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This study is about knowledge sharing behavior in dairy sector. Two-hundred middle managers (with professional qualifications) from five industrial units in Pakistan were selected for study. Fifty-seven managers participated in the study (29 percent of the sample). Research model and hypotheses were based on behavioral theories, i.e., TRA, TPB, and TAM. Data were collected through a questionnaire using Likert scale. Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation coefficients and structural equation model among different variables tested hypotheses of the research modal. The study proved that attitude, intention, and behavior had accepted mutual positive direct effects for knowledge sharing in dairy sector. Conversely, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control had non-significant values but weak positive direct effects toward knowledge sharing. Findings of this study are useful for better understanding about behavioral influences for knowledge sharing. Furthermore, it is of practical use for the organizational administration involved in knowledge management initiatives in geographical circumstances of Pakistan.
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Knowledge-sharing behavior in dairy sector of
Syed Rahmatullah Shah
University of the Punjab,
Khalid Mahmood Dr.
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan,
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Shah, Syed Rahmatullah and Mahmood, Khalid Dr., "Knowledge-sharing behavior in dairy sector of Pakistan" (2013). Library
Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Paper 917.
-sharing behavior in dairy sector of Pakistan
sharing behavior in dairy sector of Pakistansharing behavior in dairy sector of Pakistan
sharing behavior in dairy sector of Pakistan
Syed Rahmatullah Shah
Syed Rahmatullah ShahSyed Rahmatullah Shah
Syed Rahmatullah Shah
Librarian, Sohail Iftikhar Research Institute, Department of Special Education, University of the
Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Khalid Mahmood
Khalid MahmoodKhalid Mahmood
Khalid Mahmood
Professor, Library and Information Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
This study is about knowledge sharing behavior in dairy sector. Two-hundred middle
managers (with professional qualifications) from five industrial units in Pakistan were selected
for study. Fifty-seven managers participated in the study (29 percent of the sample). Research
model and hypotheses were based on behavioral theories, i.e., TRA, TPB, and TAM. Data were
collected through a questionnaire using Likert scale. Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation
coefficients and structural equation model among different variables tested hypotheses of the
research modal. The study proved that attitude, intention, and behavior had accepted mutual
positive direct effects for knowledge sharing in dairy sector. Conversely, subjective norms and
perceived behavioral control had non-significant values but weak positive direct effects toward
knowledge sharing. Findings of this study are useful for better understanding about behavioral
influences for knowledge sharing. Furthermore, it is of practical use for the organizational
administration involved in knowledge management initiatives in geographical circumstances of
Knowledge has become an accepted resource for organizational sustainability in present
age (Robinson, 2012). That’s why; knowledge management has been prioritized in all sectors.
Apex management considers knowledge management as a tool (Martensson, 2000), initiative /
system (Wong & Aspinwall, 2006), or as a business strategy (Drew, 1999) for organizational
goals of improved performance (Fugate, Stank, & Mentzer, 2009), competitive advantage
(Gupta & McDaniel, 2002), and innovation (Kamath, Rodrigues, & Desi, 2011). Existence of
embodied and embedded knowledge is an accepted reality but its flow, in the form of knowledge
sharing, changes the overall context (Decarolis & Deeds, 1999). Therefore, knowledge sharing
has been identified as the major segment of knowledge management. In broader perspective,
information and communication technologies (ICTs) facilitate knowledge sharing (Fei, 2011).
Despite all ICTs, individuals are chief actors for sharing knowledge and information (Elmholdt,
2004). It is one’s behavior that counts for knowledge sharing in an organization (Lam &
Lambermont-Ford, 2010).
Many researchers have gone through the various aspects of k-sharing and human
behavior. Hsu et al. (2007) proposed their social cognitive theory based model in their
quantitative study of 39 societies comprising nine types of virtual communities in different
sectors. Bock and Kim (2002) discussed organizational reward systems, Michailova and
Hutchings (2006) elaborated cultural influences, Hsu and Lin (2008), and Quigley et al. (2007)
explained motivation, and Chow and Chan (2008) illustrated trust, with special reference to
knowledge sharing behavior. Similarly, knowledge sharing in different sectors was focal point in
recent researches. Lawson et al. (2009) discussed industrial sector, Hooff and Huysman (2009)
concentrated on services sector, Rowley et al. (2012) brightened government sector, and many
others focused on knowledge sharing in some specific sector organization.
Some researchers discussed knowledge sharing behavior in Pakistan from different
angles (Ellahi & Mushtaq, 2011; Lodhi & Ahmad, 2010; Rehman, et al., 2011). Just a few
researches, in general, encircled knowledge sharing in industrial or corporate sector of Pakistan
(Bano, Rehman, & Khan, 2010). There is hardly any research on knowledge sharing behavior in
dairy industry, in general, and dairy sector of Pakistan, in particular.
