Do Atypical Antipsychotics Really Enhance Smoking Reduction More Than Typical Ones?

From the Department of Psychiatry, Yuli Hospital, Department of Health, Yuli Township, Hulien County, Taiwan.
Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 04/2013; 33(3). DOI: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e31828b2575
Source: PubMed


Whether atypical antipsychotics (AAs) can enhance smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients remains controversial because of methodological limitations in existing studies. This study explored whether certain types of antipsychotics predict smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients. Three hundred eight smoking, predominantly male schizophrenic patients (271/308 [88.9%]) participated in an 8-week open-label study with antismoking medications (high-dose, low-dose nicotine transdermal patch and bupropion). Antipsychotics were classified into (1) typical antipsychotics (TAs) and (2) AAs, including multiacting receptor-targeted antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine), serotonin-dopamine antagonists (risperidone), D2/D3 receptor antagonists (amisulpride), and partial dopamine receptor agonists (aripiprazole). A general linear model was used to explore whether types of antipsychotic predict changes in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the score of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) while controlling for confounding factors. The type of antipsychotic (TAs or AAs) was not significantly associated with smoking cessation (n = 21; χ = 1.8; df = 4; P = 0.77). Regarding smoking reduction, the type of antipsychotic was significantly predictive of a change in the CPD (P = 0.027; partial eta square = 0.055) and FTND scores (P = 0.002; partial eta square = 0.073). The 95% confidence intervals of the estimated means of change in the CPD and FTND scores did not contain zero only among subjects on TAs or clozapine.These findings suggest that TAs and clozapine enhance smoking reduction compared with nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. The mechanisms underlying the effects of various antipsychotics on smoking reduction remain unclear and warrant future study.

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