Cell Cycle-Dependent Effects of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer Cells

Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 04/2009; 219(1):94-9. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21650
Source: PubMed


Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we have reported that a formulated DIM (B-DIM) induced apoptosis and inhibited growth, angiogenesis, and invasion of prostate cancer cells by regulating Akt, NF-kappaB, VEGF and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s) by which B-DIM inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Most importantly, it is not known how B-DIM affects cell cycle regulators and proteasome activity, which are critically involved in cell growth and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B-DIM on proteasome activity and AR transactivation with respect to B-DIM-mediated cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells. We believe that our results show for the first time the cell cycle-dependent effects of B-DIM on proliferation and apoptosis of synchronized prostate cancer cells progressing from G(1) to S phase. B-DIM inhibited this progression by induction of p27(Kip1) and down-regulation of AR. We also show for the first time that B-DIM inhibits proteasome activity in S phase, leading to the inactivation of NF-kappaB signaling and induction of apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2B cells. These results suggest that B-DIM could be a potent agent for the prevention and/or treatment of both hormone sensitive as well as hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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    • "Importantly, the dose of DIM that was necessary to achieve HDAC inhibition in androgen-dependent cells is approaching concentrations that have been estimated to be achievable through consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as 200 grams of broccoli (Chang et al., 2006). There are several reasons why androgen-dependent cells are likely more sensitive than androgen-independent cells, one of which relates to the ability of DIM to regulate the androgen receptor (AR) pathway (Li et al., 2007; Chinnakannu et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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    • "In the acidic environment of the stomach, I3C is susceptible to oligomerization and converted into a number of condensation products, including a dimeric product, 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), its major active metabolite [10]. DIM has shown inhibitory effects on the growth of a variety of cancer cells, including breast, prostate, thyroid, lung, and cervical cancers, with negligible levels of toxicity [11]–[15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 3,3'Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural phytochemical, has shown inhibitory effects on the growth and migration of a variety of cancer cells; however, whether DIM has similar effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of DIM on the proliferation and migration of cultured VSMCs and neointima formation in a carotid injury model, as well as the related cell signaling mechanisms. DIM dose-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs without cell cytotoxicity. This inhibition was caused by a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. We also showed that DIM-induced growth inhibition was associated with the inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 as well as an increase in p27(Kip1) levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, DIM was also found to modulate migration of VSMCs and smooth muscle-specific contractile marker expression. Mechanistically, DIM negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-recptorβ (PDGF-Rβ) and the activities of downstream signaling molecules including Akt/glycogen synthase kinase(GSK)3β, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Our in vivo studies using a mouse carotid arterial injury model revealed that treatment with 150 mg/kg DIM resulted in significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, without affecting apoptosis of vascular cells and reendothelialization. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was also inhibited by DIM administration. These results demonstrate that DIM can suppress the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. These beneficial effects on VSMCs were at least partly mediated by the inhibition of PDGF-Rβ and the activities of downstream signaling pathways. The results suggest that DIM has the potential to be a candidate for the prevention of restenosis.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical management of pancreatic cancer is a major problem, which is in part due to both de novo and acquired resistance to conventional therapeutics. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo preclinical evidence in support of chemosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells by 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural compound that can be easily obtained by consuming cruciferous vegetables. DIM pretreatment of pancreatic cancer cells led to a significantly increased apoptosis (P < 0.01) with suboptimal concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin) compared with monotherapy. It is known that resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer is associated with constitutively activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which becomes further activated by chemotherapeutic drugs. Our data provide mechanistic evidence for the first time showing that DIM potentiates the killing of pancreatic cancer cells by down-regulation of constitutive as well as drug-induced activation of NF-kappaB and its downstream genes (Bcl-xL, XIAP, cIAP, and survivin). Most importantly, using an orthotopic animal model, we found reduction in tumor size (P < 0.001) when DIM was given in combination with oxaliplatin compared with monotherapy. This was accompanied by loss of phospho-p65 and down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity and its downstream genes (Bcl-xL, survivin, and XIAP), which correlated with reduced cell proliferation (as assessed by Ki-67 immunostaining of tumor specimens) and evidence of apoptosis [as assessed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining]. These results provide strong in vivo evidence in support of our hypothesis that DIM could abrogate chemotherapeutic drug (cisplatin, gemcitabine, and/or oxaliplatin)-induced activation of NF-kappaB, resulting in the chemosensitization of pancreatic tumors to conventional therapeutics.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Cancer Research
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