, IR, etc.) and microscopically (SEM, TEM, AFM, etc.). The biological reduction of a metallic ion or its oxide to a nanoparticle is quick, simple, and may be scaled up at room temperature and pressure. The rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes due to the immoderate use of antibiotics in non-infected patients is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. The contemporary development of a new class of antibiotics with different mechanisms of action to kill microbes is crucial. Metals and their oxides are extremely toxic to microbes at unprecedentedly low concentrations. In addition, prevailing infections in plants and animals are raising significant concerns across the globe. NPs’ wide range of bioactivity makes them ideal antimicrobial agents in agricultural and medical fields. The present review outlines the synthesis of metallic NPs from botanicals, which enables the metals to be in a stabilized form even after ionization. It also presents a valuable database on the biofunctionalization of synthesized NPs for further drug development.
... The highest ratio of Ag (81.12%) is obtained for Ag[GE]-NPs, which indicates the high purity of Galaxaura elongata as a reducing and capping agent. In general, the detection of minor oxygen, copper, and other elements, based on the EDX study and relative to the highest Ag signal, confirms the presence of Galaxaura elongata, Turbinaria ornata, and Enteromorpha flexuosa biomolecules on the surface of the synthesized Ag-NPs [38][39][40]. ...
... tection of minor oxygen, copper, and other elements, based on the EDX study and relative to the highest Ag signal, confirms the presence of Galaxaura elongata, Turbinaria ornata, and Enteromorpha flexuosa biomolecules on the surface of the synthesized Ag-NPs [38][39][40]. ...
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Citation: Abdel Azeem, M.N.; Hassaballa, S.; Ahmed, O.M.; Elsayed, K.N.M.; Shaban, M. Photocatalytic Activity of Revolutionary Galaxaura elongata, Turbinaria ornata, and Abstract: More suitable wastewater treatment schemes need to be developed to get rid of harmful dyes and pigments before they are discharged, primarily from apparel and textile factories, into water bodies. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are very effective, reductive nanocatalysts that can degrade many organic dyes. In this study, Ag-NPs are stabilized and capped with bioactive compounds such as Galaxaura elongata, Turbinaria ornata, and Enteromorpha flexuosa from marine macroalgae extracts to produce Ag[GE], Ag[TE], and Ag[EE] NPs. The reduction of Ag ions and the production of Ag[GE], Ag[TE], and Ag[EE] NPs have been substantiated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, and XRD tests. The NPs are sphere and crystalline shaped in nature with dimensions ranging from 20 to 25 nm. The biosynthesized Ag[GE], Ag[TE], Ag[EE] NPs were applied to photodegrade hazardous pigments such as methylene blue, Congo red, safranine O, and crystal violet under sunlight irradiation. In addition to the stability analysis, various experimental parameters, including dye concentration, exposure period, photocatalyst dose, and temperature, were optimized to achieve 100% photodegradation of the dyes. Moreover, the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were calculated and the impact of scavengers on the photocatalytic mechanism was also investigated.
... 82,83 Whereas, it can range between 2-4keV. 84 How far West-Bengal is using biogenic silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agents: Reviewing a decade history of preparation of biogenic silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial effects, we can see a total of 19 publications relevant to our aim of this review. Sen, I. K. et al, (2013) prepared AgNP-glucan conjugates from mushroom using glucan, collected from mushroom (Pleurotus florida). ...
Article
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Biologically prepared silver nanoparticles are in trend to be used as antibacterial agents throughout the globe. Silver nanoparticles prepared from different biological sources have been tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and other clinical bacteria in West-Bengal also. The size, shape and activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles will vary depending upon the biological sources and its concentration used for nanoparticle preparation. UV-Vis spectrophometry, Dynamic light scattering, FESEM, HRTEM are the techniques which can be used for characterizing silver nanoparticles of different size and shape. From the history of last decade of research upon silver nanoparticles’ green synthesis and its antibacterial, antifungal, antilarval as well as anticancer agents, researchers used plant parts, fungus and bacteria as biological sources for the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Which showed promising activity against different bacterial strains, either procured from ATCC (American type culture committee) or from any clinical sources. When it comes to analyse the activity of the prepared silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical bacterial strains, there are lesser evidences from West-Bengal. This review will work as a reservoir for biologically prepared silver nanoparticles in West-Bengal in the last decade and will also help researchers to characterize biogenic silver nanoparticles.
... Therefore, various practicable established green methods are chiefly used to develop anti-infective, which would most ideally overcome the barrier of architectural components of the cells. One of the preferable and most promising methods of developing novel anti-infective involves the use of phytoconstituents to bring about the bio reduction of AgNO 3 (Ag + to Ag o ) (Jagtap and Bapat, 2013). Such reduced AgNO 3 is generally referred to as a biocatalysed-silver nanoparticle. ...
Article
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Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science in the fields of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Nanoparticles have a large surface area to volume ratio and high surface energy. Due to this characteristic feature; it opens up new scope for its various applications. In this study, we have reported the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) from silver nitrate (AgNO 3) using the underutilized fruit of Elaeagnus pyriformis fruit juice in an optimized reaction. During synthesis, solution color changes from yellow to brownish due to reduction of Ag⁺ into Ag⁰ (AgNP) by phytocompounds (fatty acid and its derivatives) of E. pyriformis fruit juice. To know the presence and involvement of bioactive compounds as a reducing and capping agent the AgNPs were extensively characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM (Scanning electron microscopy), FESEM (Field emission scanning electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray), XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis)and FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy). Furthermore, the antioxidant efficacy of AgNP was determined and significant antimicrobial activity was recorded against human pathogenic micro organisms. To know the efficacy as a potent anticancerous agent, in-silico molecular docking analysis was done using anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X L and preliminary results indicate that AgNPs may have the potency to combat cancer by manipulating apoptosis.
... In modern nanoscience and technology, green synthesis (plant assisted) of nanoparticles has captured significant importance due to its flexibility and ecofriendly nature. A few examples of leaves [18][19][20], seeds [21], fruits [22], root [23], and bark [24] involved in the metal reduction process have been reported in the literature. ...
Article
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In bionanotechnology, nanoparticles synthesis using biological samples is a broadly used technique as it confers lesser toxicity than chemical methods. Leaf extract of Piper colubrinum Link. was used to synthesise green mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The confirmation and stability of green synthesised silver nanoparticles by UV–visible spectroscopy showed an absorption peak at 410 nm. The synthesised nanoparticles characterised by Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy exhibited possible involvement of various functional groups and bio capping of AgNPs and the crystal structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction data. Further, the size of synthesised silver nanoparticles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force electron microscopy. The spectroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of AgNPs by P. colubrinum extracts acting as strong reducing agents. Our results showed that reducing the silver nitrate with plant extracts formed sphere-shaped AgNPs with distances in the range of 10–50 nm. XRD analysis revealed the crystal-like nature of the nanoparticles with face-centred cubic structure, and the peaks of the XRD pattern were parallel to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The synthesised AgNPs showed the potential antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Spectrophotometric analysis of dye degradation was confirmed the catalytic activity of synthesised AgNPs. The results of the study revealed potential of phyto-synthesised AgNPs act as catalysts and is a simple and cost effective and efficient approach.
