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Social motivations to use gamification: An empirical study of gamifying exercise

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This paper investigates how social factors predict attitude towards gamification and intention to continue using gamified services, as well as intention to recommend gamified services to others. The paper employs structural equation modelling for analyses of data (n=107) gathered through a survey that was conducted among users of one of the world's largest gamification applications for physical exercise called Fitocracy. The results indicate that social factors are strong predictors for attitudes and use intentions towards gamified services.
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SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS TO USE GAMIFICATION: AN
EMPIRICAL STUDY OF GAMIFYING EXERCISE
Hamari, Juho, University of Tampere, School of Information Sciences, 33014 University of
Tampere, Finland / Aalto School of Business, Department of Information and Service
Economy, P.O. Box 21220, 00076 Aalto, Finland, juho.hamari@uta.fi
Koivisto, Jonna, University of Tampere, School of Information Sciences, 33014 University of
Tampere, Finland, jonna.koivisto@uta.fi
Abstract
This paper investigates how social factors predict attitude towards gamification and intention to
continue using gamified services, as well as intention to recommend gamified services to others. The
paper employs structural equation modelling for analyses of data (n=107) gathered through a survey
that was conducted among users of one of the world’s largest gamification applications for physical
exercise called Fitocracy. The results indicate that social factors are strong predictors for attitudes
and use intentions towards gamified services.
Keywords: Gamification, Persuasive Technology, Social Networking Service, Facebook, Social
Influence, Fitocracy, Recognition, Word-of-Mouth, Network Exposure, Reciprocity, Exergames.
Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems
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1 Introduction
In the last couple of years, gamification (Hamari and Lehdonvirta, 2010; Deterding et al. 2011;
Huotari and Hamari, 2012) and persuasive technologies (Fogg, 2003; Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa,
2009) have been strongly harnessed for purposes of marketing, attitude change, and motivational pull.
Gartner (2011) predicts that by 2015 a full 50% of organisations will have gamified their processes.
Especially, social networking services (SNSs) and (social) games have been two parallel precursors to
gamification. Social networking services such as Facebook, Google+, Twitter, and MySpace provide
motivational affordances addressing needs for social interaction (Boyd and Ellison, 2007; Ellison et
al., 2007). Concurrently, games such as Angry Birds and World of Warcraft have shown how games
are powerful providers of persuasive service design (Hamari and Järvinen, 2011) which invoke
cognitive intrinsic motivations, such as feelings of mastery.
There are several examples where these developments come together in form of services that are
specifically focused on gamifying specific activities, such as listening to music (Last.fm - a gamified
music tracking service), watching TV (GetGlue - a gamified television watching service) or exercising
(Fitocracy - a gamified exercise tracking service). In essence, these gamification services provide
game-like features that enable, for example, goal-setting by providing objectives, rewards, tracking,
and monitoring the given activities (Hamari, 2013). Furthermore, essential to typical gamification
services are the social aspects: people collect badges, rise in high-score lists and collect points for
social reasons, such as receiving recognition.
In this paper, we investigate how these social factors related to network effects, social influence,
recognition, and reciprocal benefits can predict attitude toward gamification, intentions to continue
using it, and intentions to recommend it to others. The data was gathered via an online survey in one
of the world’s largest exercise-related gamification services called Fitocracy, which features gamified
elements such as points, levels, and achievements (see Hamari and Eranti, 2011 on achievements)
combined with a community of users who can ‘like’ and comment the exercise reports and other
activities. The aim of the service is to encourage and persuade (Fogg, 2003) toward healthy exercise
habits.
2 Gamification, persuasion, and related concepts
Gamification refers to service design aimed at providing game-like experiences to users, commonly
with the end-goal of affecting user behaviour (Huotari and Hamari, 2012). Gamification differs from
other, parallel developments in a few key ways: 1) Gamification commonly attempts to afford
experiences reminiscent of games (e.g. flow, mastery and autonomy), rather than offering direct
hedonic experiences by means of e.g. audiovisual content or economic incentives as seen in loyalty
marketing (Huotari and Hamari, 2011; Huotari and Hamari, 2012). 2) Gamification attempts to affect
motivations rather than attitude and/or behaviour directly, as is the case in persuasive technologies
(Fogg, 2003; Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa, 2009; Hamari 2013). 3) Gamification refers to adding
‘gamefulness’ to existing systems rather than building an entirely new game as is done with ‘serious
games’ (Deterding, 2011; Huotari and Hamari, 2012).
