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Static Stretching Can Impair Explosive Performance For At Least 24 Hours


Abstract and Figures

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static versus dynamic stretching on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) following a 24-h delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15-min of static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), or a no stretch control condition (CC) 24-h before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7-min 30-sec (2 repetitions of 30-sec with 15-sec passive recovery) for five muscle-groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). 24-h later (without any kind of stretching in warm up), players were tested for 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap-times), 5 jump-test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS and DS with 5JT (F=9.99, p<0.00, ES=0.40), 10m sprint time (F=46.52, p<0.00, ES=0.76), 20m sprint time (F=18.44, p<0.000, ES=0.55) and 30m sprint time (F=34.25, p<0.000, ES=0.70). The significantly better performance (p<0.05) was observed after DS as compared to CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10m, 20m and 30m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p<0.05) was observed after SS as compared to CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10m, 20m and 30m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in total time (F=1.55, p>0.05), average time (F=1.53, p>0.05), and fastest time (F=2.30, p>0.05), except for the decline index (F=3.54, p<0.04, ES=0.19). Therefore, SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24-h post-stretching with no major effects on RSA. Conversely, DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24-h before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24-h.
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Tunisian Research Laboratory “Sports Performance Optimisation,” National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports
(CNMSS), Tunis, Tunisia;
University of Jandouba, ISSEP Kef, Tunisia;
University of Manouba, ISSEP Ksar Saıˆ
d, Tunisia;
Human Performance Laboratory, Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi), Hong Kong;
School of
Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Newfoundland, Canada; and
Research and Education
Centre, Aspetar, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha
Haddad, M, Dridi, A, Chtara, M, Chaouachi, A, Wong, DP,
Behm, D, and Chamari, K. Static stretching can impair explosive
performance for at least 24 hours. J Strength Cond Res 28(1):
140–146, 2014—The aim of this study was to compare the ef-
fects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive perform-
ances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay.
Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static
stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24
hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests.
This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS,
and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2
sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with
a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps,
hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours
later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players
were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times),
5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences
were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F= 9.99,
p,0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F= 46.52,
p,0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F= 18.44, p,0.000, ES
= 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F= 34.25, p,0.000, ES = 0.70).
The significantly better performance (p,0.05) was observed after
DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint
times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse perfor-
mance (p,0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that
after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA,
no significant difference was observed between different stretch-
ing protocols in the total time (F= 1.55, p.0.05), average time
(F=1.53,p.0.05), and fastest time (F= 2.30, p.0.05), except
for the decline index (F=3.54,p,0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore,
the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on
explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no
major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle
groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint
and long-jump performances. In conclusion, the positive effects of
DS on explosive performances seem to persist for 24 hours.
KEY WORDS soccer, stretching protocols, jump, repeated
Static stretching (SS) was considered an essential com-
ponent of a warm-up for decades (39) to improve
performance. Traditionally, after a submaximal aero-
bic component (i.e., running, cycling), the second
component was a bout of SS (39). The SS usually involves
moving a joint to the end of its range of motion (ROM) and
holding the stretched position for 15–60 seconds (39). The SS
has been demonstrated as an effective means to increase ROM
(26). This bout of stretching is commonly followed by a seg-
ment of skill rehearsal where the players would perform
dynamic movements similar to the sport or event for which
they were preparing (39). A review by Behm and Chaouachi
(2) summarized the plethora of studies reporting that SS can
lead to impairments in subsequent performance. However, they
highlighted the greater variability in the findings with shorter
durations of stretching (,90 seconds per muscle group). In
addition, SS does not lead to such pervasive negative effects
with sprinting and running activities (13,34).
Recently, many studies have shown that a moderate dura-
tion of stretching (15–30 seconds of SS per muscle group) does
not affect short-term muscle strength (8,24). In contrast, studies
implementing 30 (36), 60 (34), or 90 seconds (29) resulted in
decreased jump height. In the same context, other studies have
shown that SS before a competition is harmful for strength,
speed, and jumping performances (5). Presently, the over-
whelming consensus is against SS before subsequent perfor-
mance, especially involving higher velocities and power.
Address correspondence to Dr. Del P. Wong,
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Brandenburg et al. (3) examined the effects of SS on coun-
termovement vertical jump (CMVJ) ability. They found that
CMVJ height decreased immediately post-SS in comparison
with CMVJ pre-SS, and it remained decreased during the
24 minutes follow-up period. Power et al. (26) demonstrated
that these deficits occur 1 minute post-SS and continue until
120 minutes poststretching. This study did not show impair-
ments in jump height performance; however, the quadriceps
force remained decreased, and jump contact time was
increased for 120 minutes. Therefore, SS can have negative
effects on muscular force up to 2 hours.
Dynamic stretching (DS), which involves controlled move-
ment through the active ROM for each joint (9), is currently
replacing SS in the modern athletic warm-up. However, it is
important to not ignore the SS studies that report no impair-
ments as they may reveal stretch-related mechanisms and oppor-
tunities to employ SS before performance (2). The DS has been
shown to enhance performance in subsequent dynamic concen-
tric external resistance (38), explosive (22,38), agility (22), sprint
performance (10), vertical jump height (9,17), and increased elec-
tromyographic activity during an isometric maximal voluntary
contraction (MVC) (14). A few studies have demonstrated no
adverse effect rather than potentiation with DS (6,31). The DS
may also enhance muscular performance because of postactiva-
tion potentiation, which is the transient improvement of muscu-
lar performance after previous contraction (6,31). In this context,
Turki et al. (33) showed that 10 minutes of DS of the lower limbs
had a substantial likelihood of augmenting vertical jump (VJ)
height, peak power, velocity, and force. Hough et al. (17) insti-
tuted 7 minutes of DS resulting in an increased vertical jump
height. However, all the aforementioned studies were interested
in the short-term effect of stretching on performance (from
immediate effect to 120 minutes [20] postintervention). There
are no studies investigating the effect of stretching 24 hours later.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects
of 2 different types of stretching (SS and DS) and control con-
dition (CC) on sprint tests, 5 jump test (5JT), and repeated sprint
ability (RSA) after 24 hours. It was hypothesized that the positive
effects of DS on explosive performances, running speed, and
RSA would persist for at least 24 hours.