Problem statement
Problem statementProblem statement
Problem statement
Main center of attention behind this research work is knowledge sharing behavior with
special reference to dairy sector in Pakistan. This study highlights and clarifies the role of
behavioral aspect in knowledge sharing in organizational settings of Pakistan. Similarly, this
research has examined knowledge sharing behavior in the light of widely accepted
psychological concepts explained by theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned
behavior (TPB), and technology acceptance model (TAM). Additionally, it presents a scenario
that boosts interest and awareness of middle management for understanding and encouraging
knowledge sharing behavior in their organization. Moreover, this research contributes for the
promotion of knowledge management research culture in Pakistan.
Literature Literature
Literature r
Knowledge is well accepted resource and asset of routine life in present age. Ownership
of knowledge is a complex phenomenon, either it lies with individuals who possess knowledge
or is from the belongings of organization that hires the knowledge based individuals. Wide
spread knowledge management literature promotes the idea that frequent access, control, and
ownership of knowledge goes to conventional management rather than individuals (Elmholdt,
2004). Some studies support the view that individuals are actual owners of all knowledge they
possess (Bock et al., 2005). Bock (2002) and Goh (2002) illustrate that organizations do heavy
investments on employees for their motivation for knowledge sharing and announce attractive
incentives on it. On the other side, Dalkir (2005) emphasizes that organizations reward
individuals for what they know and not for what they share in organizational settings.
Research reveals that knowledge is the outcome of cognition and learning (Csibra &
Gergely, 2006). Literature on distributed cognition makes it clear that knowledge and
competence reside in person and its environment, not only in person (Cools, Broeck, &
Bouckenooghe, 2009). In addition, cognition, learning, and knowledge are distributed in
interpersonal relations and are the upshot of social practice (Przemyslaw & Magdalena, 2009).
Thus knowledge is an activity rather than entity, object, or a thing (Polanyi, 1961). So, as an
activity, knowledge is context bound and is seen as constructed in individual-environment
interaction. In the words of Elmholdt (2004), “it becomes a contradiction in terms to search for a
location of knowledge in employees’ heads or in companies’ databases - knowledge is in
practice.” Despite all controversies, researchers have unanimous opinion that usability and
importance of knowledge sharing is a reality in routine business (Alavi & Liedner, 2001).
Knowledge sharing is the most important segment and a hectic challenge of knowledge
management. There is no single accepted definition for knowledge sharing (Earl & Scott, 1999).
Anyhow, some researchers attempted to define knowledge sharing for better understanding.
Hansen (1999) declares knowledge sharing to be the provision or receipt of task, information,
know-how, and a feedback regarding a product or procedure. Similarly, according to the
definition by Lee (2001), knowledge sharing is a “set of activities of transferring or disseminating
knowledge from one person, group or organization to another.” So, knowledge sharing is
something more than communication, and information distribution. In the words of Lasswell
(1948), communication is just to answer who? says what? in which channel? to whom? with
what effect? Similarly, information distribution is just “distribution of information” (Schement &
Curtis, 1995). Cognitive factor lacks in both notions of communication and information
distribution. Conversely, in knowledge sharing, there is involvement of learning something from
someone. In other words the process of re-enactment takes place in knowledge sharing
(Hendriks, 1999). As knowledge sharing involves cognition, so, human behavior counts as the
most active contributor for knowledge sharing. Many attempts, models, and designs have been
introduced from different horizons, to share knowledge capital, at both individual and
organizational level. But the research, so far, could not finalize any general formula or model
that could be adopted by all organizations for sharing their knowledge capital (Riege, 2005).
Model and
Model and Model and
Model and h
The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) developed and further extended by Martin
Fishbein and Icek Ajzen (1975, 1980), and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by
Icek Ajzen (1985) are widely accepted theories that deeply explains attitude and behavior in
social psychology research. Another extension of TRA is in the form of Technology Acceptance
Model (TAM), introduced by Davis (1989) and Bagozzi and Warshaw (1992).
In TRA, major constructs for human action are behavioral intentions, attitudes, and
subjective norms in such a relation that behavioral intentions are the outcome of one’s attitude
toward behavior and subjective norms (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975, 1980). While in TPB, the
phenomenon of Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) was introduced to cover non-volitional
behaviors, as TRA covered only volitional behaviors. It indicated that behavioral intentions were
the sum of attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control (Ajzen,
1985). The concept of PBC got its roots from Bandura’s self-efficacy theory that was evolved
from social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1980). PBC gives a touch of human feelings to the
TRA. Summarizing above, TPB promotes the view that individuals who have better behavioral
attitude, have supporting subjective norms, and have greater perceived behavioral control, they
have strong behavioral intentions for the subject in question. Obviously, individuals with strong
behavioral intentions have better attitude toward the subject under investigation.
Furthermore, Bandura (1977) described that self-efficacy was positively related to human
behavior and Ajzen (2002) proclaimed that self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control, were
the same in his theory of planned behavior. Thus, behavioral intentions and perceived
behavioral control both have positive correlation with human behavior in theory of planned
Both TRA and TAM have same behavioral descriptions, “if somebody has intentions to
do anything then he can do that without any limitations.” But contrary to TRA, TAM presents
technology perspective with measures of ‘usefulness’ and ‘ease of use’. TAM describes a
positive relation between technology acceptance and human behavior. On the basis of above
assumptions, following research hypotheses were inked for this study:
H1: A person, who has better attitude toward knowledge sharing, has positive behavioral
intentions for knowledge sharing.