Persuasive technologies, on the other hand, refer to interactive computer systems designed to change
the attitude and/or behaviour of the user (Fogg, 2003; Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa, 2009). Clearly
there is some overlap between gamification and persuasive technology. For instance, some persuasion
mechanisms can be regarded as similar to those applied in gamification, such as feedback and rewards
(see e.g. Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa, 2008).
Overall, most gamification services, games, social networking services and persuasive systems include
affordances for both social as well as gameful interaction. Social and game dimensions could be
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considered complementary in persuasive design. Therefore, it is essential to also study the social
factors in gamification along with goals and rewards (Hamari, 2013).
Depending on how we conceptualise different approaches in persuasive design, gamification could be
seen as an overarching concept in the sense that it can be utilised in several domains or as a particular
kind of persuasive design within other approaches (see Table 1, below).
Concept
Definition
Goal
Gamification
‘A process of enhancing a service with (motivational)
affordances for gameful experiences in order to
support the user’s overall value creation’ — Huotari
and Hamari (2012).
to support the user’s overall value
creation by providing gameful
experiences (see goal of games)
Games1
Free, no material interest, voluntary, uncertain,
governed by rules, interesting choices, mastery, flow
Huizinga (1955), Caillois (1958), Avedon and
Sutton-Smith (1971)
to create experiences such as flow,
intrinsic motivation, achievement and
mastery
Loyalty
programme
‘Marketing efforts which reward, and therefore,
encourage loyal customer behaviour in order to
increase the profitability of stable customer
relationships’ — Sharp and Sharp (1997)
to increase customer loyalty
Persuasive
technology
Interactive information technology designed for
changing users’ attitudes or behaviour — Fogg (2003),
Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa (2009)
to change attitudes and behaviours
Choice
architecture
To nudge people towards the right choices [to make
their lives better]’ — Sunstein and Thaler (2008)
to help people make better decisions
Decision support
systems
‘A computer based system to aid decision-making [for
running organisations more efficiently]’ — Sol et al.
(1987)
to make decision-making activity
more effective
Table 1. Comparison between parallel concepts related to changing attitude and behaviour.
3 Theoretical background
The core of the research model draws from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) and
extends the TPB with factors related to network effects (Lin and Bhattacherjee, 2008), recognition
(Hernandez et al., 2011; Hsu and Lin, 2008; Lin and Bhattacherjee, 2010; Lin, 2008), and perceived
reciprocal benefits (Hsu and Lin, 2008; Lin, 2008), which we hypothesise to be relevant social factors
predicting attitudes and use behaviour in a gamification service (Figure 1). The TPB is a model widely
applied to explain behavioural intentions by measuring the attitude toward the behaviour and social
influence (Ajzen, 1991); therefore, it is highly applicable for measuring attitudes in a persuasive
environment, as the goals of persuasion and gamification are in the end related to attitude and
behaviour change.
3.1 Social influence
Social influence refers to an individual’s perception of how important others regard the target
behaviour and whether they expect one to perform that behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein and Ajzen,
1975). In the context of this study, the target behaviour is the use of gamification to motivate oneself
(to exercise). Social influence is then likely to reflect the user's perceptions of how other users
1
Games are included in order to show the relationship between games and gamification.
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perceive the use of the service. By receiving recognition in the forms of 'likes' and comments, a user
receives feedback on how well he or she has conformed to those perceived expectations of other users.
In line with Bock et al. (2005), Lewis et al. (2003), and Venkatesh and Davis (2000), we propose that
the social influence, through the identification and internalisation processes relevant for group-
formation (Kelman, 1958), affects attitude to using the service. Therefore, we hypothesise that social
influence positively affects perceptions of recognition: the more strongly a person believes that others
expect and support certain behaviour, the better it feels to conform to those expectations. Furthermore,
when the relevant behaviour is supported and socially accepted, such social influence has a positive
effect on the attitude toward the service.