... Presently, the synthesized silver nanoparticles show strong absorption in the range of 2.5-4 keV. Similar results were earlier reported with the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 2-4 keV [17,18]. Fig. 4(e) shows the EDX analysis of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ...
Article
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This work assessed the effect of plasmonic green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) dispersed in Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the efficiency of DSSC. Natural plant extracts from air-dried Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves were used as sensitizers with commercially available Ruthenium dye (N719). The optical absorption band obtained at 425 nm confirmed the presence of the AgNPs and incorporating the AgNPs into TiO2 and dye loading increased the absorbance significantly. The optical band gap results showed that the energy gap decreased as the absorbance increased. The DSSC sensitized by N719 dye offered the highest conversion efficiency of 4.09 %, followed by 1.57 % by Neem extract and 1.18 % by Henna extract. It was shown from the results that natural plant extracts as sensitizers and plasmonic green synthesized AgNPs incorporated into TiO2 as the photoanode are good materials for the fabrication of DSSC with outstanding environmental friendliness.
... The typical transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image of well distributed silver nanoparticles is displayed in Fig. 3(a). The agglomeration of nanoparticles may be due to surface forces: van der Waal forces, capillary forces, and electrostatic forces (Muniyappan et al., 2014;Jagtap and Bapat, 2013). The TEM images were processed with the ImageJ software to obtain diameter size distribution of particle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by green synthesis using Azadirachta indica leaf extract as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was monitored by UV- visible spectroscopy. The UV- visible spectrum showed a peak at 455 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of the silver nanoparticles. Crystallite structure of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis which revealed the face-centered cubic structure (FCC) with average particle size of 8.9 nm, calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s equation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image revealed the agglomeration of small grain with particle size ranging from 2 to 14 nm. FCC crystalline nature was also evident from selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. High purity of as-synthesized AgNPs was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Band gap energy was calculated to be 2.7 eV from UV- Visible spectra. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was stabilized by AgNPs which reveals its antioxidant efficacy. Well diffusion method showed 7 mm to 12 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively confirming the antibacterial potential of AgNPs. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(3): 220-226.
... AgNPs have been widely used in medical devices (Marassi et al., 2018), textiles (Zhang et al., 2009), and food packaging (Li et al., 2017) because of their high surface area, high thermal stability, and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity (Jagtap and Bapat, 2013;Noghabi et al., 2017). Common techniques for preparing AgNPs include UV irradiation reduction (Darroudi et al., 2011), thermal decomposition (Li et al., 2018), laser irradiation (Abd El-kader et al., 2019), and chemical reduction (Balkan et al., 2017). ...
Article
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit broad spectrum antibacterial effect, but their cores after use can persist in the environment, which presents a toxic effect on humans. To address this issue, silver-based biomaterials are regarded as green alternatives to AgNPs. In this study, we used kraft lignin, a green and biodegradable polymer derived from wood biomass, to prepare an aminated lignin-silver complex ([email protected] complex) as an alternative antibacterial agent. A facile approach for preparing aminated lignin (AL) was realized by the amination of kraft lignin using 2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride in water solvent. The nitrogen content of optimized AL was 4.37 %. Ag(Ⅰ) could be captured and reduced to metallic Ag(0) by AL, thereby forming AgNPs on the surface of AL. Importantly, the obtained [email protected] complex was proven to be an effective antibacterial agent against gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Salmonella enterica) bacteria.
... For instance, SEM and TEM were used to clarify the morphology and size of the resultant NPs in [4]. SEM analysis has mostly revealed that the AgNPs formed in the literature were spherical, although a few authors reported irregular [184], triangular [185], hexagonal [129], isotropic [186], polyhedral [187], flake [188], flower [189], pentagonal [190], anisotropic [191], and rod-like structures [192]. Zeta potential values are used to confer colloidal stability to the integrated NPs, allowing the solution or dispersion to resist aggregation [193]. ...
Article
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Among the various types of nanoparticles and their strategy for synthesis, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has gained much attention in the biomedical, cellular imaging, cosmetics, drug delivery, food, and agrochemical industries due to their unique physicochemical and biological properties. The green synthesis strategies incorporate the use of plant extracts, living organisms, or biomolecules as bioreducing and biocapping agents, also known as bionanofactories for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The use of green chemistry is ecofriendly, biocompatible, nontoxic, and cost-effective. We shed light on the recent advances in green synthesis and physicochemical properties of green silver nanoparticles by considering the outcomes from recent studies applying SEM, TEM, AFM, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, and XRD techniques. Furthermore, we cover the antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities of silver nanoparticles.
... fruit extract (Myrtaceae) were also synthesized [49], and XRD analysis revealed that they were crystalline. AgNPs were also synthesized using an extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed powder (Moraceae) [50]. Biogenic method is used for the manufacturing of silver-based NPs from Boerhaayia diffusa extract (Nyctaginaceae), which helps as a reducing and capping agent [51]. ...
Article
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Currently, the growth and yield of crops are restrained due to an increase in the occurrence of ecological stresses globally. Biogenic generation of nanomaterials is an important step in the development of environmentally friendly procedures in the nanotechnology field. Silver-based nanomaterials are significant because of their physical, chemical, and biological features along with their plentiful applications. In addition to useful microbes, the green synthesized Ag nanomaterials are considered to be an ecologically friendly and environmentally biocompatible method for the enhancement of crop yield by easing stresses. In the recent decade, due to regular droughts, infrequent precipitation, salinity, and increased temperature, the climate alternation has changed certain ecological systems. As a result of these environmental changes, crop yield has decreased worldwide. The role of biogenic Ag nanomaterials in enhancing methylglyoxal detoxification, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and generating tolerance to stresses-induced ROS injury has been methodically explained in plants over the past ten years. However, certain studies regarding stress tolerance and metal-based nanomaterials have been directed, but the particulars of silver nanomaterials arbitrated stresses tolerance have not been well-reviewed. Henceforth, there is a need to have a good understanding of plant responses during stressful conditions and to practice the combined literature to enhance tolerance for crops by utilization of Ag nanoparticles. This review article illustrates the mechanistic approach that biogenic Ag nanomaterials in plants adopt to alleviate stresses. Moreover , we have appraised the most significant activities by exogenous use of Ag nanomaterials for improving plant tolerance to salt, low and high temperature, and drought stresses.
... Based on the reported research of silver NPs by green synthesis and green nanotechnology review, nano synthesis was carried for the green method's biological applications (Jagtap and Bapat, 2013;Roy et al., 2013;Nath and Banerjee, 2013). It was reported that several biological organisms such as bacteria, plants and fungus were used for the synthesis of metal oxide NPs by simple methods and had more advantages over conventional physicochemical methods (Gunalan et al., 2012;Ahmad et al., 2019;Raja et al., 2018). ...