H2: A person having supporting subjective norms for knowledge sharing has good
behavioral intentions to share knowledge.
H3: Someone, with good perceived behavioral control (PBC) for knowledge sharing, has
strong behavioral intentions to share knowledge
H4: An individual, with strong behavioral intentions to share knowledge, has better
knowledge sharing behavior.
H5: Somebody, having strong perceived behavioral control (PBC) over sharing
knowledge, has better knowledge sharing behavior.
H6: Anyone, with improved information technology acceptance for sharing knowledge,
has enhanced knowledge sharing behavior.
The research instrument in this study was a questionnaire. This questionnaire was
already used by Chatzoglou and Vraimaki (2009) in their research on knowledge-sharing
behavior of bank employees in Greece. They also ensured its validity and reliability. The
questionnaire was reshaped for present study. In a new format, the questionnaire comprised of
29 statements covering six different aspect regarding knowledge sharing, i.e., behavior, level of
information technology usage, intention to share knowledge, attitude toward knowledge sharing,
subjective norms about knowledge sharing, and perceived behavioral control to knowledge
sharing. There were four to six structured questions under each heading with a 5-point Likert
scale. The participants were asked to mark their response from 1 to 5 against each statement, 1
= Not at all and 5 = Very high level. Some demographic details were also included in the
questionnaire at the end consisting on gender, age, experience, and designation with
organizational affiliations.
Population of this study was comprised of five independent industrial units producing
dairy products. Each industrial unit had one or more branches but the common factor under
consideration was they should have strength of at least 200 professional middle managers.
Professional staff means those employees who had professional qualifications in their
respective discipline like Masters in Business Administration (MBA), Masters in Commerce (M.
Com), a university degree in computer science, and graduates of different disciplines of
engineering. Forty respondents were selected in each industrial unit of the said population using
random sampling technique. Two-hundred questionnaires were administered by ‘in person drop-
off method.’ Just a few respondents filled questionnaire and returned it back at the spot.
Remaining asked to fill the questionnaire on a later time or demanded soft copy to send them by
e-mail. Some responses were collected on first and second follow up round on weekly basis.
Some respondents filled questionnaires after telephonic reminders. A very small number of
responses received via e-mail. Fifty seven usable questionnaires received that were 29 percent
of total sample.
Results and discussion
Results and discussionResults and discussion
Results and discussion
Descriptive statistics for demographic characteristics revealed that majority of
respondents in gender were male (51, 90%), of age between 36 and 45 years (28, 49%), with
experience between six and 10 years (26, 46%) (table 1).
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of respondents
to 25
and above
Up to 5 years
10 years
15 years
20 years
and above
Normality of data was checked. Shapiro-Wilk test results showed significance values for
behavior (0.027), intention (0.021), attitude (0.004), subjective norms (0.008), and perceived
behavior control (0.012) for knowledge sharing in dairy sector. These variables are not
significant (
< .05). It supported the view that non-parametric tests or their conditions better fit
the data of these variables. Conversely, data for level of IT usage (0.050) is normally distributed
that satisfied the condition for parametric analysis.
Table 2 showed the Spearman’s correlation coefficients values for intention to share
knowledge and perceived behavioral control toward behavior, attitude toward intention and
subjective norms for knowledge sharing in dairy sector. Similarly, parametric test of correlation –
Pearson’s coefficient (.266) was found significant between behavior and level of IT usage (.046)
at p < .05.
Table 2. Spearman’s correlation coefficients for variables of research model
Intention to share knowledge
Attitude toward k
Subjective norms about k
PBC towards k
*Values are significant at p < .05
* *Values are significant at p < .01
The research model was tested by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) software
package to examine the relationships between latent variables. Figure 1 presents the structural
model along with path coefficients and factor loading, produced by LISREL 9.10.
Figure 1. Structural Model of Research along with path coefficients and factor loading
On the basis of above analysis, hypotheses testing results were concluded in the form of
table 3.
H1 was accepted as it proposed that a person, who has better attitude toward knowledge
sharing, has positive behavioral intentions for knowledge sharing. Research results proved a
strong positive direct effect of attitude toward knowledge sharing (path coefficient = 0.59) and a
statistical significant value 0.04 in their relationship at
< .05. This result is similar to the
descriptions of Ajzen’s TPB and TRA. This is also consistent with other recent researches (Hooft
& Jong, 2009; Pradeep, 2012).
H2 was rejected as it emphasized that a person having supporting subjective norms for
knowledge sharing has good behavioral intentions to share knowledge. It did not happen in all
circumstances. Research outcome revealed that subjective norms had moderate positive direct
effect (path coefficient = 0.32) toward intentions to share knowledge with an insignificant value
< .05 level. Therefore, subjective norms were not always the contributor for setting
behavioral intentions. These results were contrary to the well established behavioral theories
TPB and TRA. In a recent research, conducted by Pradeep (2012), subjective norms had
insignificant influences toward behavioral intentions. These insignificant values were, most
probably, due to small sample size.