Experimental Approach to the Problem
To examine the effect of 2 types of stretching 24 hours before
performing the sprint, 5JT, and RSA tests, all the players
performed the 3 experimental conditions (SS, DS, and CC)
in a counterbalanced order in this within-subject repeated
measures study. The study lasted for 4 weeks where the first
week was used for familiarization of the tests and anthro-
pometric measurements, and the actual tests were performed
at the end of the second–fourth weeks (Sunday). The play-
ers’ running speed (30-m sprint with 10-m lap time), lower-
body explosive power (5JT), and RSA were assessed.
Sixteen volunteer junior players (between 17 and 19 years old)
were recruited among professional soccer team competing in
First league. All the players were not injured at least 4 weeks
before the beginning of the study. The characteristics of players
are presented in Table 1. Players’ typical training regimen
included 7 training sessions for 6 d$wk
, 90–120 minutes in
duration. All the participants gained medical clearance from the
team physician to ensure that they were in good health. Before
the study, all the players and parents were informed about the
potential risks and benefits associated to participation, and both
signed a written informed consent form, agreeing with the pro-
tocol procedures and publication of the data. The study was
conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and the
protocol was fully approved by the Clinical Research Ethics
Committee of the National Center of Medicine and Science in
Sports of Tunis, Tunisia before the beginning of the assess-
ments. All the players were fully accustomed to the procedures
used in this research and were informed that they could with-
draw from the study in any time without penalty.
Data were collected during 4 weeks of the precompetitive
season without friendly matches. All the sessions were
performed in the soccer stadium at the same hour of the day
starting at 15:00 hours in average ambient conditions of 13.0 6
1.78C temperature, 1,016.4 63.9 mmHg atmospheric pressure,
and 69.8 60.1% relative humidity. In the first week, all the
players attended 3 orientation sessions (once a day). The morn-
ing of the first day was delegated to anthropometric measure-
ments. The afternoon of the second and third days,
familiarization sessions for all the stretching and testing proto-
cols were organized. A standardized warm-up (e.g., general
physical preparation with joint and muscular mobilization)
was performed before each training session during the first
week. During the second to fourth weeks, the players performed
1 of the 3 stretching protocols in a counterbalanced order,
TABLE 1. Characteristics of players.
Age (y) Height (m) Body mass (kg) %Body fat MAS* (km$h
max (ml$min
18.2 61.2 1.77 65.80 70.65 67.80 11.32 62.30 16.01 61.90 53.2 63.6
*MAS = maximal aerobic speed.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
VOLUME 28 | NUMBER 1 | JANUARY 2014 | 141
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24 hours before the performance tests. In this study, we selected
test items that have been reported to have high discriminating
power among young soccer players and related to match per-
formance. In this context, Reilly et al. (28) compared elite and
subelite young soccer players and found that sprint time was
the most discriminating measure. Specifically, 30-m sprint (with
10-m lap time) has been suggested as a standard sprint test for
soccer players. In addition, 5JT was used to estimate athlete’s
correlated with the 5-, 10-, and 30-m sprint performance and
with vertical jump performance in soccer players (4). To mea-
sure the ability to repeat sprints in soccer, RSA tests were
designed. The RSA tests used in this study was significantly
correlated with both high-speed running and sprinting distance
during actual match play (27). Details of these tests were
described below. There was no stretching in warm-up imme-
diately before the tests. The various tests were administered by
the same experimenter in the same condition for all players. For
diet monitoring, each player was given a meal plan (food and
hydration) composed in collaboration with the club’s nutrition-
ist. During the period of investigation, they were prohibited
from consuming any known stimulant (e.g., caffeine) or depres-
sants (e.g., alcohol) substance. To avoid dehydration, ad libitum
drinking was permitted during all the training sessions.
Stretching Protocols. Two stretching protocols were per-
formed: SS and DS. These stretching protocols have been
used in various studies (9,32). The SS and DS consisted of
2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds each for 5 muscle groups
(i.e., quadriceps, hamstrings, plantar flexors, adductors, and
hip flexors). Two sets of stretching per muscle group were
performed (30 seconds for the right and 30 seconds for the
contralateral left muscle group) with a 15-second recovery
between repetitions and a 3-minute recovery between sets.
Static and dynamic protocols stretched the same muscular
Field Testing
Five Jump Test. This test (4) was performed on the grass with the
players equipped with appropriate soccer boots. The 5JT con-
sists of 5 consecutive strides with feet together at the start and
end of the jumps. From the starting position, the participant was
not allowed to perform a back step with any foot; rather, he had
to directly jump to the front with a leg of his choice. After the
first 4 strides, that is, alternating left and right feet 2 times each,
he had to perform the last stride and end the test again with feet
together. If the player fell back on completion of the last stride,
the test was performed again (only 2 instances in this study).
Five jump-test performances were measured with a tape mea-
sure from the front edge of the player’s feet at the starting
position to the rear edge of the feet at the final position (4).
The person assessing the landing had to focus on the last stride
of the player to exactly determine the last footprint on the grass,
as the players could not always stay on their feet on landing.