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Zinc and its derivatives requirement increased to enhance human immunity against the different pandemics, including covid-19. Green synthesis is an emerging field of research. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been prepared from Anoectochilus elatus and characterized using absorption, vibrational and electron microscope analysis. They were carried for antibacterial, inflammatory control tendency, and potential antioxidant activities. The brine shrimp lethal assay tested the biologically derived nanomaterial toxicity and the lethal concentration (LC50) is 599.79 µg/ml. The inhibition against the important disease-causing pathogens was measured against four-gram negative, gram-positive bacteria and two fungus pathogens. The nanomaterial exposed inhibition zone for gram-positive bacteria between 17mm and 25mm. The inhibition zone against gram-negative bacteria exists between 19mm and 24mm. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of protein denaturation and protease inhibitory activity using nanomaterial. The antioxidant activity was examined using four assays for the therapeutic activities. The average size range of 60-80 nm nanoparticles has prepared and exposed the good biological activity between 50 µg/ml and 100µg/ml. The comparative results of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant assay results with standards such as Aspirin and vitamin C exposed that two to three times higher concentrations are required for the fifty percent of inhibitions. The prepared low-cost nanoparticle has exhibited excellent biological activity without any side effects and may enhance immunity.
... They were found to be crystalline after an XRD study. Artocarpus heterophyllus seed powder extract was used to produce AgNPs (Jagtap and Bapat, 2013). SEM, TEM, SAED, EDAX, and IR spectroscopy were used to assess the nanoparticles' structure and crystal structures. ...
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The development of effective and environmentally friendly methods for the green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) is a critical stage in the field of nanotechnology. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are significant due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their numerous applications. Physical, chemical, and green synthesis approaches can all be used to produce AgNPs; however, synthesis using biological precursors, particularly plant-based green synthesis, has shown outstanding results. In recent years, owing to a combination of frequent droughts, unusual rainfall, salt-affected areas, and high temperatures, climate change has changed several ecosystems. Crop yields have decreased globally as a result of these changes in the environment. Green synthesized AgNPs role in boosting antioxidant defense mechanisms, methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification, and developing tolerance for abiotic stress-induced oxidative damage has been thoroughly described in plant species over the last decade. Although various studies on abiotic stress tolerance and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in plants have been conducted, but the details of AgNPs mediated abiotic stress tolerance have not been well summarized. Therefore, the plant responses to abiotic stress need to be well understood and to apply the gained knowledge to increase stress tolerance by using AgNPs for crop plants. In this review, we outlined the green synthesis of AgNPs extracted from plant extract. We also have updates on the most important accomplishments through exogenous application of AgNPs to improve plant tolerance to drought, salinity, low and high-temperature stresses.
... For the last few years, various explorations of green synthesis of silver NPs have been reported for the promising anticancer and antibacterial activities such as Plant extracts of Sesbania grandiflora [20], Rubus glaucusBenth [21], Alpinia calcarate [22], Thymbra Spicata [23], Aloe vera leaves [16], and Artocarpus heterophyllus [24]. The use of L. acapulcensis extract is demonstrated as the suitable antimicrobial activities of Ag NPs [19], and the formation kinetics role for the shape direction of silver NPs using with Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract has also been reported [25]. ...
Article
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In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been synthesized through an eco-friendly, cost-effective green approach by using Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves (BPL) extract and the power generation activity of the BPL bio-electrochemical cell has been investigated with these Ag NPs. The formation of Ag NPs was probed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR), Energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The XRD studies indicated the formation of face-centered cubic (FCC) Ag NPs of an average crystallite size of about 18 nm. The FESEM images have shown spherical Ag NPs, and the average particle size was found as 35.49 nm after size distribution analysis. A significantly broad absorption peak centered at around 465 nm was revealed by the UV–visible spectra of Ag NPs, which indicated the formation of Ag⁰ from Ag⁺. Moreover, the NPs have been applied on BPL bio-electrochemical cells to examine the power generation performance of the cell. It is observed that Ag NPs exhibited a potential role in improving open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and the power generation of BPL bio-electrochemical cells. This study demonstrates a simple, cost-effective, and eco-friendly synthesis approach of Ag NPs and the excellent performances of Ag NPs on electricity generation systems of bio-electrochemical cells. The impact of Ag NPs in the bio-electrochemical cell is a meaningful research work that may open a new platform to develop potential bio-electrochemical cells.
... Individual and aggregated monodispersed spherical silver nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 6 to 15 nm were observed. The NPs were coated with a thin layer of organic material within the aggregates, indicating that the NPs were stabilized by a capping agent [21,34]. Elamawi et al. [32] found that silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by Trichoderma longibrachiatum had monodispersed approximately spherical forms with varying diameters and a particle size distribution ranging from 1 to 25 nm. ...
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Mycogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by some biocontrol agents have shown the ability to inhibit the growth of numerous plant pathogenic fungi, which may be a unique method of disease management. This study describes the extracellular production of AgNPs by Trichoderma harzianum. The size, shape, charge, and composition of the AgNPs were subsequently studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, DLS, zeta potential, TEM, SEM, and EDX, among other methods. The AgNPs had sizes ranging from 6 to 15 nm. The antifungal activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs and two commercial fungicides (Moncut and Maxim XL) were tested against three soil-borne diseases (Fusarium fujikuroi, Rhizoctonia solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina). Cotton seedling illnesses were significantly reduced under greenhouse settings after significant in vitro antifungal activity was documented for the control of plant pathogenic fungi. The use of biocontrol agents such as T. harzianum, for example, may be a safe strategy for synthesizing AgNPs and using them to combat fungus in Egyptian cotton.
... In the broad-spectrum of biologically active NPs, metal NPs such as Ag, Au, and Cu are the most sought after nanomaterial and increasingly used in medical and consumer products because of their high surface to volume ratio with small dimension [33,34]. ...
... In this special issue, Ag NPs and Au NPs are very wellknown antibacterial agents. Several research groups have achieved success in the synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extracts such as olive leaf extract [20], Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam seed extract [21], carob leaf extract [22], Aloe vera gel extract [23], Moringa oleifera extract [24], Citrus sinensis peel extract [25], Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) extract [26], leaf extract of Skimmia laureola [27], tea leaf extract [28], Turmeric extracts [29], and Acer pentapomicum leaf extract [30] and utilized the nanoparticles for antibacterial activity. These leaves are hydrophyte leaves which are not edible, even as weeds for other leaf lives and the lives of other animals. ...