Table 3. Hypothesis testing results
Strong positive direct effect
that is
Subjective norms
Moderate positive direct effect
that is insignificant
Weak positive direct effect
that is
Weak positive direct effect
that is
Weak positive direct effect
Level of IT
Moderate positive direct effect
that is significant
H3 was rejected as it was not always the case; it supported the view that someone, with
good perceived behavioral control (PBC) for knowledge sharing, has strong behavioral
intentions to share knowledge. Perceived behavioral control had weak positive direct effect
(path coefficient = 0.02) and insignificant relational value at 0.05 level toward intention to share
knowledge. These results were contrary to the descriptions by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), and
Ajzen (1985) about PBC and intention relationship, but were identical to the research conducted
by Hooft and Jong (2009). They also calculated that PBC was positively correlated with intention
with a small and non-significant variance in intention. They also described both sample size and
sample type as the reason of these results.
H4 was accepted. It stated that individual, with strong behavioral intentions to share
knowledge, has better attitude toward knowledge sharing. The study results presented weak
positive direct effect (path coefficient = 0.19) but with significant relational value 0.005 at level
0.05 for behavioral intentions for knowledge sharing to actual behavior of knowledge sharing.
Scholz et al. (2012) research study supported this research by illustrating that intentions were
the most important predictor of behavior in line with the assumptions of the planned behavior.
H5 was accepted. It recommended that somebody, having strong perceived behavioral
control (PBC) over sharing knowledge, has better knowledge sharing behavior. Perceived
behavioral control had weak positive direct effect (path coefficient = 0.02) but a significant
relational value of 0.03 (
< .05) for personal behavior toward knowledge sharing. These results
strengthened the views of Ajzen (1991) regarding perceived behavioral control contributions for
behavioral intentions and for ultimate behavioral achievements. It was similar to the Chatzoglou
and Vraimaki’s (2009) findings.
H6 was also accepted. It proposed that anyone, with improved information technology
acceptance for sharing knowledge, has enhanced knowledge sharing behavior. The results
supported the hypothesis as a moderate positive direct effect of level of information technology
usage (path coefficient = 0.34) toward personal behavior for knowledge sharing with a
significant value (0.567) at .01 level. Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) considered the effects of
external variables on behavior at the time of behavioral intention. Yaobin, Tao and Bin (2009)
supported this notion in their research study that level of IT usage contributes for individual’s
behavior to perform specific task.
Research model for this study was based on behavioral theories preferably the theory of
planned behavior. This model has limitations of sample in terms of size and type for its accuracy
and validity in research. Further, it discussed behavior internally in the form of individualistic
behavior. External factors like culture, overall environment, and demographic aspects affecting
on human behavior have been put aside. Research results in a small sample just point out
positive trends rather than verifying some hypotheses. Like in this research, subjective norms
and perceived behavioral control for knowledge sharing in dairy sector had moderate and weak
positive direct effect but with non-significant values toward intentions for knowledge sharing in
dairy sector. These relational values for subjective norms and perceived behavioral control may
be significant in a large sample size and in a cross-sectional generalized study. Information
technology usage was external factor in the research model. Behavioral research for external
factors is mostly context bound that showed mixed trends in different studies. Therefore, it is not
compulsory that positive correlation of IT usage in dairy sector with knowledge sharing behavior
in dairy sector will always be significant in all circumstances. No doubt, IT contributes a lot for
improvement of organizational structure, processes, and overall performance. But human
interactions, coordination and connections have their own role particularly for knowledge sharing
in organizations. In short, in behavioral study, both internal factors like motivation and external
factors like demographic, cultural, and social aspects present a comprehensive scenario that
affect individual’s behavior, in general, and for knowledge sharing, in particular.
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... The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has widely been used to measure knowledge-sharing behavior in different sectors (Lin, 2007;Shah and Mahmood, (Ajzen, 1991). Researchers found the impact of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control over intention and knowledge sharing behavior (Hassan et al., 2016). ...
... The theory of planned behavior provides conceptual grounds to study the complexities of human behavior in diverse situations (Ajzen, 1991). The applicability of this model in different situations has been indicated by past research (Chatzoglou and Vraimaki, 2009;Hassandoust et al., 2012;Ranasinghe and Dharmadasa, 2013;Shah and Mahmood, 2013). Theory measures human behavior through attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intentions to perform. ...
... Intention turned out to be a significant predictor of knowledge-sharing behavior. Alongside another study predicted a weak positive effect but with significant relational value among dairy workers intention and behavior of knowledge sharing (Shah and Mahmood, 2013). This led to the formulation of our following hypothesis which is: ...
The present study investigated the knowledge-sharing behavior of library and information management researchers, using the lens of the theory of planned behavior. The study is quantitative and adopted a survey questionnaire as a data collection technique. The snowball sampling technique was considered suitable to recruit respondents to the study. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS (20.0) and the ADANCO (2.0.1). The research findings confirm that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control have a significant impact on intentions to share knowledge, whereas knowledge sharing intentions have a statistically significant positive impact on knowledge sharing behavior through SNS among postgraduate students. Attitude towards knowledge sharing directly triggers knowledge sharing practices through social media networking sites. Intentions to share knowledge do not mediate the relationship of attitude and knowledge sharing behavior. The theory of planned behavior has widely been used to measure knowledge-sharing behavior in different sectors. However, the relationship between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, intentions to share knowledge within the domain of social media is explored first time in this study, particularly in the context of the library and information science post-graduate students.