H1a: Social influence positively influences the perceived amount of recognition received.
H1b: Social influence positively influences the attitude toward the use of gamification.
3.2 Recognition
Recognition fundamentally describes the social feedback users receive on their behaviours: users
interacting with other users (Cheung et al., 2011; Lin, 2008). We propose that receiving recognition
creates willingness to recognise others reciprocally within a service, which further promotes social
interaction. In this manner, receiving recognition creates reciprocal behaviour (Cialdini et al., 1992;
Cialdini and Goldstein, 2004) and increases the perceived benefits received from the use of the
service. Furthermore, we hypothesise that the service is conceived more positively (Preece, 2001)
when it produces a sense of recognition from others, thus positively affecting the user’s attitude to
using the service.
H2a: Recognition positively influences perceived reciprocal benefit.
H2b: Recognition positively influences attitude toward the use of gamification.
3.3 Reciprocal benefit
Perceived reciprocal benefit can be viewed as a form of social usefulness of the service i.e.,
contributing and, in turn, receiving benefit from the social community (Preece, 2001; Lin, 2008). The
reciprocity, receiving and contributing in a manner considered beneficial by the community, is likely
to be of fundamental importance in encouraging users to carry out activities encouraged by the
gamification system. Therefore, we hypothesise that reciprocal benefit positively influences the
attitude toward the system’s use:
H3: Perceived reciprocal benefit positively influences the attitude toward the use of gamification.
3.4 Network exposure
According to the theory of network externalities, the network effects (i.e., the value from the network)
arise when the benefits from using the service depend on the number of other users (Katz and Shapiro,
1985; Lin and Bhattacherjee, 2008). The number of peers has been viewed as essential for SNSs, since
they become more attractive to users as the quantity of peers or friends in the system increases (Baker
and White, 2010; Sledgianowski and Kulviwat, 2009; Lin and Lu, 2011). Lin and Lu (2011) found the
number of peers to be the second most influential factor in continuing use of an SNS.
However, instead of the network exposure affecting attitude directly, we hypothesise that the effect of
network exposure is mediated by the other social factors. We propose that social influence,
recognition, and reciprocal benefit mediate the effects of network exposure on the attitude toward use
of the system, as attitude is likely to be dependent on the social input and the activity taking place in
the network. Therefore, we hypothesise the following:
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H4a: Network exposure positively influences perceived social influence.
H4b: Network exposure positively influences perceived recognition.
H4c: Network exposure positively influences perceived reciprocal benefit.
3.5 Attitude and intentions
In this study, attitude toward system use refers to the overall evaluation of the system’s usage, be it
favourable or unfavourable (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen, 1991). A strong relationship between
attitude and use intentions has been shown in several studies (see, for example, Lin and Bhattacherjee,
2010; Bock et al., 2005; and Baker and White, 2010).
Word-of-mouth (WOM) refers to a person’s willingness to recommend a service to others. In the
context of continued use intention (Bhattacherjee, 2001), it reflects the user’s satisfaction with the
service in question and his or her trust that the service will continue fulfilling his or her expectations
(Kim and Son, 2009; Srinivasan et al., 2002). Therefore, we hypothesise the following:
H5: Attitude positively influences continued use intention.
H6: Attitude positively influences intentions to recommend the service (i.e., WOM).
Figure 1. The research model.
4 The empirical study
4.1 Data
The data was gathered via an online questionnaire from the users of a service called Fitocracy that
gamifies exercise:
[Exercise] activities earn you points. Points lead to level ups. Earn badges for significant
achievements. The community will reward your hard work with props.” Fitocracy (2013).