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Biosynthesis of nanostructured materials is an arising feature of the interdisciplinary relationship between nanotechnology and biotechnology and acquiring consideration because of developing interest to foster ecologically favorable innovations in material preparation. In the present study, we synthesized an environmentally friendly and green method for the synthesis of gold/silver bimetallic nanostructure using Eichhornia crassipes leaf extract as reducing and capping agent. Au/Ag nanostructures were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and power X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy images also confirmed the formation of Au/Ag nanostructures. Antibacterial activity of Au/Ag nanostructures was studied and it has been found that Ag/Au nanostructure at 100 µM concentration significantly inhibited the bacterial growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Moreover, the Hoechst 33342 staining method was used to study the effect of Ag/Au nanostructure particles on the morphological changes in breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) nucleus. Staining of the Ag/Au nanostructure particle–treated MDA-MB-231 cells (4 h treatments) showed the appearance of emblematic features of apoptosis such as cell membrane blabbing and shrinkage. Graphical Abstract
... The identification of color change is a primary tool that confirms the ability of compounds of plant Conventional green synthesis of silver nanoparticles Figure 1: Conventional green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from plant extracts. Green synthesis from (a)-(f) leaf extracts [76][77][78][79][80][81], (g)-(j) seed extracts [82][83][84][85], (k)-(m) individual biomolecule extracts [86][87][88], (n)-(p) and other biomolecule extracts [89][90][91]. Journal of Nanomaterials extracts in nanoparticle synthesis [96]. ...
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Currently, silver nanoparticles have boomed in food and medicine due to their potential applications, such as antibacterial and anticancer activity. These nanoparticles have been synthesized by several techniques; however, green synthesis has taken on greater importance due to the non-generation of toxic residues. Green synthesis has been constructed from plant parts; however, the new trend comprises the use of agri-food waste extracts, known as sustainable green synthesis. The use of agri-food waste reduces environmental pollution and confers on its added value. The main waste generated is found in agricultural crops and industry from fruits and vegetables, cereal, bagasse from the food industry, and alcoholic beverages, oil cake of the oil industry, among others. The main biomolecules in agri-food waste extracts include phenolic compounds, alkaloids, terpenes, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and proteins, whose function is to reduce the agents of the silver ion. Therefore, the objective of this review was to promote the use of agri-food waste for the sustainable green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application as antibacterial and anticancer agents.
... The EDS spectrum revealed a strong signal peak at~3 keV, which confirms the occurrence of elemental silver in the produced nanosilver synthesized by polysaccharides (Figure 4(b)). In a similar study, Jagtap and Bapat [52] described the formation of irregular-shaped AgNPs at 2.98 keV using the seed extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus. The presence of a signal peak for carbon (C) in the EDS spectrum is possibly due to the structure of the polysaccharides present in the seeds of L. leucocephala, which is an added benefit in the green chemical synthesis. ...
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The AgNPs were synthesized using water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the Leucaena leucocephala seeds. The UV-visible spectrum of the AgNPs showed a sharp absorption peak at 448 nm. The XRD analysis showed four major peaks of the crystalline AgNPs with planes of a face-centered cubic lattice of silver. The EDS spectrum showed a strong signal peak at ~3 keV. TEM and SEM observations showed the spherical shape of AgNPs with no particle agglomeration, and the size ranged from 8 to 20 nm. AgNPs were highly stable at -14.2 mV by zeta potential measurement. AgNPs showed significant anticancer activity against the cell lines of breast cancer, liver carcinoma, and colon carcinoma with the IC50 value of 22.5, 12.3, and 8.9 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. AgNPs at 900 μg mL⁻¹ exhibited considerable antifungal activity against ten fungal pathogens. Water-soluble polysaccharide has the ability to synthesize AgNPs keeping strong antitumor, antifungal activities. The AgNPs can slow down spoilage of composite milk samples at different temperatures. In addition, the accuracy of milk-IR-analyses was not affected by different concentrations of AgNPs.
... Kemudian dilakukan penyaringan dengan kertas Whatman No. 1 (Merck, Jerman). Hasil penyaringan cairan rebusan biji jarak pagar menjadi ekstrak biji jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) digunakan untuk proses sintesis NPAg (Jagtap et al., 2013). ...
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Silver nanoparticles are extensive, applied in different fields. Green methods using plants have been used as renewable resources for the synthesis of biodegraded nanomaterials, thereby providing economic and safe synthesis routes. The green synthesis was done using the aqueous Cumin seed extract and as a bio-reducer agent and aqueous AgNO3 solution as a precursor under various conditions. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the observation of the shift in color from colorless to dark brown. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV/V is spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. Also, the synthesized AgNPs were evaluated for their antioxidant activity (In-vitro) by DPPH assay. The bio-reduced mixture showed a maximum peak at around 388nm. The XRD peaks were observed at 38o and 46o, corresponding to 111, 200, 220, and 311, and the peak widening suggested a smaller particle size. The FTIR absorption spectra indicated the presence of residual plant extract as a reducing agent in the reaction mixture. Also, analysis of C. cyminum seed extract strongly suggested the presence of OH stretching in alcoholic and phenolic compounds as the main phytochemicals parts, which is supported by a strong peak at approximately 3296cm−1. The SEM images clearly showed that AgNPs were almost spherical in shape and 48.7nm in size. The synthesized AgNPs showed almost the same pattern of ascorbic acid-free radical scavenging activity except at concentrations 100 and 50µg/ml with significant differences (P≤0.05) and it is dose-dependent. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized on a large scale following a simple and eco-friendly method using C. cyminum seed extract that can be used as an effective antioxidant.
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The past decade has witnessed a phenomenal rise in nanotechnology research due to its broad range of applications in diverse fields including food safety, transportation, sustainable energy , environmental science, catalysis, and medicine. The distinctive properties of nanomaterials (nano-sized particles in the range of 1 to 100 nm) make them uniquely suitable for such wide range of functions. The nanoparticles when manufactured using green synthesis methods are especially desirable being devoid of harsh operating conditions (high temperature and pressure), hazardous chemicals, or addition of external stabilizing or capping agents. Numerous plants and microorganisms are being experimented upon for an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and biologically safe process optimization. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the green synthesis of metallic NPs using plants and microorganisms, factors affecting the synthesis, and characterization of synthesized NPs. The potential applications of metal NPs in various sectors have also been highlighted along with the major challenges involved with respect to toxicity and translational research.
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The green nanoparticles synthesis is a modern field that currently resonates compared to other preparation methods due to its characteristics that make it used in all fields. This chapter briefly explained traditional and biological methods for preparing nanomaterials and mentioned the advantage and disadvantage to these methods, then explained in more detail the phytofabrication of nanoparticles from different parts of the plant, which are considered a good source for biological molecules that act as reducing agents and modifies metal ions into nanoparticles that have unique properties. It also illustrates the green methods for preparing nanoparticles such as silver, zinc oxide and copper in some detail and their reaction conditions which influence the size, shape and structure of NPs. In addition to mechanisms of their formation and the different biomolecules that contribute to its synthesis.
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The alarming effect of antibiotic resistance prompted the search for alternative medicine to resolve the microbial resistance conflict. Over the last two decades, scientists have become increasingly interested in metallic nanoparticles to discover their new dimensions. Green nano synthesis is a rapidly expanding field of interest in nanotechnology due to its feasibility, low toxicity, eco‐friendly nature, and long‐term viability. Some plants have long been used in medicine because they contain a variety of bioactive compounds. Silver has long been known for its antibacterial properties. Silver nanoparticles have taken a special place among other metal nanoparticles. Silver nanotechnology has a big impact on medical applications like bio‐coating, novel antimicrobial agents, and drug delivery systems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the pharmaceutical qualities of medicinal plants, as well as a convenient guideline for plant‐based silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity.