Thirty-Meter Sprint. The players had to start from a standing
position placing their forward foot just behind the starting
line. They performed a 30-m sprint with a stationary start and
the timing started when the subjects crossed the starting line
(beam of the first photocell gate located at 0 m). The speed
was measured with an infrared photoelectronic cell (Speed-
trap II Wireless Timing System; Brower Timing System,
Draper, UT, USA) positioned at 10, 20, and 30 m from the
starting line at a height of 50 cm. There were 3 trials in total,
and a 3-minute recovery was allowed between each trial. The
best (fastest) 30-m sprinting time and the associated 10- and
20-m sprinting time were selected for analysis.
Repeated Sprint Ability Test. This test was designed to measure
both repeated sprint and change in direction abilities (27). The
athletes started from a line, sprinted for 20 m, touched a line
with a foot, and came back to the starting line as fast as
possible. After 20 seconds of passive recovery, the subject
started again (27). Immediately after the warm-up, each player
completed a preliminary single shuttle sprint test using a pho-
tocells system (Speedtrap II Wireless Timing System; Brower
Timing System). This trial was used as the criterion score
during the subsequent 6 340-m shuttle sprint test. After
the first preliminary single shuttle sprint, the subjects rested
for 5 minutes before the start of the RSA test. If the perfor-
mance in the first sprint of the RSA test was worse than the
criterion score (i.e., an increase in time .2.5%), the test was
terminated immediately, and the subjects were required to
repeat the RSA test with maximum effort after a 5-minute
rest. Five seconds before the start of each sprint, the subjects
assumed the ready position and waited for the start signal
(27). During the RSA test, total, average and fastest times
and the index of decline (%dec) were calculated.
Statistical Analyses
Mean 6SD was used to describe variables. Before using para-
metric tests, the assumption of normality was verified using
the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. A 1-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) for repeated measures was used to examine the
difference between conditions (CC, SS, and DS), respectively,
in 5JT, sprints, and RSA. When significant Fvalues were
observed (p#0.05), paired comparisons were used in con-
junction with Holm’s Bonferroni method for controlling type
1 error (15) to determine significant differences. The effect size
(ES) was calculated for all ANOVAs with the use of a partial
eta-squared. Values of 0.01, 0.06, and .0.15 were considered
as small, medium, and large, respectively (7). The ESs were
also calculated for all paired comparisons and evaluated with
the method described by Cohen (7) (small ,0.50, moderate =
0.50–0.79, and large .0.80). Reliability of each test was as-
sessed before the start of this study by intraclass correlation
coefficient (ICC) and the SEM. Statistical analyses were per-
formed using SPSS software statistical package (version 16.0;
SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), and statistical significance was
set at p#0.05.
Static Stretching Impairs Performance
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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Statistical Power and Reliability
The statistical power of this study ranged from 0.30 to 1.0
(Table 2). In addition, the results show that the tests were highly
reliable: 30-m sprint (ICC = 0.81; SEM =1.89;n= 16), 5JT
(ICC = 0.95; SEM = 0.08; n= 16), and RSA (ICC = 0.99;
SEM = 0.01; n= 16).
Analysis With Repeated Measures
Repeated-measure ANOVA results revealed significant ef-
fects for condition between CC, SS, and DS (Table 2) with
TABLE 3. Mean difference (%) between different stretching protocols on each of the dependent variables.*
Condition Mean change (%) 95% CI for mean lower 2upper pES
5 JT (m) CC vs. SS 20.8 20.02 to 0.22 0.10 0.19
CC vs. DS 1.6 20.28 to 20.11 0.00 0.37
SS vs. DS 2.5 20.49 to 20.10 0.01 0.51
Sprint (s) 10 m CC vs. SS 2.8 20.07 to 20.03 0.00 0.39
CC vs. DS 22.1 0.02 to 0.05 0.00 0.28
SS vs. DS 24.7 0.06 to 0.11 0.00 0.59
20 m CC vs. SS 1.7 20.08 to 20.03 0.00 0.39
CC vs. DS 21.0 0.01 to 0.05 0.00 0.25
SS vs. DS 22.6 0.05 to 0.13 0.00 0.61
30 m CC vs. SS 1.0 20.06 to 0.03 0.00 0.20
CC vs. DS 21.1 0.03 to 0.07 0.00 0.21
SS vs. DS 22.1 0.06 to 0.13 0.00 0.40
RSA (s) Total time CC vs. SS 20.2 20.01 to 0.15 0.09 0.09
CC vs. DS 0.2 20.34 to 0.14 0.39 0.12
SS vs. DS 0.4 20.43 to 0.08 0.17 0.22
Mean time CC vs. SS 20.2 20.00 to 0.03 0.12 0.09
CC vs. DS 0.2 20.06 to 0.02 0.39 0.12
SS vs. DS 0.4 20.07 to 0.01 0.17 0.22
Best time CC vs. SS 0.1 20.03 to 0.01 0.52 0.04
CC vs. DS 20.2 20.01 to 0.03 0.21 0.09
SS vs. DS 20.3 0.00 to 0.04 0.02 0.14
% Dec CC vs. SS 27.0 0.02 to 0.48 0.04 0.18
CC vs. DS 9.8 21.03 to 0.23 0.19 0.29
SS vs. DS 19.9 21.28 to 20.03 0.04 0.45
*ES = effect size; 5JT = 5 jump test; RSA = repeated sprint ability; CI = confidence interval; CC = control condition; SS = static
stretching; DS = dynamic stretching.