Fitocracys persuasive design can be seen to consist mainly of motivational affordances corresponding
to achievement and competence as well as social influence and relatedness (see Zhang, 2008 on
motivational affordances). The service incorporates gamification in the form of offering an
Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems
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opportunity to track one’s exercise and, on the basis of a point value allocated to a given exercise,
enables gaining points, level-ups, and achievements for one’s actions. Users can also complete quests
by performing and tracking an exercise corresponding to a given set of conditions or challenge other
users into duels. Furthermore, other users can give feedback on achievements, level-ups and statuses
by liking or commenting the updates. The service holds similarities with SNSs in that it creates a
venue for social activity such as group-forming and communication, incorporates profile-building and
the possibility of sharing content (Lin and Lu, 2011; Baker and White, 2010; Boyd and Ellison, 2007;
Ellison et al., 2007; Pfeil et al., 2009).
The survey was conducted by posting a description of the study and the survey link to the discussion
forum and groups within the service. The survey was accessible only for users of the service. The
questionnaire was launched on 17 October, and all 107 responses were gathered within the next three
weeks. All respondents were entered in a prize draw for one $50 Amazon gift certificate.
N
%
Age
N
%
Gender
N
%
12
11,2
20 or less
6
5,6
Female
54
50,5
20
18,7
21-25
37
34,6
Male
53
49,5
18
16,8
26-30
31
29,0
16
15,0
31-35
15
14,0
16
15,0
36-40
14
13,1
23
21,5
41 or more
4
3,7
2
1,8
107
100
107
100
107
100
Table 2. Time using the service, age and gender information of the respondent data.
4.2 Validity and reliability
All of the model-testing was conducted via component-based PLS-SEM in SmartPLS 2.0 M3 (Ringle
et al., 2005). The key advantage of the component-based PLS (PLS-SEM) estimation, when compared
to co-variance-based structural equation methods (CB-SEM), is that it is non-parametric and therefore
makes no restrictive assumptions about the distributions of the data. Secondly, PLS-SEM is
considered to be a more suitable method for prediction-oriented studies, while co-variance-based SEM
is better suited to testing which models best fit the data (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988; Chin et al.,
2003).
Convergent validity (see Table 3) was assessed with three metrics: average variance extracted (AVE),
composite reliability (CR), and Cronbach’s alpha (Alpha). All of the convergent validity metrics were
clearly greater than the threshold cited in relevant literature (AVE should be greater than 0.5, CR
greater than 0.7 (Fornell and Larcker, 1981), and Cronbach’s alpha above 0.8 (Nunnally, 1978)). Only
well-established measurement items were used (see Appendix), all with a loading over 0.7. No
indicators were omitted. Furthermore, there were no missing data; therefore, no imputation methods
were used. We can conclude that the convergent validity and reliability requirements are met.
Discriminant validity was assessed first through comparison of the square root of the AVE of each
construct to all of the correlation between it and other constructs (see Fornell and Larcker, 1981),
where all of the square root of the AVEs should be greater than any of the correlations between the
corresponding construct and another construct (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1996; Chin, 1998). Secondly, in
accordance with the work of Pavlou et al. (2007), we determined that no inter-correlation between
constructs was higher than 0.9. Thirdly, we assessed discriminant validity by confirming that all items
had the highest loading with its corresponding construct. All three tests indicate that the discriminant
validity and reliability are acceptable.
Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems
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AVE
CR
Alpha
ATT
CUI
NE
RECIP
RECOG
SOCINF
WOM
ATT
0.773
0.932
0.902
0.879
CUI
0.738
0.919
0.883
0.671
0.859
NE
0.867
0.963
0.949
0.394
0.328
0.931
RECIP
0.710
0.907
0.864
0.645
0.505
0.442
0.843
RECOG
0.810
0.945
0.922
0.561
0.401
0.517
0.657
0.900
SOCINF
0.696
0.901
0.854
0.638
0.448
0.367
0.503
0.423
0.834
WOM
0.721
0.912
0.871
0.773
0.613
0.468
0.660
0.728
0.641
0.849
ATT = attitude, CUI = continued use intentions, NE = network exposure, RECIP = reciprocal benefits, RECOG =
recognition, SOCINF = social influence, WOM = word-of-mouth intention. The figures on the diagonal
correspond to square roots of the average variance extracted for the corresponding construct.