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been used in many medical and biological applications due to their unique features and characteristics. One of the most important issues researchers address in nanoscience is finding suitable methods to produce nanoparticles with environmentally friendly and non-toxic properties.The unique chemical, physical and biological properties that AgNP possesses give that impetus to developing their production methods. In recent years, there have been many studies documented for the production of AgNP during the development of green synthesis methods (GSM). The present study describes methods for the GSM of AgNP, their biological properties, and other applications, giving the most appropriate methods to synthesize AgNP.AgNP is one of the essential metallic particles, as they can be manufactured and designed in easy ways, and they are also adjustable because they were used in many fields such as catalysts, ideal biometrics, and photo-controlled delivery ystems. AgNp is beholden as aprospectively for tissue regeneration in bioengineering due to its ability in the delivery system as an ideal gene. The studies examined in the current study demonstrated the ability of AgNP in many medical applications because they possess antibacterial properties, and their toxicity can be reduced according to the recorded reports.
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Green synthesis methods by plant extracts leads to production of metal nanoparticles without using harsh, toxic, and expensive chemicals commonly used in physical/chemical processes. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared easily, fast, cost-effectively and successfully using aqueous galls extract of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) as a reducing and capping agent. The results revealed that AgNPs were highly stable and their morphologies were spherical with an average diameter of about 33 nm. The galls extract and AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activities toward four types of bacteria. The antioxidant ability of galls extract and AgNPs was evaluated by DPPH assay and showed considerable antioxidant potential. Cytotoxic activity of AgNPs was tested by MTT assay. AgNPs exhibited significant anticancer activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). AgNPs synthesized by Q. infectoria galls extract with high antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity would be favorable systems for bacterial disease and cancer treatment.
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Medicinal and aromatic higher plants are sustainable resources for natural product compounds, including essential oils, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and saponins. Extractives and essential oils as well as their bioactive compounds have many uses due to their antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant properties as well as application in food preservation. These natural compounds have been reported in many works, for instance biofungicide with phenolic and flavonoid compounds being effective against mold that causes discoloration of wood. Additionally, the natural extracts from higher plants can be used to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticle materials. Therefore, in this review, we aim to promote and declare the use of natural products as environmentally eco-friendly bio-agents against certain pathogenic microbes and make recommendations to overcome the extensive uses of conventional pesticides and other preservatives.
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The development of natural insecticide from plant products may have a beneficial effect as a promising candidate for practical strategies for controlling vector‐borne diseases without current treatment. The present study was carried out to characterize green synthesized metallic nanomaterials for silver (Ag‐NPs) and gold (Au‐NPs) from extract leaf of Nerium oleander L., assess in vivo toxicity, and evaluate the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The prepared nanomaterials (Ag‐NPs and Au‐NPs) were characterized by Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X‐ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the subacute in vivo toxicity method was used to assess the extract and the nanomaterials (Ag‐NPs and Au‐NPs); in evaluating larvicidal activities using the World Health Organization (WHO) method. The Ag‐NPs and Au‐NPs were confirmed by shifting the absorption band in UV–Vis, FTIR spectrums toward higher wavelengths. TEM and XRD analysis were revealed that the average particle size of Au‐NPs and Ag‐NPs showed 15.30 and 11.48 nm, respectively. In the toxicity experiment, no mortality or signs of toxicity were reported in all groups of treated animals; in larvicidal activity, the Au‐NPs and Ag‐NPs with LC50 36.0716 and 46.645 ppm respectively showed more effectiveness than leaf extract alone 108.1665 ppm. Collectively, extract leaf of N. oleander L. can be efficiently used to synthesize metallic nanomaterials with silver and gold, which can be adopted as a natural source of insecticide against Ae. aegypti.
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Infections caused by opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms are a relevant cause of death within the hospital environment. Therefore, it is necessary to look for ways to help minimize the number of infections acquired within that environment. Fabrics are in constant contact with the patient and can be a relevant source of contamination. An alternative is the development of hospital textiles that prevent the adhesion and growth of microorganisms on their surface. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are recognized for their antimicrobial potential and can be applied for this purpose. This study reports a simple, fast, and eco-friendly synthesis of AgNPs based on green nanotechnology and their application in hospital cotton fabrics to effectively fight against microbial growth with no mammalian cytotoxic effects at all tested concentrations. AgNPs biosynthesized by Beta vulgaris extract was evaluated using UV–Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and zeta potential. AgNPs showed activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the yeast Candida albicans. An excellent antimicrobial potential was observed when associated with the textiles, allowing its potential application as smart textiles with microbicidal activity in hospital environments. No cytotoxic effects have been reported on both HEK293 and HeLa cells at the tested concentrations. Thus, these smart textiles could be used in hospital environments such as in sheets and pillows, as they inhibit microbial growth. Consequently, they would help prevent hospital infections caused by opportunistic pathogens present in them.
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Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been one of the most commonly used nanoparticles since the past decade for a wide range of applications, including environmental, agricultural, and medical fields, due to their unique physicochemical properties and ease of synthesis. Though chemical and physical methods of fabricating AgNPs have been quite popular, they posed various environmental problems. As a result, the bioinspired route of AgNP synthesis emerged as the preferred pathway for synthesis. This review focuses extensively on the biosynthesis of AgNP-mediated through different plant species worldwide in the past 10 years. The most popularly utilized application areas have been highlighted with their in-depth mechanistic approach in this review, along with the discussion on the different phytochemicals playing an important role in the bio-reduction of silver ions. In addition to this, the environmental factors which govern their synthesis and stability have been reviewed. The paper systematically analyses the trend of research on AgNP biosynthesis throughout the world through bibliometric analysis. Apart from this, the feasibility analysis of the plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles and their applications have been intrigued considering the perspectives of engineering, economic, and environmental limitations. Thus, the review is not only a comprehensive summary of the achievements and current status of plant-mediated biosynthesis but also provides insight into emerging future research frontier. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13204-021-02135-5.
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In this chapter, a detailed study of the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their various biochemical activities is described. Due to the toxicity, high energy, and operating cost of chemical and physical methods, green synthesis of AgNPs has attracted great interest from researchers over the past 20 years. Plant extract and agricultural waste-mediated synthesis of AgNPs has proven to have a faster synthesis rate than other green synthesis techniques. Various phytochemicals act as reducing and capping agents for AgNPs. Numerous studies have shown that AgNPs have great potential as an antimicrobial agent against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. AgNPs also exhibited strong selective antiproliferative activity against a variety of human cancer cells. Similarly, studies have shown that AgNPs can act as a strong antioxidant against several free radicals. Moreover, researchers have utilized AgNPs as a potent antifungal and antiviral agent against different fungal spores and viral cells.