... Moreover, in Pakistan, sharing of knowledge openly is not appreciated, rather, it is perceived as a sharing of authority [25]. Furthermore, limited literature is available pertaining to knowledge sharing and innovation in Pakistan [26][27][28]. Past studies have explored the relationship of knowledge sharing with employee intention [28], motivation methods, employee perception and trust [22], cultural diversity [29], absorptive capacity [25], and collaborative culture [23]. However, none of these studies explored the link of knowledge sharing enablers and its impact on organizational innovation efficiency. ...
... However, this study did not consider various critical factors for knowledge sharing like top management support, organizational rewards, and ICT use. A study conducted by Shah and Mahmood [26] on knowledge sharing behavior of employees working in the dairy sector of Pakistan reported that intention, attitude, acceptance for technology, and behavior positively affected knowledge sharing. Again, this study did not consider organizational factors and also ignored the dimensions of knowledge sharing processes. ...
... Above inadequate literature pertaining to knowledge sharing and innovation in Pakistan [24,26] requires a deeper study of this concept. Few knowledge management practices and their impact on organizational performance have been studied in the past [22], but organizational and technology linked drivers of knowledge sharing processes with its outcome in the form of better innovation efficiency particularly did not receive the desired attention. ...
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The aim of this paper was to outline the factors that provoke the knowledge sharing intents of employees and contribute toward knowledge sharing processes that result in a better rate of innovation implementation by the organizations. This research follows a holistic approach to study ‘Knowledge Sharing’. Referring to the holistic approach, this study examined the relationship between knowledge sharing enablers, processes, and outcomes. Organizational level factors (Top Management Support, Organizational Rewards) and technology linked factors (Information and Communication Technology use) were studied to show their relationship to knowledge sharing processes (knowledge donating, knowledge collecting) and how knowledge sharing processes relate to innovation efficiency in organizations in Pakistan. Data were collected from employees of Lahore based organizations irrespective of their area of functioning and level of hierarchy in the organization. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypotheses using AMOS 20. The findings of the study indicate that top management support is very important in determining the knowledge sharing behavior of employees. However, organizational rewards and ICT use does not support employees in knowledge sharing activities. Finally, knowledge sharing processes are strongly related to organization innovation efficiency. This study provides guidelines to managers and organizations for establishing a knowledge sharing culture for innovative performance in the long run.
... Little studies on knowledge sharing behavior have been conducted in Pakistan in different sectors such as in Banking sector (Shah & Mahmood, 2013), Education sector (Hassan, Aksel, Nawaz, & Shaukat, 2016;Saboor, 2017), Telecom sector (Danish, Nawaz, & Munir, 2012) Pharmaceutical sector (Zubair, Ahmad, & Ahmed, 2014) ...
... In individual's behavior leading factor for knowledge sharing is employee attitude and is considered extremely significant for knowledge sharing. As attitudes are connected with emotional state of individuals (Shah & Mahmood, 2013), for that reason knowledge sharing is not easy task for organizations and it requires many challenges to make individual knowledge into valuable organizational asset (Ryu, Ho, & Han, 2003). Sometime employees are not ready to share the information because they feel that they will lose their uniqueness and supremacy after sharing their unique and distinct ideas and thoughts with others (Yang, 2009). ...
... willingness and behavior to share knowledge (Rehman, Mahmood, Salleh, & Amin, 2011). And employee behavior, attitude and willingness are extremely significant leading factors for successful sharing of knowledge (Shah & Mahmood, 2013). Employee cannot be forced to involve into knowledge sharing instead they can be encouraged to do so by motivating their behavior and attitude. ...
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Knowledge sharing plays a crucial role for the success of organizations and it becomes challenging for organizations in developing countries to urge employees for sharing knowledge because people hesitate to share their knowledge and feel insecure. There is special need to recognize and introduce significant factors in order to motivate and inspire employee’s behavior to share knowledge in organizational settings. The main purpose of this study is to determine and examine the factors that encourage and enhance knowledge sharing among employees. This study has explained the role and importance of psychological contract and organizational climate in enhancing employee knowledge sharing behavior in organizations in context of Pakistan. Quantitative research has been adopted as a research strategy for this study and survey questionnaire has been used as a data collection tool. Data is collected from 201 teachers of public and private colleges of Islamabad. Data is investigated by descriptive statistics and linear regression through SPSS. Results demonstrate that organizational climate and psychological contract has positive and most significant impact on knowledge sharing behavior. Knowledge sharing behavior is responded more by transactional psychological contract than the relational PC. These findings propose that education sector ought to look into ways of inspiring and boosting psychological contract and organizational climate in order to facilitate knowledge sharing behavior among teachers. This study also concludes that professionals at educational institutes require supportive organizational climate for effective flow of knowledge because when teachers are more integrated with each other, they are more confident and convinced to share their valuable knowledge with each other.