TABLE 2. Physical performances 24 hours after different stretching protocols (n= 16).*
No stretching
control Static stretching Dynamic stretching ANOVA p
5 JT (m) 12.33 (0.52)z12.23 (0.58)z12.53 (0.51)§ 0.00 0.40 0.98
Sprint (s) 10 m 1.77 (0.13)z§ 1.82 (0.15)z1.73 (0.13)§ 0.00 0.76 1.0
20 m 3.21 (0.14)z§ 3.26 (0.14)z3.17 (0.14)§ 0.00 0.55 1.0
30 m 4.32 (0.23)z§ 4.36 (0.23)z4.27 (0.23)§ 0.00 0.70 1.0
RSA (s) Total time 46.00 (0.82) 45.93 (0.80) 46.10 (1.00) 0.23 0.09 0.30
Mean time 7.67 (0.14) 7.66 (0.13) 7.68 (0.17) 0.23 0.09 0.30
Best time 7.38 (0.14) 7.39 (0.13) 7.37 (0.14) 0.12 0.13 0.43
3.88 (1.37) 3.63 (1.45) 4.28 (1.86) 0.04 0.19 0.61
*ANOVA = analysis of variance; 5JT = 5 jump-test; RSA = repeated sprint ability.
Effect size of the ANOVA comparison, that is, the comparison between 3 groups at the same time.
zSignificantly different from static stretching at p,0.05.
§Significantly different from dynamic stretching at p,0.05.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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5JT (F= 9.99, p,0.000, ES = 0.40), 10 m (F= 46.52, p,
0.000, ES = 0.76), 20 m (F= 18.44, p,0.000, ES = 0.55),
and 30-m sprint time (F= 34.25, p,0.000, ES = 0.70).
Pairwise comparison showed that a significantly better per-
formance (p,0.05) was observed after DS as compared
with that after CC and SS with 5JT (1.6 and 2.5%), sprint
times for 10 m (22.1 and 24.7%), 20 m (21.0 and 22.6%),
and 30 m (21.1 and 22.1%, respectively). In contrast, signif-
icantly impaired performances (p,0.05) were observed
after SS as compared with that after CC with sprint times
for 10 m (2.8%), 20 m (1.7%), and 30 m (1.0%) (Table 3).
In the RSA, no significant difference was observed between
different stretching protocols in total time (F= 1.55, p.0.05,
ES = 0.09), average time (F= 1.53, p.0.05, ES = 0.09), and
fastest time (F=2.30,p.0.05, ES = 0.13), except for %Dec
(F= 3.54, p,0.04, ES = 0.19). However, the post hoc test did
not identify any significant pairwise comparison for the %Dec.
This is the first study to investigate the effects of SS and DS
on performance (sprint, horizontal jump, and RSA) 24 hours
poststretching. The results of this study showed positive
effects of DS on sprint (10, 20, and 30 m) and 5JT performed
the next day. However, SS produced negative effects on
these performances compared with that of DS and CC. No
significant effect was observed on the RSA, with either
stretching condition.
The effects of DS performed 24 hours before explosive
performances were similar to those reported by many previous
investigations studying the immediate effects of stretching on
explosive performances. Both Fletcher and Jones (10) and
Gelen (12) indicated that the DS improved sprint performance
during warm-up. The positive effects of DS on explosive per-
formances (19), power (21,38), and jump (16–18,25) perfor-
mance have also been reported. Also, Rosenbaum and
Hennig (30) found that the group performing DS protocol
was the fastest and had greater tendon stiffness. Behm and
Chaouachi (2) in their review calculated an average perfor-
mance enhancement of 7.3% shortly after DS. Other than the
20-m sprint enhancements, which increased 12 and 24% with
DS compared with control and SS, respectively, the other per-
formance enhancements in this study were modest ranging
from 1 to 5%. It must be kept in perspective that the Behm
and Chaouachi (2) calculation illustrated increases occurring
relatively shortly after the intervention whereas the present
study still demonstrates significantly greater performances 24
hours later.
Another unique aspect of this study is the demonstration
of the negative effect of SS up to 24 hours poststretching.
Rosenbaum and Hennig (30) recommended avoiding SS
before sprint and strength activities because of its induced
effect of decreasing the muscle’s elastic energy. Several other
studies concluded that performing SS before sprint perform-
ances contributed to increased running time (10,23). Accord-
ing to Nelson et al. (23), the decrease in sprint performance
was the result of the increased compliance and reduction of
muscle tendon unit’s stiffness. Fowles et al. (11) have shown
that intense and prolonged SS of ankle plantar flexors (13
stretches of 135 seconds each over 33 minutes) reduced the
MVC for 1 hour after stretching. Also Power et al. (26)
explored the effects of SS of quadriceps and plantar flexors
up to 120 minutes, and they demonstrated significant overall
9.5 and 5.4% decrements in the force of the quadriceps for
MVC and interpolated twitch technique, respectively. This is
the first study to demonstrate persistent SS-induced impair-
ments 24 hours after stretching.
Regarding the RSA test, the results of this study showed no
significant difference in the performance after the 3 stretching
protocols. The absence of stretching effects performed 24
hours before the RSA test concurred with the study of Wong
et al. (37). These authors showed that SS protocol (30, 60, and
90 seconds) performed for 3 consecutive days before repeated
sprint had no effect on RSA (9 330 m with a 25-second
recovery between each sprint). The absence of any effect
may also be attributed to a lack of a sufficient stimulus (short
stretching #90 seconds) (19). Wong et al. (37) have also dem-
onstrated the lack of significant difference in the RSA perfor-
mance with 30–90 seconds of SS in combination with
90 seconds of DS. However, Beckett et al. (1) have shown
that SS reduced the repeated sprint times when the SS was
performed during the recovery period between sprints. In this
study, the absence of a significant difference between stretch-
ing protocols on RSA performance may be the result of this
test being performed after the sprint and the 5JT.