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Green chemistry applications in nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts is an eco-friendly approach in material science. Metallic nanoparticles with potent bioactivities have been synthesized using plant extracts. Here, we describe an environmental-friendly approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous leaf extract of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.). The extract was first analyzed for its content, after which it was utilized for the AgNPs synthesis. The synthesis optimization was performed via the adjustment of different parameters such as the concentrations of components and reaction time using UV-visible spectroscopy. The NPs characterization was performed using DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRF, and SEM-EDS techniques. The antibacterial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects of AgNPs were tested. Results demonstrated the rich content of the extract in terms of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. AgNPs were spherical-shaped with a size ranging between 50-70 nm. They demonstrated distinct antioxidant (EC50=32.91 g/mL) and deglycation (IC50=41.62 g/mL) activities as well as a potent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida albicans). The current findings highlight the potential of Quercus coccifera L. as a biological material for various biomedical applications.
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Biosource-based green synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) have been showing extensive enthusiasm as a developing innovation to identify the carcinogenicity of NPs generally which are generally connected with regular science amalgamation systems. Studies on a green combination of metal/metal oxide NPs (MONPs) such as those containing silver, gold, palladium, platinum, iron, titanium, ceria, and magnetite, and also CuO, TiO2, Fe3O4, ZnO, and NiO NPs are produced using microscopic organisms with different natural materials, fungi, and plant extracts. Particularly plant materials are broadly utilized for the green synthesis of metal and MONPs, and the explanation behind this is the nearness of basic phytochemicals in the plant particularly extricates from the leaves. Plant material extracts contain terpenoids, flavonoids, ketones, aldehydes, amides, and an assortment of phytochemicals carboxylic acids, which assume a significant job in forming and improving the bioactivity of NPs. This chapter explains the prospective applications of phytochemical-derived metal/metal oxide nanostructures for environmental remediation applications. Finally, some perspectives on the future direction of the synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanostructures via green chemistry are provided. Flavonoids as phytochemicals are required for metal arrangement and MONPs and their improved bio-usefulness and environmental remediation. In addition, the consequences of bioprocess for the synthesis of metal as well as various types of MONPs are discussed. The challenges, limiting factors, and future direction of the plant-based synthesis of metal/ MONPs are also highlighted in this chapter.
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A large number of minor and wild fruit species have originated in Indian subcontinent. Many of these fruits or their plants parts have been used in folk, Ayurvedic and Unani medicines since time immemorial. Several fruits were introduced in India during colonial period. Most of them adapted to climatic conditions of India but remains minor crops .These fruits also have several medicinal properties and were used by the native people of their respective origin of centres. Some the fruits such as bael, aonla, jamun, tamarind, karonda, wood apple, kokum etc were known for their use in Indian pharmacopeia. The exotic fruits such as sour sop, rambutan, mangosteen, avocado, water apple, durian, passion fruit, carambola etc. have been reported for their different medicinal importance. These fruits contain several chemical ingredients such flavonoids, quinolizidine, alkaloids, tritepenes, stilbenes, tannins, steroids, coumarin, saponins, triterpenoids, glycosides, taraxerone, cryptoxanthin, taraxerol, etc. These exhibited varied biological effects like anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ant diabetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective, anticancerous. In recent years the global focus is shifting towards the plant based medicines and there is lot of research is being done on these fruits. Thus an attempt has been made in this article to compile the information available in the minor fruits.
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Large use of flame retardants or additives in plastic industries have caused scientific attention as their leaching from consumer products is indicative of environmental concern. Moreover, plastic additives have proven features of endocrine disruptors, genotoxicity and persistence. Therefore, photodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) were explored in water. Seeing environmental safety, titanium dioxide decorated magnesium substituted cadmium ferrite (CdMgFe2O4@TiO2) was synthesized by using plant extract of M. koenigii via co-precipitation. Sharp peaks obtained in PXRD ensured high crystallinity and purity of distorted spherical nanocomposite (5–25 nm). Subsequently, CdMgFe2O4@TiO2 nanocatalyst was evaluated for the effective elimination of plastic additives at variable reaction parameters (pollutant: 2–10 mgL⁻¹; catalyst: 5–25 mg; pH: 3–7, dark-sunlight). With 20 mg of catalytic dose, CdMgFe2O4@TiO2 showed maximum degradation of 2 mgL⁻¹ of TBBPA (91%) and BPA (94%) at neutral pH under sunlight. Considerable reduction in persistence of TBBPA (t1/2:2.4 h) and BPA (2.1 h) indicated admirable photoactivity of CdMgFe2O4@TiO2. Results were supported by BET, zeta potential, band reflectance and photoluminescence analysis that indicated for higher surface area (90 m²g⁻¹), larger particle stability (−20 mV), lower band gap (1.9 eV) and inhibited charge-pairs recombination in nanocomposite. Degradation consisted of initial Langmuir-adsorption followed by first order kinetics. Scavenger analysis revealed the role of hydroxyl radical in photodegradation studies. Nanocomposite was effective up to eight cycles without any significant loss of activity that advocated its high-sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Overall, with excellent surface characteristics, green synthesized CdMgFe2O4@TiO2 nanocomposite is a promising and alternative photocatalyst for industrial applications.
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Jacalin, a tetrameric two-chain lectin (66,000 M r ) from jackfruit seeds, is highly specific for the tumour associated T-antigenic disaccharide. The crystal structure of jacalin with methyl-α-D-galactose reveals that each subunit has a three-fold symmetric β-prism fold made up of three four-stranded β-sheets. The lectin exhibits a novel carbohydrate-binding site involving the N terminus of the α-chain which is generated through a post-translational modification involving proteolysis, the first known instance where such a modification has been used to confer carbohydrate specificity. This new lectin fold may be characteristic of the Moraceae plant family. The structure provides an explanation for the relative affinities of the lectin for galactose derivatives and provides insights into the structural basis of its T-antigen specificity.
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The optical properties of silver colloidal particles derivatized using an aromatic bifunctional molecule, 4-carboxythiophenol, are presented in this communication. The capping molecule forms a thiolate bond with the silver colloidal particle yielding a carboxylic acid terminal functionality which may then be charged to varying degrees by controlling the silver hydrosol pH. A progressive red shift together with a damping and broadening of the surface plasmon feature (λmax) of the silver particles is observed as the pH is reduced from 10 to 3. Ag colloidal particles with high surface coverage of the bifunctional molecule showed negligible flocculation with time at high solution pH indicating good stabilization due to coulombic repulsive interactions. At low pH, considerable flocculation was observed even for high surface coverage due to lack of coulombic stabilization. A tentative explanation is put forward to explain changes in the optical properties of the colloidal particles due to variation in the pH dependent surface charge of the particles.