Table 3. Convergent and discriminant validity.
4.3 Results
The research model (Figure 2) could account for 59.8% of the continued use intention for the
gamification service as well as 45.1% of intention to recommend the service to other people.
Furthermore, the social factors accounted for 56.5% of the variance of attitudes toward the use of a
gamified service. In addition, the model also accounted for 13.4% of the variance in social influence,
33% of recognition, and finally 44.6% of the variance of perceived reciprocal benefit.
Overall, the results (Figure 2) support all of the hypotheses except for hypothesis 2b. Network
exposure positively influences all three social persuasion-related constructs (H4ac). In the previous
section of the paper we also hypothesised that network exposure would not have a direct effect on
attitude but instead it would be mediated by other social factors. Indeed the coefficient between
network exposure and attitude was only 0.017 (p > 0.1), whereas the total effect via other social
factors was 0.394 (p < 0.01). Social influence positively influences attitude directly (H1b) and also the
perceived degree of recognition users receive (H1a). Our results indicate that recognition does not
have a significant direct effect on attitude (H2b); however, it has a positive influence on the perceived
reciprocal benefits gained from the use of the service (H2a). Perceived reciprocal benefits were found
to be a strong predictor for attitude toward the service (H3). Attitude was found to be a strong
predictor of both intentions measured: intent to continue using the service (H5) and intentions to
recommend the service to other people (H6).
Figure 2. Path model results.
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5 Discussion
In this paper, we investigated how social motivations predict attitude towards the use of gamification,
and intentions to continue using a gamified service. The results indicate that social factors are strong
predictors for how gamification is perceived and whether the user intends to continue using the service
and/or recommending it to others. Additionally, these relationships were further positively influenced
by the degree to which users are exposed to other users in the service.
The results also indicate that the amount of recognition users receive might not directly affect their
attitudes toward gamification to a significant degree. However, recognition did have an indirect effect
on attitude, through the concomitant increase in perceived reciprocal benefits. This could be due to
that simply receiving recognition e.g., in the form of ‘likes’ might not improve how the service is
perceived unless, at the same time, the user feels that receiving and giving recognition increased the
benefits from using the service. This would further explain the indirect effect on attitude from the
perceived reciprocity through beneficial experience created by the service.
Understandably, the larger the network, the more it is possible to receive recognition, get exposed to
more social influence, and receive more reciprocal benefits from its use. However, the results show a
relatively weak direct relationship between network exposure and reciprocal benefits. This could
imply that the size of the network might not have so much intrinsic value with regard to reciprocal
benefits directly. Instead, one could posit that the influence stems from the quality of the connection
with other people and/or the frequency and nature of the interaction. Further inferences about this
relationship, however, are beyond the scope of this study and remain possible avenues for future
enquiry.
The results indicate that attitude toward a gamification service is a strong determinant of one’s
intentions to continue using the service as well as of intentions to recommend the service to others.
Thus the study further confirms the role of attitudes in explaining behavioural intentions (Ajzen,
1991).
5.1 Implications for the design of gamification and persuasive systems
From a design perspective, the findings have several implications. In the context of gamification and
persuasive design, it is essential to take into account also the importance of having a community of
people who are committed to the same goals. The importance of the network is apparent in creating a
service with active and participating usage culture: the social norms and attitudes spread and are
supported through the network. The network of other users and followers creates chances for
meaningful interaction and further allows reciprocal activity and increases perceived benefits from the
service. The findings show that enabling users to get exposed to attitudes of others and also to receive
feedback directly from other users can positively influence the attitude towards using a gamification
service. Further, social interaction via sharing and being exposed to activities of other users is likely to
promote goal commitment towards challenges in the service (Locke and Latham, 1990). Commitment
towards goals is likely to be an important antecedent for successful gamification and persuasive
design. The social activity of sharing and getting recognized from completing challenges will, firstly,
diffuse the norms towards challenges in the community and secondly strengthen commitment towards
them. In practice, the findings indicate that gamification should be imbued with mechanisms that
afford social interaction in order to enhance social influence and the perception of reciprocal benefits.