Potential mechanisms underpinning these changes in per-
formance are speculative as direct measurements of the
physiological mechanisms were not performed. Short-term
stretching-induced impairment mechanisms have included
both mechanical and neurological responses but have not
been fully elucidated (2). In this study, SS might have compro-
mised the effect of a stretch-shortening cycle by decreasing
active musculotendinous stiffness, thereby reducing the amount
of elastic energy that can be stored and reused (2). The stretch-
induced slack in the musculotendinous unit (MTU) can
increase electromechanical delay affecting transmission of
forces, preventing maximal storage and reuse of elastic energy
during the stretch-shortening cycle (23). The SS might also
increase tendon compliance, thereby reducing force production
(26). The present results suggest that these mechanical alter-
ations may persist for 24 hours. It has also been hypothesized
that altered MTU properties through SS inhibit neural poten-
tiation, through changes in reflex activity. However, these neu-
ral responses would not be expected to play a substantive role
24 hours after stretching. Conversely, the persistent DS
improvements might be attributed to enhanced MTU stiffness,
and increased coordination of dynamic movement (2). Mann
and Jones (20) in another review suggested that the key attrib-
utes of DS include improved kinesthetic sense, leading to
improved proprioception and preactivation. From their train-
ing study results, Wilson et al. (35) stated that DS might be an
Static Stretching Impairs Performance
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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effective way to increase the reused elastic energy during exer-
cise involving a stretch-shortening cycle. Unfortunately, this
study was not designed to investigate possible mechanisms,
but the persistence of these effects for 24 hours warrants fur-
ther research.
In conclusion, according to the results of this study, the
introduction of DS protocol 24 hours before short sprint and
horizontal jumps was advantageous; however, SS exercise
should be avoided 24 hours before explosive performances
despite the absence of effects on RSA regardless of the types
of stretching performed.
Sprint performances (10, 20, and 30 m) and horizontal jumps 24
hours after the DS were significantly better than those after the
no-stretch CC and SS. Results of this study demonstrated the
negative effect of SS up to 24-hour poststretching. Despite
the absence of effects on RSA regardless of the types of
stretching performed in the previous 24 hours, it is recom-
mended to perform DS on the day before explosive perform-
ances rather than SS because of the positive effects of DS on
sprint and jump performance up to 24 hours poststretching.
1. Beckett, JR, Schneiker, KT, Wallman, KE, Dawson, BT, and
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Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
VOLUME 28 | NUMBER 1 | JANUARY 2014 | 145
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Static Stretching Impairs Performance
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
... This may consequently impair motor balance and control, which is critical for the adequate performance of functional activities [30]. In addition, persistent deleterious effects have been previously observed following bouts of SS on horizontal power and sprint performance versus dynamic stretching and control conditions [31]. It is possible that in the present study, the SS modality may have compromised the effectiveness of the stretch-shortening cycle by decreasing active musculotendinous stiffness and limiting the amount of elastic energy that could be stored and reused [31]. ...
... In addition, persistent deleterious effects have been previously observed following bouts of SS on horizontal power and sprint performance versus dynamic stretching and control conditions [31]. It is possible that in the present study, the SS modality may have compromised the effectiveness of the stretch-shortening cycle by decreasing active musculotendinous stiffness and limiting the amount of elastic energy that could be stored and reused [31]. Furthermore, a possible reduction in neural drive to the muscle may be responsible for the observed force loss after the acute performance of prolonged duration (>60 s) static stretching; however, it is not clear if there is a persistent effect preventing motoneurons from discharging at their maximal firing rates [32]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the foam rolling technique and static stretching on perceptual and neuromuscular parameters following a bout of high-intensity functional training (HIFT), which consisted of 100 pull-ups, 100 push-ups, 100 sit-ups, and 100 air squats (Angie benchmark) in recreationally trained men (n = 39). Following baseline measurements (Feeling Scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Total Quality Recovery, Sit-and-Reach, Countermovement Jump, and Change-of-Direction t-test), the volunteers performed a single bout of HIFT. At the end of the session, participants were randomly assigned to one of three distinct groups: control (CONT), foam rolling (FR), or static stretching (SS). At the 24 h time-point, a second experimental session was conducted to obtain the post-test values. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Regarding power performance, none of the three groups reached pretest levels at 24 h point of the intervention. However, the CONT group still showed a greater magnitude of effect at the 24 h time-point (ES = 0.51, p ≥ 0.05). Flexibility presented the same recovery pattern as power performance (post × 24 h CONT = ES = 0.28, FR = ES = 0.21, SS = ES = 0.19). At 24 h, all groups presented an impaired performance in the COD t-test (CONT = ES = 0.24, FR = ES = 0.65, SS = ES = 0.56 p ≥ 0.05). The FR protocol resulted in superior recovery perceptions (pre × 24 h TQR = ES = 0.32 p ≥ 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that the use of FR and SS exercises may not be indicated when aiming to restore neuromuscular performance following a single bout of HIFT. The use of the FR technique during the cooldown phase of a HIFT session may be helpful in improving an individual’s perception of recovery.
... According to other studies [24,25,26] the application of dynamic stretching should have not influence on the height of single vertical jump by comparison with static stretching. Other studies tell that after dynamic stretching there is an improvement in muscle power by sportsmen [27], sprint [28,29] and jumps [30]. Many other studies point that application of dynamic stretching is suitable before loading [20,31,32]. ...
... Generally we did not find out significant differences (p>0.05) between effectivity of stretching in ESFR and ESDS in any our motion tests. According to many studies which mention that muscle power is improved by sportsmen after dynamic stretching [27], sprint [28,29] and jumps [30], we regard our findings as eminent because we found out that using of foam rolling in stretching is proper effective method of stretching. We think that this method can be uses as alternative to dynamic stretching. ...