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Pepsin−colloidal gold conjugates were prepared by a simple protein-friendly process and the enzymatic activity of the bioconjugates is reported. The pepsin−gold conjugates are obtained by mixing colloidal gold and protein solutions at pH = 3 and, thereafter, centrifugation, washing, and redispersion of the pepsin−gold conjugate material in water. The bioconjugates in solution were characterized by UV−vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and biocatalytic activity measurements while films of the bioconjugate material obtained by solvent evaporation on suitable substrates were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). While TEM and SEM measurements showed aggregates of the enzyme/colloidal gold conjugates, the intactness of secondary and tertiary structures of the enzyme, as determined by FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopies and confirmed by biocatalytic activity measurements, clearly indicates that the enzyme is stable in its natural state and is possibly stabilized by the colloidal gold particles. The enzyme in the pepsin−Au bioconjugate retained substantial biocatalytic activity and was more stable than the free enzyme in solution.
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Jacalin is a plant lectin known to specifically induce the proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in human. We demonstrate here that jacalin completely blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro infection of lymphoid cells. Jacalin does not bind the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Besides other T cell surface molecules, it interacts with CD4, the high-affinity receptor to HIV. Binding of jacalin to CD4 does not prevent gp120-CD4 interaction and does not inhibit virus binding and syncytia formation. The anti-HIV effect of the native lectin can be reproduced by its separated a-subunits. More importantly, we have defined in the a-chain of jacalin a 14-amino acid sequence which shows high similarities with a peptide of the second conserved domain of gpl20. A synthetic peptide corresponding to this similar stretch also exerts a potent anti-HIV effect. This peptide is not mitogenic for peripheral blood mononuclear cells and does not inhibit anti-CD3-induced lymphocyte proliferation. These results make jacalin a chain-derived peptide a potentially valuable therapeutic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly biological material namely, banana peel extract (BPE). Boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used for reducing silver nitrate. Silver nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, concentration of silver nitrate and incubation temperature. The colorless reaction mixtures turned brown and displayed UV–visible spectra characteristic of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed the predominance of silver nanosized crystallites after short incubation periods. When the reaction mixtures were incubated for 15 days, some micro-aggregates were also observed. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) studies and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the role of different functional groups (carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl) in the synthetic process. These silver nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against fungal as well as bacterial cultures.
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Green chemistry and engineering seek to maximize efficiency and minimize health and environmental hazards throughout the chemical production process. This review demonstrates how green chemistry principles and metrics can influence the entire life cycle of a chemical from design through disposal. After reviewing essential metrics and recent advances in the field within this context, we consider the case of nanotechnology. As an emerging field, nanotechnology provides an instructive framework to consider the influence and application of green chemistry. Interdisciplinary innovation guides both fields, and both seek to transform the nature of technology. The applications and implications of emerging green technology are discussed, and future opportunities for interdisciplinary collaborations are highlighted.
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The successful application of various nanoplatforms in medicine under in vitro conditions has generated some interest in agri-nanotechnology. This technology holds the promise of controlled release of agrochemicals and site targeted delivery of various macromolecules needed for improved plant disease resistance, efficient nutrient utilization and enhanced plant growth. Processes such as nanoencapsulation show the benefit of more efficient use and safer handling of pesticides with less exposure to the environment that guarantees ecoprotection. The uptake efficiency and effects of various nanoparticles on the growth and metabolic functions vary differently among plants. Nanoparticle mediated plant transformation has the potential for genetic modification of plants for further improvement. Specifically, application of nanoparticle technology in plant pathology targets specific agricultural problems in plant–pathogen interactions and provide new ways for crop protection. Herein we reviewed the delivery of nanoparticulate materials to plants and their ultimate effects which could provide some insights for the safe use of this novel technology for the improvement of crops.
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The fungus, Aspergillus flavus when challenged with silver nitrate solution accumulated silver nanoparticles on the surface of its cell wall in 72 h. These nanoparticles dislodged by ultrasonication showed an absorption peak at 420 nm in UV–visible spectrum corresponding to the plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron micrographs of dislodged nanoparticles in aqueous solution showed the production of reasonably monodisperse silver nanoparticles (average particle size: 8.92 ± 1.61 nm) by the fungus. X-ray diffraction spectrum of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of metallic silver. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of protein as the stabilizing agent surrounding the silver nanoparticles. These protein-stabilized silver nanoparticles produced a characteristic emission peak at 553 nm when excited at 420 nm in photoluminescence spectrum. The use of fungus for silver nanoparticles synthesis offers the benefits of eco-friendliness and amenability for large-scale production.
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An eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been reported using aqueous seed extract of Jatropha curcas. Formation of stable silver nanoparticles at different concentration of AgNO(3) gives mostly spherical particles with diameter ranging from 15 to 50 nm. The resulting silver particles are characterized using HRTEM, XRD and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the particles are crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration is due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles respectively with the plant extract, Mentha piperita (Lamiaceae). The plant extract is mixed with AgNO(3) and HAuCl(2), incubated and studied synthesis of nanoparticles using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, SEM equipped with EDS. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical in shape with 90 nm, whereas the synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be 150 nm. The results showed that the leaf extract of menthol is very good bioreductant for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and synthesized nanoparticles active against clinically isolated human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
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Biomedical sciences, and in particular biomarker research, demand efficient glycoprotein enrichment platforms. Herein magnetic nanoprobes (MNP), after being coated with three broad-spectrum lectins-concanavalin A (ConA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Maackia amurensis lectin (MA)-were utilized to selectively capture glycoproteins from human body fluids. Additionally, a new methodology, based on protection of the lectins with their target sugars prior to coupling with MNPs, was proposed to overcome the nonspecific nature of conjugation. This approach contributed to preserve lectin conformation, increasing by 40% and 90% the affinity of ConA and MA for glycoproteins in relation to synthesis with nonprotected lectins. Optimal operating conditions (temperature, time) and maximum binding capacities were further determined for each lectin by use of fetuin as a reference. The enhanced performance of lectin-based nanoplatforms was demonstrated by comparing MNP@ConA with conventional Sepharose@ConA. These experiments have shown that ConA immobilized on MNP exhibited 5 times higher affinity for fetuin and ovalbumin when compared with Sepharose@ConA with the same amount of immobilized lectin. MNP@Lectins were then applied to human serum, saliva, and urine and the recovered proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by nano-HPLC MALDI-TOF/TOF. This allowed the identification of 180 proteins, 90% of which were found to be glycosylated by use of bioinformatics tools, therefore revealing low levels of unspecific binding. Thus, MNP@lectins have proved to be a valuable tool for glycoproteomic studies, particularly when dealing with minute amounts of material.
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Nanomaterials, such as metal or semiconductor nanoparticles and nanorods, exhibit similar dimensions to those of biomolecules, such as proteins (enzymes, antigens, antibodies) or DNA. The integration of nanoparticles, which exhibit unique electronic, photonic, and catalytic properties, with biomaterials, which display unique recognition, catalytic, and inhibition properties, yields novel hybrid nanobiomaterials of synergetic properties and functions. This review describes recent advances in the synthesis of biomolecule-nanoparticle/nanorod hybrid systems and the application of such assemblies in the generation of 2D and 3D ordered structures in solutions and on surfaces. Particular emphasis is directed to the use of biomolecule-nanoparticle (metallic or semiconductive) assemblies for bioanalytical applications and for the fabrication of bioelectronic devices.