... However, a relatively high level of variation in the findings of the studies that modified the two models was reported. For example, Ho et al. (2011) found a strong correlation between perceived behaviour control and knowledge sharing intention, while Shah and Mahmood (2013) reported an insignificant correlation between them. The correlation between subjective norms and knowledge sharing intention was found to be strong in the study by Park et al. (2012), but Papadopoulos et al. (2012) found a small correlation and Shah and Mahmood (2013) and Sihombing (2011) reported insignificant correlations . ...
... For example, Ho et al. (2011) found a strong correlation between perceived behaviour control and knowledge sharing intention, while Shah and Mahmood (2013) reported an insignificant correlation between them. The correlation between subjective norms and knowledge sharing intention was found to be strong in the study by Park et al. (2012), but Papadopoulos et al. (2012) found a small correlation and Shah and Mahmood (2013) and Sihombing (2011) reported insignificant correlations . This leads to a necessity to understand the trends of the modifications of these two models and the potential causes of the variation in the findings of prior studies. ...
Purpose Two psychological models, the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) are the most common theories used to understand knowledge sharing behaviour. However, the empirical results are inconclusive on whether TRA and TPB can provide reasonable prediction of knowledge sharing attitude, intention and behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a review of these models in knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach This study reviews 63 papers to provide a comprehensive picture of these models in knowledge sharing. Findings Two main trends of modification were shown in the studies examining these models. Research gaps were identified as a guideline for future researchers to investigate potential moderators and examine these models from the participants’ perspective. Originality/value The model serves as a roadmap for future researchers and managers considering their strategy to enhance knowledge sharing.
... Few studies have also been conducted by Pakistani researchers about KSB and factors affecting KSB of social sciences' students, faculty of education, medical sciences, and management sciences students (Aslam 2015;Baig and Waheed 2016;Rafique 2014;Shah and Mahmood 2016). Some other studies have also been conducted in Pakistan regarding KS and factors impacting sharing of knowledge in pharmaceutical, healthcare, dairy, banking, and industrial sectors of Pakistan (Abbas, Abdul Rasheed, and Shahzad 2013;Asrar-ul-Haq and Anwar 2016;Basit-Memon, Mirani, and Bashir 2018;Javaid and Soroya 2020;Khan et al. 2016;Rehman, Ilyas, and Asghar 2015;Shah and Mahmood 2013;Tahir et al. 2012;Zubair, Ahmad, and Ahmed 2014). However, there is a dearth of literature on factors affecting KSB of Pakistani engineering students which shows the intensive need of research in this area. ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ behavior towards knowledge sharing and the factors, individual and classroom, affecting it. Quantitative research design was used to conduct this study. Students enrolled in engineering universities, located in three provinces (Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh) and capital (Islamabad) of Pakistan, were the population of this study. Researchers collected the data through survey questionnaires. SPSS-22 was used to analyze the collected data and for testing the hypotheses. Results revealed that the majority of engineering students’ knowledge sharing behavior was positive. Findings proved that majority of individual and classroom related factors were affecting knowledge sharing behavior of Pakistani students significantly. This is the first study which investigated Pakistani 10 engineering category universities’ students’ behavior towards knowledge sharing and factors impacting it. Results contributed in the body of literature by advancing it regarding behavior towards knowledge sharing in the context of engineering students of Pakistan. The study’s findings can play a vital role in facilitating educational institutions, students, and academicians in understanding the factors impacting students’ knowledge sharing behavior. This, in turn, might help them in removing negatively influencing factors by taking essential measures and facilitating factors with positive impact to improve students’ knowledge sharingbehavior.
... Second, contrary to our hypothesis, PBC does not significantly affect online KSI. This result is aligned with those by Chatzoglou and Vraimaki (2009) and Shah and Mahmood (2013) who also could not find any significant effect on the association between PBC and KSI. One possible reason for this result is that online knowledge sharing systems in an organization have become common along with the development of information and technology. ...
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Purpose This study aims to combine the theory of planned behave or (TPB) and the motivational framework to extend the research on online knowledge sharing (OKS) in an organization by exploring the factors that drive the knowledge sharing intentions (KSI) of posters and lurkers. Design/methodology/approach A field survey with 501 employees in Vietnamese telecommunication companies is used to collect the data and a structural equation modeling approach with AMOS 25.0 is used to test all the hypotheses. Findings Attitudes toward OKS and subjective norms influence online KSI for both posters and lurkers. Self-enjoyment has a stronger effect on the attitudes toward OKS for posters than lurkers. Self-efficacy, reciprocity and rewards only affect posters and not lurkers. Research limitations/implications This study uses self-efficacy and self-enjoyment to represent intrinsic motivation and reciprocity and rewards for extrinsic motivation. Future research may use additional motivational factors to provide additional insights. Practical implications Managers should pay greater attention to subjective norms and attitudes toward knowledge sharing to motivate all the employees to share knowledge with each other to improve organizational performance. Originality/value This is the first study to combine TPB with the motivational framework to explore the factors that drive online knowledge sharing in an organization.