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Introduction: The aim of the pilot study was an effect comparison of stretching between foam rolling and dynamic stretching on performance in motion tests by young volleyball players. Methods: 1. Experimental sample-ESFR (n=8, age = 13.4±0.5 years, height = 173.8±7.7 cm, weight = 59.8±7.1 kg) absolved 6 measurements of indicators of stretching with foam rolling during 6 weeks. 2. Experimental sample-ESDS (n=8, age = 13.4±0.5 years, height = 174.5±9.5 cm, weight = 59.4±11.0 kg) absolved dynamic stretching. We had determined the stretching effect between ESFR and ESDS by comparison of performance in tests: spike jump (SS), block jump (BS) E-test (ET), run to cones (RC), throw with 1 kg ball (H2), sit and reach test (SR) and sit-ups (SU). Results: The most important determination was that better level of stretching presented in performance and it was determined in RC in two examples with medium effect and in three examples with large effect in behalf of ESFR. By contrast, one example from ESDS in parameter PS had better level of stretching with medium effect and one example with medium effect in H2. In other parameters (BS, SS, SU and ET) were the differences only small or none between ESFR and ESDS. Conclusion: The results of the pilot study indicate that using of foam rolling and dynamic stretching can have different influence on the level of stretching and preparation of young volleyball players. These results must be verified on larger experimental sample.
... Pertaining to jumping performance we expected a reduction in the observed values following the two stretching interventions [61][62][63][64]. These reductions, however, were not present. ...
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Background The aim of this study was to compare the positional transversal release (PTR) technique to stretching and evaluate the acute effects on range of movement (ROM), performance and balance. Methods Thirty-two healthy individuals (25.3 ± 5.6 years; 68.8 ± 12.5 kg; 172.0 ± 8.8 cm) were tested on four occasions 1 week apart. ROM through a passive straight leg raise, jumping performance through a standing long jump (SLJ) and balance through the Y-balance test were measured. Each measure was assessed before (T0), immediately after (T1) and after 15 min (T2) of the provided intervention. On the first occasion, no intervention was administered (CG). The intervention order was randomized across participants and comprised static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and the PTR technique. A repeated measure analysis of variance was used for comparisons. Results No differences across the T0 of the four testing sessions were observed. No differences between T0, T1 and T2 were present for the CG session. A significant time × group interaction for ROM in both legs from T0 to T1 (mean increase of 5.4° and 4.9° for right and left leg, respectively) was observed for SS, PNF and the PTR. No differences for all groups were present between T1 and T2. No differences in the SLJ and in measures of balance were observed across interventions. Conclusions The PTR is equally effective as SS and PNF in acutely increasing ROM of the lower limbs. However, the PTR results less time-consuming than SS and PNF. Performance and balance were unaffected by all the proposed interventions.
... A standardized 12-min warm-up exercises was given to all participants (consisting of jogging, muscle coordination exercises, dynamic stretching, passing drills with ball, and ended with three 10 m sprints). No static passive stretching exercise was performed during the warm-up activities [26]. The participants only performed dynamic stretches before the experimental sessions [16]. ...
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Verbal encouragement (VE) can be used by physical education (PE) practitioners for boosting motivation during exercise engagement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of VE on psychophysiological aspects and physical performance in a PE context. Twenty secondary school male students (age: 17.68 ± 0.51 yrs; height: 175.7 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 67.3 ± 5.1 kg, %fat: 11.9 ± 3.1%; PE experience: 10.9 ± 1.0 yrs) completed, in a randomized order, two test sessions that comprised a soccer dribbling circuit exercise (the Hoff circuit) either with VE (CVE) or without VE (CNVE), with one-week apart between the tests. Heart rate (HR) responses were recorded throughout the circuit exercise sessions. Additionally, the profile of mood-state (POMS) was assessed pre and post the circuit exercises. Furthermore, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), traveled distance, and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were assessed after the testing sessions. The CVE trial resulted in higher covered distance, %HRmax, RPE, PACES score, (Cohen’s coefficient d = 1.08, d = 1.86, d = 1.37, respectively; all, p < 0.01). The CNVE trial also showed lower vigor and higher total mood disturbance (TMD) (d = 0.67, d = 0.87, respectively, p < 0.05) and was associated with higher tension and fatigue, compared to the CVE trial (d = 0.77, d = 1.23, respectively, p < 0.01). The findings suggest that PE teachers may use verbal cues during soccer dribbling circuits for improving physical and psychophysiological responses within secondary school students.
... It was first mentioned in India about 5000 years ago, and after that in China around 2600 BCE. 1 In modern times, initially used ballistic exercises were replaced in the 1960s by static stretching (SS), introduced as part of the warm-up. 2,3 Static stretching is an effective form of increasing the length of the muscle, and the hamstrings (HAMS) area is most often used one for the therapeutic intervention. The length of the muscle is a measure resulting from the distance between its attachments. ...
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Background: Muscle stretching has been practiced by people for thousands of years. Its effectiveness is well-proven, but the diversity of the obtained results should prompt a search for causative factors. One of the possible explanations can be hormonal fluctuations, which occur during the menstrual cycle. Objectives: To assess the influence of menstrual cycle on the efficiency of static stretching of hamstrings with special reference to changes in their length. Material and methods: A total of 534 young women were recruited for the study, but after applying the inclusion criteria, only 48 of them have been accepted. The inclusion criteria for the study comprised a reduced length of the hamstring muscles and a regular menstrual cycle. The whole study included a twofold examination of hamstring length before and after the stretching (3 × 45 s), performed by a physiotherapist. All the measurements were carried out 3 times in individual phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Statistically significant influence of static stretching upon the length of hamstring muscle was revealed. A change in the passive knee extension (PKE) test was 13.34% (standard deviation (SD) = 10.97), and in active knee extension (AKE) test it was 8.46% (SD = 9.26). Hamstrings length demonstrated no differences in various phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusions: Static stretching is an effective tool for the improvement of the length of the hamstring muscle in young women. However, the effectiveness of stretching in healthy women is not influenced by the menstrual cycle phases.