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Silver nanoparticles utilizing the surface plasmon resonance effect of silver have been used to color merino wool fibers as well as imparting antimicrobial and antistatic properties to them to produce a novel silver nanoparticle-wool composite material. This is accomplished by the reduction of silver ions in solution by trisodium citrate (TSC) in the presence of merino wool fibers or fabrics. The silver metal nanoparticles simultaneously bind to the amino acids of the keratin protein in the wool fibers using TSC as the linker. The colors of the resulting merino wool-silver nanoparticle composites range from yellow/brown to red/brown and then to brown/black, because of the surface plasmon resonance effect of silver, and are tuned by controlling the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles to give the required particle size on the fiber surface. In addition to the surface plasmon resonance optical effects, the silver nanoparticle-wool composites exhibit effective antimicrobial activity, thus inhibiting the growth of microbes and also an increase in the electrical conductivity, imparting antistatic properties to the fibers. Therefore, silver nanoparticles function as a simultaneous colorant and antimicrobial and antistatic agent for wool. Chemical and physical characterizations of the silver nanoparticle-merino wool composite materials have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, direct-current electrical conductivity measurements, wash-fast and rub-fast tests, and antimicrobial tests.
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There is an urgent need for cheap point-of-use methods to purify drinking water. We describe a method to deactivate pathogenic bacteria by percolation through a paper sheet containing silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are deposited by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate on the cellulose fibers of an absorbent blotting paper sheet. The aim is to achieve inactivation of bacteria during percolation through the sheet, rather than removal of bacteria from the effluent by filtration. The silver-nanoparticle containing (AgNP) papers were tested for performance in the laboratory with respect to bacteria inactivation and silver leaching as suspensions of bacteria percolated through the paper. The AgNP sheets exhibited antibacterial properties toward suspensions of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, with log reduction values in the effluent of over log 6 and log 3, respectively. The silver loss from the AgNP sheets was minimal, with values under 0.1 ppm (the current US EPA and WHO limit for silver in drinking water). These results show promise that percolation of bacterially contaminated water through paper embedded with silver nanoparticles could be an effective emergency water treatment.
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The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical synthesis routes. Colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO(3) with Medicago sativa seed exudates under non-photomediated conditions. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions was observed in <1 min with Ag nanoparticle formation reaching 90% completion in <50 min. Effect of Ag concentration, quantity of exudate and pH on the particle size and shape were investigated. At [Ag(+)]=0.01 M and 30°C, largely spherical nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 5-51 nm were generated, while flower-like particle clusters (mean size=104 nm) were observed on treatment at higher Ag concentrations. Pre-dilution of the exudate induced the formation of single-crystalline Ag nanoplates, forming hexagonal particles and nanotriangles with edge lengths of 86-108 nm, while pH adjustment to 11 resulted in monodisperse Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm. Repeated centrifugation and redispersion enhanced the percentage of nanoplates from 10% to 75% in solution. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the Ag products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the elements and chemical environment in the top layers of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles, while the metabolites in the exudate were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first account of M. sativa seed exudate assisted synthesis and stabilization of biogenic Ag nanoparticles; the nanoplates are notably smaller and better faceted compared with those synthesized by vascular plant extracts previously reported. Stabilized films of exudate synthesized Ag nanoparticles were effective anti-bacterial agents.
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Nanosilver (NS), comprising silver nanoparticles, is attracting interest for a range of biomedical applications owing to its potent antibacterial activity. It has recently been demonstrated that NS has useful anti-inflammatory effects and improves wound healing, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and burns. The key to its broad-acting and potent antibacterial activity is the multifaceted mechanism by which NS acts on microbes. This is utilized in antibacterial coatings on medical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. Many new synthesis methods have emerged and are being evaluated for NS production for medical applications. NS toxicity is also critically discussed to reflect on potential concerns before widespread application in the medical field.
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Plants respond to heavy metal stress by metal complexation process like production of phytochelations or by other metal chelating peptides. In this paper we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the room dried stem and root of Ocimum sanctum. The broth of the plant is used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles at room temperature. The reaction process was simple and was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). There was formation of highly stable silver nanoparticles in the solution. The morphology and crystalline phase of the NPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies showed that the silver nanoparticles obtained from roots and stem were of sizes 10+/-2 and 5+/-1.5 nm, respectively. The various phytochemicals present within the ocimum plant result in effective reduction of silver salts to nanoparticles but their chemical framework is also effective at wrapping around the nanoparticles to provide excellent robustness against agglomeration.
Article
The present work studied the effect of extracts from tissue culture-derived callus and leaf of the saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. on synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using AgNO(3) as a substrate. The callus extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, better than leaf extract. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with X-ray diffraction spectrum which exhibited intense peaks, corresponding to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0), (3 1 1), and (2 2 2) sets of lattice planes of silver. The extracts incubated with AgNO(3) showed gradual change in color of the extracts to yellowish brown, with intensity increasing during the period of incubation. Control without silver nitrate did not show any change in color. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical in shape with variable size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by Transmission Electron Microscopy. There were prominent peaks in the extracts corresponding to amide I, II and III indicating the presence of the protein, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement. There were also peaks that were corresponding to aromatic rings, geminal methyls and ether linkages, indicating the presence of flavones and terpenoids responsible for the stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were observed to inhibit clinical strains of bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was more distinct than antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activity was enhanced when polyvinyl alcohol was added as a stabilizing agent. The present work highlighted the possibility of using tissue culture-derived callus extract from the coastal saltmarsh species for the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.
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The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprises about 50 species of evergreen and deciduous trees. Economically, the genus is of appreciable importance as a source of edible fruit, yield fairly good timber and is widely used in folk medicines. The aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information of the chemical constituents, biological and pharmacological research on Artocarpus which will be presented and critically evaluated. The close connection between traditional and modern sources for ethnopharmacological uses of Artocarpus species, especially for treatment against inflammation, malarial fever, diarrhoea, diabetes and tapeworm infection. Artocarpus species are rich in phenolic compounds including flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a lectin. The extracts and metabolites of Artocarpus particularly those from leaves, bark, stem and fruit possess several useful bioactive compounds and recently additional data are available on exploitation of these compounds in the various biological activities including antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, antifungal, antiplatelet, antiarthritic, tyrosinase inhibitory and cytotoxicity. Several pharmacological studies of the natural products from Artocarpus have conclusively established their mode of action in treatment of various diseases and other health benefits. Jacalin, a lectin present in seeds of this plant has a wide range of activities. Strong interdisciplinary programmes that incorporate conventional and new technologies will be critical for the future development of Artocarpus as a promising source of medicinal products. In the present review, attempts on the important findings have been made on identification; synthesis and bioactivity of metabolites present in Artocarpus which have been highlighted along with the current trends in research on Artocarpus.