Thus we propose that similarly to many contemporary games, social elements are essential for creating
engaging gamification services.
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5.2 Further research directions
The study points to several potential avenues for further research. Firstly, further studies could analyse
the moderating effects of demographic variables on the effectiveness of social factors in motivating
the use of such services. Secondly, in addition to comparing demographic variables, future work could
consider differences related to, for example, how people perceive gamification, by measuring whether
different gaming motivations differ with regards to adopting gamified services (Yee, 2007; Tuunanen
and Hamari, 2012). Thirdly, this paper has explored only social motivations for using gamification (in
the context of exercise); further studies could investigate hedonistic (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1982;
van der Heijden, 2004; Webster and Martocchio, 1992) and utilitarian motivations (e.g., Davis, 1989)
for gamifying activities. Fourthly, further studies could also measure the attitudes toward the gamified
activities as well as intentions to partake in those activities.
Acknowledgements
This study was supported by Finnish Cultural Foundation.
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Appendix
Indicator
Survey item
Loading
Construct source
ATT1
All things considered, I find using Fitocracy to be a wise thing to do.
0.816
Ajzen (1991)
ATT2
All things considered, I find using Fitocracy to be a good idea.
0.925
ATT3
All things considered, I find using Fitocracy to be a positive thing.
0.888
ATT4
All things considered, I find using Fitocracy to be favorable.
0.884
CUI1
I predict that I will keep using Fitocracy in the future at least as much as
I have used it lately.
0.869
Venkatesh and Davis
(2000)
CUI2
I intend to use Fitocracy at least as often within the next three months as
I have previously used.
0.877
CUI3
I predict that I will use Fitocracy more frequently rather than less
frequently
0.843
CUI4
It is likely that I will use Fitocracy more often rather than less often
during the next couple months.
0.848
NE1
I have a lot of friends on Fitocracy who follow my activities.
0.915
Lin and Bhattacherjee
(2008)
NE2
Many people follow my activities on Fitocracy.
0.956
NE3
I follow many people on Fitocracy.
0.919
NE4
I have many friends in Fitocracy.
0.935
RECIP1
I find that participating in the Fitocracy community can be mutually
helpful.
0.849
Hsu and Lin (2008),
Lin (2008)
RECIP2
I find my participation in the Fitocracy community can be advantageous
to me and other people.
0.882
RECIP3
I think that participating in the Fitocracy community improves my
motivation to exercise.
0.773
RECIP4
The Fitocracy community encourages me to exercise.
0.864
RECOG1
I feel good when my achievements in Fitocracy are noticed.
0.890
Hernandez et al.
(2011), Hsu and Lin
(2008), Lin and
Bhattacherjee (2010),
Lin (2008)
RECOG2
I like it when other Fitocracy users comment and like my exercise.
0.894
RECOG3
I like it when my Fitocracy peers notice my exercise reports.
0.940
RECOG4
It feels good to notice that other user has browsed my Fitocracy feed.
0.875
SOCINF1
People who influence my attitudes would recommend Fitocracy.
0.773
Ajzen (1991)
SOCINF2
People who are important to me would think positively of me using
Fitocracy.
0.877
SOCINF3
People who I appreciate would encourage me to use Fitocracy.
0.874
SOCINF4
My friends would think using Fitocracy is a good idea.
0.808
WOM1
I would recommend Fitocracy to my friends.
0.773
Kim and Son (2009)
WOM2
I will recommend Fitocracy to anyone who seeks my advice.
0.908
WOM3
I will refer my acquaintances to Fitocracy.
0.780
WOM4
I will say positive things about Fitocracy to other people.
0.877
Appendix A. Survey items.
Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems
12
... This definition is more restrictive than the previous one but has many similarities with the various definitions of game and game elements, which will be discussed throughout this chapter. The main goal of gamification is to "support overall user value creation by providing game-like experiences" (Hamari & Koivisto, 2013). From a broader perspective, gamification has some similarities to more traditional marketing tools, such as customer loyalty cards, leading companies to increasingly view their marketing as games (Hamari & Eranti, 2011). ...