Background Reduced ankle dorsiflexion is associated with lower limb injury and dysfunction, with static stretching mostly used to increase ankle range of motion. Foam rolling is an alternative intervention, shown to immediately increase ankle range of motion, while the long-term application has conflicting evidence. Aims To assess the effects of single and multiple foam rolling interventions on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy adults and appraise the methodological quality of the included studies. Design Systematic literature review. Methods Five electronic databases were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials reporting the effects of foam rolling on ankle dorsiflexion. Data was extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria and independently appraised by each reviewer using the PEDro scale. Results Thirty-two articles were identified; six studies included foam rolling compared to other interventions on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Five of the six studies reported a significant increase (p < 0.05) in ankle dorsiflexion within groups compared to baseline measurements, after a single foam rolling intervention. One study found a significant within group increase in long-term effects after foam rolling on ankle dorsiflexion over seven weeks. The mean PEDro score for all studies was 6/10 indicating a high-quality level of evidence. Conclusion There is strong evidence suggesting that foam rolling may be effective in increasing range of motion in a healthy adult population in the short term up to 30 min; however, definitive conclusions on long-term effects cannot be drawn due to a lack of evidence, with further research recommended.
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ESNEKLİK PERFORMANSININ KUVVET İLE İLİŞKİSİ ÖZET Yeterli kuvvet ve esneklik seviyeleri, sağlığın ve fonksiyonel özerkliğin yanı sıra güvenli ve etkili spor katılımının geliştirilmesi ve sürdürülmesi için önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, esneklik performansının, temel motorik özelliklerden kuvvet parametresi ile arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesidir. Araştırmanın yönteminde, 2010-2020 tarihleri arasında Google Akademik, Gazi Üniversitesi e-kütüphane, Medline, ProQuest ve PubMed veritabanlarında spor, esneklik, germe, statik, dinamik, PNF, kuvvet ve performans anahtar kelimeleri hem Türkçe hem de İngilizce olarak taranmıştır. Esnekliğin kuvvet performansına etkisini içeren deneysel makaleler başlık, özet, kaynak ve ardından tam metin makale düzeyinde uygunluk kriterlerine göre incelenerek probleme çözüm aranmıştır. Bu araştırmanın sonucunda, genel olarak statik germenin kuvveti olumsuz yönde etkilediği, dinamik germe egzersizlerinin ise ilgili performansa bir etkisinin olmadığı sonucuna varılmıştır. PNF germenin kuvvete etkisi için üç çalışma değerlendirilmiştir. Örneklem sayısı yetersiz kaldığından dolayı net bir kanıya varılamamıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Spor, Esneklik, Germe, Statik, Dinamik, PNF, Kuvvet, Performans. THE RELATIONSHIP OF FLEXIBILITY PERFORMANCE WITH STRENGTH ABSTRACT Adequate levels of strength and flexibility are important for the development and maintenance of safe and effective sports participation, as well as health and functional autonomy. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between flexibility performance and the force parameter, one of the basic motor properties. In the method of the research, sports, flexibility, stretching, static, dynamic, PNF, strength and performance keywords were searched in Google Scholar, Gazi University e-library, Medline, ProQuest and PubMed databases between 2010-2020 in both Turkish and English. Experimental articles containing the effect of flexibility on force performance were examined according to the eligibility criteria at the title, abstract, source and then the full text article level, and a solution to the problem was sought. As a result of this study, it was concluded that static stretching affects the strength negatively in general, while dynamic stretching exercises have no effect on the relevant performance. Three studies were evaluated for the effect of PNF stretching on the force. A clear conclusion could not be reached due to the insufficient sample size. Keywords: Sport, Flexibility, Stretching, Static, Dynamic, PNF, Strength, Performance.
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Warren B. Young, PhDUniversity of BallaratBallarat, Victoria, AustraliaDavid G. Behm, PhDMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’s, Newfoundland, CanadaKeywords: warm-up; static stretching; strength and power.WARM-UP BEFORE PHYSICALactivity is a universally acceptedpractice with the objective ofpreparing the athlete physicallyand mentally for optimum perfor-mance and is believed to reducethe risk of injury and enhanceperformance (15, 25). Warm-upstypically contain 3 components:• A relatively low-intensity aero-bic component that is generalin nature such as submaxi-mum running. The rationalegiven for this is that it increas-es core and muscle tempera-ture, which improves neuro-muscular function (15, 22, 28).• Some stretching of the specificmuscles involved in the subse-quent activity. Some athletesmay spend 30 minutes orlonger systematically stretch-ing each muscle group. Thereare many variations of stretch-ing protocols such as proprio-ceptive neuromuscular facili-tation (PNF), static, anddynamic methods. Thesemethods are outlined thor-oughly in texts such as Alter(1) and Norris (22) and will notbe discussed in detail in thisstudy. Although the optimummethod for increasing flexibili-ty over a relatively long timemay be debatable, passive stat-ic stretching remains a popu-lar method used in a pre-exer-cise or precompetition warm-up routine. This usually in-volves moving a limb to the endof its range of motion (ROM)and holding it in the stretchedposition for 15–60 seconds(22). The objective of stretchingin a warm-up is usually toachieve a short-term increasein the ROM at a joint (8, 15,22) or to induce muscle relax-ation and therefore decreasethe stiffness of the muscle-ten-don system (7, 22).• Rehearsal of the skill about tobe performed. This is usuallyperformed at gradually in-creasing intensities, culminat-ing in some efforts that areequal to or greater than theexpected competition intensi-ty. This type of warm-upserves to activate or recruit thespecific muscle fibers andneural pathways required toachieve optimum neuromus-cular performance (15).Although the need for a warm-up before maximum effortstrength and power exercise israrely questioned, the precise pro-tocol leading to optimum perfor-mance is not well established. Thepurpose of this article is to discusswarm-up and, in particular, to re-view recent research that ques-tions the traditional use of staticstretching in a warm-up beforestrength and power activities. Forthe purpose of this discussion,strength is defined as the maxi-mum force produced in a staticmaximum voluntary contraction,relatively slow isokinetic contrac-tion, or the maximum weight lift-ed in a 1 repetition maximum test.Power activities are considered tobe any movements requiring sig-nificant amounts of both force andspeed, such as a vertical jump.