... For instance, So and Bolloju (2005) found a strong correlation between attitude and intention to share knowledge among information technology professionals in Hong Kong (r = 0.88) but Jolaee et al. (2014) reported a medium association (r = 0.3). Ho et al. (2011) suggested a strong relationship (r = 0.66) between PBC and intention while Shah and Mahmood (2013) showed an insignificant correlation for middle managers of five industrial units in Pakistan. Similarly, Park et al. (2012) reported a strong correlation (r = 0.66) between SN and intention while Papadopoulos et al. (2012) found a small correlation (r = 0.12) and Shah and Mahmood Theory of planned behavior (2013) and Sihombing (2011) found insignificant correlations. ...
Purpose The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the most frequently used model in knowledge sharing. However, the empirical results are inconclusive on whether TPB can provide reasonable prediction of knowledge sharing behavior (KSB). This study aims to examine TPB in knowledge sharing and identify potential moderators of relationships among constructs in TPB. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 26 studies examining TPB in knowledge sharing. A meta-analytical structural equation model (MASEM) was used to test original and modified TPB models and examine potential moderators. Findings The results show that attitude has the strongest relationship with intention, followed by perceived behavior control and then subjective norms. Intention shows the strongest association with KSB, followed by perceived behavior control. The moderator roles of culture, economic wealth and information technology support are found in the model. Originality/value This study is the first attempt to provide a systematic review and MASEM in TPB in knowledge sharing.
... Knowledge sharing involves a set of steps from knowledge creation to implementation (Gover & Davenport,2001) , There is no uniform definition among writers and researchers about the concept of knowledge sharing (Earl & Scott,1999), Knowledge sharing is a set of activities related to the transfer and dissemination of knowledge between two or more individuals, so it more than communication and information distribution (Rahmat & Mahmood ,2013). the knowledge sharing process involves two parties (receiver and contributer) (Fengjie&Xin ,2004), it donation and collection of knowledge among the different knowledge units in a firm ( Becerra et al., 2004). ...
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Article Info In this study we have tried to investigate the effect of Knowledge management including its dimensions (knowledge creation, knowledge sharing and knowledge utilization) on sustainable competitive advantage. According to the researches and literatures conceptual framework were proposed and tested. the population of this study includes professors in private universities in middle of Iraq, random sample were selected from them, using structural equation modeling and regression we tested the model, the results confirmed that knowledge management and its dimensions have significantly affect the sustainable competitive advantage.
... Different studies have been conducted and explained knowledge sharing behavior using different context, predictors, and constructs. As can be seen in these studies ( Kim, & Bock, 2002;Ryu, Ho, & Han,2003;Lin, & Lee, 2004;Hsu, Ju, Yen, & Chang, 2007;Chennamaneni, 2007;Chatzoglou, & Vraimaki, 2009;Yu, Lu, & Liu, 2010;Tohidinia, & Mosakhani, 2011;Mogotsi, Boon, & Fletcher, 2011;Chennamaneni, Teng, & Raja, 2012;, Aliakbar, Yusoff, & Mahmood, 2012Rahmat Ullah Shah, & Mahmood, 2013;Rahman, et. al, 2016;). ...
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The purpose of this study is to assess the factors influencing retirement planning knowledge sharing behavior among Nigerian workers. A structural equation modeling method was employed to identify the variables that significantly affect retirement planning knowledge sharing behavior. Structured questionnaires were used in the collection of data from the respondents who are predominately workers from Nigerian public and private sectors. Out of 600 questionnaires shared, only 307 were used for the study. The major findings of the study indicate that attitude towards retirement planning and subjective norm significantly influence retirement planning knowledge sharing behavior. While perceived control over retirement planning has no significant effect on retirement planning knowledge sharing behavior. It is recommended that the government should introduce programs that motivate workers to share retirement planning knowledge with their colleagues
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The purpose of this paper is to develop and evaluate the framework for enhancing the innovation capability in dairy farms through knowledge sharing. It was hypothesized that trust, motivation, training and development are positively associated with knowledge sharing and that knowledge sharing between employees and managers impact positively on the innovation capability of the firms. The questionnaire based survey was used to collect the date from 254 randomly selected dairy farms that are located in the Punjab region of Pakistan. For data analysis SMART PLS-SEM 3.00 was used. The results of this paper confirmed all hypothesized relationships except the impact of trust on knowledge sharing which may be due to the unique contextual setting of Pakistan. This paper concludes that employees feel delighted in sharing knowledge for enhancing the innovation capability when they feel motivated and are provided with proper trainings.
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The objective of this study is to identify those factors that affect the knowledge sharing behavior of individuals in the context of blogs of Pakistan. A research model has been developed, which consists of six construct derived from three well known theories namely Innovation Diffusion Theory, Social Capital theory and Theory of Reasoned Action. This theoretical model was tested empirically by conducting web based survey. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection from 120 bloggers. Partial Least Square technique was employed to test the model. Four out of five hypotheses were confirmed. This study confirmed that relative advantage, attitude and social interaction ties have significant influence on intention to share knowledge and intention to share knowledge is a predictor of actual knowledge behavior. This study has several implications for professional and academic institutions.