... Gamified applications use only certain appropriate elements of games (Groh, 2012), while "serious games" are games. Overlapping with gamification in terms of mechanisms used, another closely related topic is that of persuasive technologies, although these aim to change users' attitudes and behavior (Hamari & Koivisto, 2013). A term closely related to gamification is "games with a purpose," or GWAP (Games with a Porpuse). ...
Chapter
With the evolution of technology and all the associated paradigms, the business reality had the need to adapt and incorporate all this evolution. Gamification strategies in social networks are used to optimize the use and involvement of users. Thus, in a business context, these strategies are used to increase user engagement in the company/brand's social networks with the aim of increasing and strengthening trust. This chapter's main objectives are to understand if internet users and social media users know the term gamification and if the associated strategies are perceptible in the social media context. Therefore, to better analyze the users' behavior regarding these strategies and their knowledge about gamification, an online survey was developed and applied. After the survey, it was possible to conclude that 16.3% of the respondents already knew the term gamification. Through the survey it was also possible to conclude that most respondents had already been in contact with gamification strategies, even if 90.6% did not adhere to them frequently.
... Az igen széles spektrumban fellelhető és rendkívül sok megközelítéssel rendelkező magyar és angol nyelvű diskurzusban azonban elveszve éreztem magam, mint tanárjelölt, ugyanis a gamifikációval kapcsolatos tudományos és gyakorlati diskurzus sem tekinthető lezártnak, épp ellenkezőleg: megjelenésétől kezdve egyre növekszik a gamifikációval foglakozó tudományos kutatások száma (pl. Barbarics, 2018;Barbarics et al., 2019;Cerasoli et al., 2014;Damsa & Putz, 2014;Flatla et al., 2011;Halan et al., 2010;Hamari & Koivisto, 2013;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Kapp, 2017;Kapp et al., 2015;Kapp & Boller, 2017;Koivisto et al., 2018;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Mekler et al., 2013Mekler et al., , 2017. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Prievara Tibor Tanárblog.hu-n közölt vezércikke a gamifikációval kapcsolatos felvetéseimre adott válaszként fogalmazódott meg, azonban számos pontatlanság és félreértés övezi az írást, amely jól kirajzolja a gamifikációval kapcsolatos nemzetközi és magyar diskurzusban megjelenő félreértéseket és kérdésköröket. Az alábbi válaszcikk ezek tisztázását célozza.
... Los videojuegos tan solo crean experiencias hedonistas por el medio audiovisual. (Hamari & Koivisto, 2013) Todo esto nos lleva a comprender o evidenciar que la gamificación es muy diferente a comparación de los juegos serios y al aprendizaje basado en juegos, ya que estamos brindando al estudiante una actividad de aprendizaje gamificada es decir, aplicando la lúdica para eliminar el aburrimiento de una clase magistral. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
En la actualidad vivimos en una sociedad que está en constantes cambios y esos cambios se generan a pasos agigantados, esta sociedad es conocida con el nombre de "sociedad del conocimiento" o también llamada "sociedad de la información", "sociedad en red", esto debido al uso masivo de los dispositivos móviles en todas las áreas productivas a tal punto que estos dispositivos han permeado a los diferentes tipos de organizaciones que existen y por ende, a cada uno de sus actores. Los dispositivos móviles no son solo para establecer comunicación, en la actualidad estos dispositivos están brindando experiencias a sus dueños como ningún otro dispositivo antes había brindado.