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This study aimed to examine the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players after 3 days of static stretching. Twenty soccer players (age: 16.8 ± 0.4 years) participated in 2 series of experiments with within-subject repeated-measure design (control series [CON]: 13-minute aerobic warm-up; and static-stretching series [SS]: 10-minute aerobic warm-up and 3-minute static stretching). Each series consisted of 5 days, and RSA (9 × 30 m separated by 25-second passive recovery) was tested on days 1 and 5. Static stretching was performed for 3 consecutive days from days 2-4, before and after intermittent aerobic endurance exercise on each day. The same warm-up protocol was used before and after all RSA tests and exercises within 1 series. No significant difference between CON and SS was observed (p > 0.05) in RSA for overall (all sprints), early phase (first to third sprints), middle phase (fourth to sixth sprints), and final phase (seventh to ninth sprints). Short-term static stretching had trivial effects (Cohen's d < 0.35) on overall and split RSA phases (early, middle, and final). The present study showed that performing static stretching for 3 consecutive days and before repeated-sprint test did not negatively affect RSA. However, it is premature to recommend that static stretching could be included in in-season daily warm-up routine because some movements such as jump and single sprint were more sensitive to static stretching.
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Recently, athletes have transitioned from traditional static stretching during warmups to incorporating dynamic stretching routines. However, the optimal volume of dynamic drills is yet to be identified. The aim of this repeated-measures study was to examine varying volumes (1, 2, and 3 sets) of active dynamic stretching (ADS) in a warm-up on 10- and 20-m sprint performance. With a withinsubject design, 16 highly trained male participants (age: 20.9 ± 1.3 years; height: 179.7 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 72.7 ± 7.9 kg; % body fat: 10.9 ± 2.4) completed a 5-minute general running warm-up before performing 3 preintervention measures of 10-to 20-m sprint. The interventions included 1, 2, and 3 sets of active dynamic stretches of the lower-body musculature (gastrocnemius, gluteals, hamstrings, quadriceps, and hip flexors) performed approximately 14 times for each exercise while walking (ADS1, ADS2, and ADS3). The active dynamic warm-ups were randomly allocated before performing a sprintspecific warm-up. Five minutes separated the end of the warmup and the 3 postintervention measures of 10- to 20-m sprints. There were no significant time, condition, and interaction effects over the 10-m sprint time. For the 0- to 20-m sprint time, a significant main effect for the pre-post measurement (F = 10.81; p , 0.002), the dynamic stretching condition (F = 6.23; p = 0.004) and an interaction effect (F = 41.19; p = 0.0001) were observed. A significant decrease in sprint time (improvement in sprint performance) post-ADS1 (2.56%, p = 0.001) and post-ADS2 (2.61%, p = 0.001) was observed. Conversely, the results indicated a significant increase in sprint time (sprint performance impairment) post-ADS3 condition (2.58%, p = 0.001). Data indicate that performing 1-2 sets of 20 m of active dynamic stretches in a warm-up can enhance 20-m sprint performance. The results delineated that 3 sets of ADS repetitions could induce acute fatigue and impair sprint performance within 5 minutes of the warm-up.
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The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation.
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An objective of a warm-up prior to an athletic event is to optimize performance. Warm-ups are typically composed of a submaximal aerobic activity, stretching and a sport-specific activity. The stretching portion traditionally incorporated static stretching. However, there are a myriad of studies demonstrating static stretch-induced performance impairments. More recently, there are a substantial number of articles with no detrimental effects associated with prior static stretching. The lack of impairment may be related to a number of factors. These include static stretching that is of short duration (<90 s total) with a stretch intensity less than the point of discomfort. Other factors include the type of performance test measured and implemented on an elite athletic or trained middle aged population. Static stretching may actually provide benefits in some cases such as slower velocity eccentric contractions, and contractions of a more prolonged duration or stretch-shortening cycle. Dynamic stretching has been shown to either have no effect or may augment subsequent performance, especially if the duration of the dynamic stretching is prolonged. Static stretching used in a separate training session can provide health related range of motion benefits. Generally, a warm-up to minimize impairments and enhance performance should be composed of a submaximal intensity aerobic activity followed by large amplitude dynamic stretching and then completed with sport-specific dynamic activities. Sports that necessitate a high degree of static flexibility should use short duration static stretches with lower intensity stretches in a trained population to minimize the possibilities of impairments.
This paper presents a simple and widely ap- plicable multiple test procedure of the sequentially rejective type, i.e. hypotheses are rejected one at a tine until no further rejections can be done. It is shown that the test has a prescribed level of significance protection against error of the first kind for any combination of true hypotheses. The power properties of the test and a number of possible applications are also discussed.