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The author has done factor analysis of environmental friendly behavioral intentions taken from an earlier study, to study the effect of environmental concern & social norms on these intentions. The results indicate that these intentions can be grouped into "active" intentions & "passive" intentions. The environmental concern plays significant role in active intentions while social norms plays significant role in passive intentions. Implications of these results for consumer researchers, marketing managers & public policy makers are outlined.Key Words: Environmental concern, Social norms, Consumer behavior. The issue of environment has grown important over the past few decades, however the critical part of this issue remains that the rate at which the problems related to environment are increasing is quite higher than the rate at which the actions are taken to solve these problems. Whether it is government, population or other organizations all are responding to the furies caused by the nature or human actions rather than behaving proactively & taking a check at their current actions. The most important part in this environmentally friendly behavior is to be played by the consumer. Follows & Jobber (1999) in their study to develop a model to predict environmentally purchase behavior found that there will be a positive relationship from attitude towards environmental consequences & a negative relationship from attitude towards individual consequences to environmentally responsible purchase intention. Their study also indicated that motivation to promote & enhance the welfare of others underlies positive environmental attitudes. The present theory of attitude (Bagozzi &Warsaw, 1990) differentiates between attitude, intention & behavior. In theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1991) the strength of behavioral intention is the antecedent of behavior. This behavioral intention is further formed by the combination of a positive or negative attitude towards the behavior, a subjective norm to perform the behavior, and perceived control over the behavior. Moreover, the attitude is determined by strengths of beliefs about consequences of the behavior & evaluations of these consequences.
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Individuals' knowledge does not transform easily into organizational knowledge even with the implementation of knowledge repositories. Rather, individuals tend to hoard knowledge for various reasons. The aim of this study is to develop an integrative understanding of the factors supporting or inhibiting individuals' knowledge-sharing intentions. We employ as our theoretical framework the theory of reasoned action (TRA), and augment it with extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces and organizational climate factors that are believed to influence individuals' knowledge-sharing intentions. Through a field survey of 154 managers from 27 Korean organizations, we confirm our hypothesis that attitudes toward and subjective norms with regard to knowledge sharing as well as organizational climate affect individuals' intentions to share knowledge. Additionally, we find that anticipated reciprocal relationships affect individuals' attitudes toward knowledge sharing while both sense of self-worth and organizational climate affect subjective norms. Contrary to common belief, we find anticipated extrinsic rewards exert a negative effect on individuals' knowledge-sharing attitudes.
The significant development in knowledge management (KM) literature in recent years is a reflection of the growing interest to academics and practitioners/consultants involved in organisational change and business transformation. Knowledge is a major source of competitive advantage and knowledge assets/intellectual capital has to be managed effectively. The importance of implementing a knowledge management strategy to understand the relationship between physical and intellectual capital, to increase the market value of organisations and achieve corporate sustainability is examined. Using case studies of construction organisations and applying the STEPS knowledge management framework, it was found that there is a greater need for multinational organisations to implement KM. This is because they have knowledge that is diverse and geographically dispersed across a network of organisations. It is concluded that knowledge management has a catalytic role in developing intellectual capital to achieve corporate sustainability. The STEPS framework will enable multinational organisations to identify the reform, resource implications and the results of KM activities.
Beliefs, attitudes, and intentions are important factors in the adoption of computer technologies. While contemporary representations have focused on explaining the act of using computers, the role of learning to use the computer needs to be better understood within the overall adoption process. Inadequate learning can curtail the adoption and use of a potentially productive system. We introduce a new theoretical model, the theory of trying, in which computer learning is conceptualized as a goal determined by three attitude components: attitude toward success, attitude toward failure, and attitude toward the process of goal pursuit. Intentions to try and actual trying are the theoretical mechanisms linking these goal-directed attitudes to goal attainment. An empirical study is conducted to ascertain the construct validity and utility of the new theory within the context of the adoption of a word processing package. Specifically, we examine convergent validity, internal consistency reliability, stability, discriminant validity, criterion related validity, predictive validity, and nomological validity in a longitudinal field study of 107 users of the program. The new theory is compared to two models: the theory of reasoned action from the field of social psychology and the technology acceptance model, recently introduced in the management literature. Overall, the findings stress the importance of scrutinizing the goals of decision makers and their psychological reactions to these goals in the prediction of the adoption of computers.
Conceptual and methodological ambiguities surrounding the concept of perceived behavioral control are clarified. It is shown that perceived control over performance of a behavior, though comprised of separable components that reflect beliefs about self-efficacy and about controllability, can nevertheless be considered a unitary latent variable in a hierarchical factor model. It is further argued that there is no necessary correspondence between self-efficacy and internal control factors, or between controllability and external control factors. Self-efficacy and controllability can reflect internal as well as external factors and the extent to which they reflect one or the other is an empirical question. Finally, a case is made that measures of perceived behavioral control need to incorporate self-efficacy as well as controllability items that are carefully selected to ensure high internal consistency.