... Gamification is "the use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts" [12]. Gamification has been used in different areas like education [6], commerce [17], data gathering [16], e-health [2], and exercise [18]. A literature review by Hamari et al. [19] found that studies that used gamification for education/learning contexts had positive outcomes like increased motivation and engagement in the learning tasks. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We want to make web archiving entertaining so that it can be enjoyed like a spectator sport. To this end, we have been working on a proof of concept that involves gamification of the web archiving process and integrating video games and web archiving. Our vision for this proof of concept involves a web archiving live stream and a gaming live stream. We are creating web archiving live streams that make the web archiving process more transparent to viewers by live streaming the web archiving and replay sessions to video game live streaming platforms like Twitch, Facebook Gaming, and YouTube. We also want to live stream gameplay from games where the gameplay is influenced by web archiving and replay performance. So far we have created web archiving live streams that show the web archiving and replay sessions for two web archive crawlers and gaming live streams that show gameplay influenced by the web archiving performance from the web archiving live stream. We have also applied the gaming concept of speedruns, where a player attempts to complete a game as quickly as possible. This could make a web archiving live stream more entertaining, because we can have a competition between two crawlers to see which crawler is faster at archiving a set of URIs.
... It is suggested that rewards giving and badges upgrading gamification mechanisms are positively associated with perceived enjoyment and social interaction, which in turn strongly influence consumers' impulse buying [34]. On gamified online shopping platforms, economically relevant reward mechanisms can effectively promote social interaction among consumers [19]. Ruth's research suggested that financial rewards can motivate individuals to establish social communication relationships [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gamification has obtained increasing attention in a number of fields including management, marketing, education, and health care. In the tourism context, the users of online tourism services are fond of online application platforms that are enjoyable and interesting, where gamification can be applied. Besides, with the increasing types and amount of online tourism platforms, the user churn rate is very high. Therefore, it is crucial for online tourism platforms to keep the tourists from switching to other platforms and explore users’ motivations for using the platform. However, there are relatively few studies concerning the effects of the extrinsic motivation of gamification on users’ psychological needs for using online tourism platforms in detail. Based on self-determination theory and gamification literature, this research identifies four different types of extrinsic motivations and investigates their effects on users’ willingness to continue using gamified online travel platforms. Based on the questionnaire data, this research found that: 1) the four extrinsic motivations positively influence the satisfaction of consumers’ basic psychological needs, but have weaker impacts on competence needs; 2) the satisfaction of consumers’ three basic psychological needs is positively related to their intention to consistently use gamified travel platforms.
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Gamification (Fromann, 2017), as an alternative evaluation method, is gaining more and more attention in today’s Hungarian educational trends. The method coming from game development is an optional practice already used in international educational practices (Kapp, 2012; Sheldon, 2012), but it has a novel effect in Hungary. The misconceptions and conceptual confusion prevailing in pedagogical practice justify a closer examination of the concept of gamifi cation and its Hungarian pedagogical practice. The present study aims to clarify the concept, elements, and criteria of gamifi cation, thus helping to develop a more well-founded educational discourse on gamifi cation and its use for pedagogical purposes. This study provides an overview of the discourse of the concept of gamifi cation and its Hungarian aspects. The analysis of some gamification models implemented in Hungarian pedagogical practice based on the Bunchball model is investigated (Bunchball, 2010), with special regard to the system created by Tibor Prievara (Prievara, 2015). In addition, based on the works of pedagogical and psychological authors, it is intended to apply the narrative as a game mechanic element in Hungarian gamifi cation practice. The critical issues related to gamifi cation through the works of international and Hungarian authors are also presented in the study.
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Gamification (Fridrich, 2020, Deterding et al, 2011a; Deterding et al, 2011b) is one of the emerging systems for learning organization, assessment and motivation. However, in the absence of a commonly agreed definition and scientifically established criteria, its application in pedagogical practice is often ad hoc. To overcome this problem, our research is an integral part of the development of a complex gamification framework, which supports the pedagogical adaptation and application of gamification in Hungary and internationally by providing a clear set of criteria and definitions. As part of the grounding of the gamification model, the present study attempts to explore the possible interfaces between constructivism (Nahalka, 2002, 2013; von Glasersfeld, 1995), social constructivism (John-Steiner & Mahn, 1996; Palincsar, 1998; Vygotsky, 1978), the constructivist educational theory and gamification based on them. In our theoretical analysis, we will review the different approaches to constructivism and then, along the interpretative framework of gamification, we will explore the didactical and conceptual features that should be considered for integration in the subsequent development of a gamification framework.
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