Book

The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality

Authors:
... Religion is best considered as a diverse, multifaceted construct. Religion and spirituality have generally been defined as that realm of life which is concerned with ultimate purpose and meaning in life, a set of principles and ethics to live by, commitment to God or a higher power, a recognition of the transcendent in everyday experiences, a selfless focus, and a set of beliefs and practices that is designed to facilitate a relationship with transcendent (see Emmons, 2003;Pargament, 1997). Larson et aI., (1997) consider religion as an organized system of beliefs, practices, and symbols designed to facilitate closeness to a higher power, and include the understanding of one's relationship with others and one's responsibility to those others. ...
... It is the sense of relationship or connection with a power or force in the universe that transcends the present context of reality. Emmons (2003) defined spirituality quite broadly, with the term encompassing a search for meaning, for unity, for connectedness, for transcendence, and for the highest of human potential. Furthermore, Martin and Carlson (1988) defined spirituality as a process by which individuals recognize the importance of orienting their lives to something intangible that is beyond the range of their own experience. ...
... Religions have offered many explanations for suffering. Most of the world's great religious traditions embrace suffering in the name of spiritual growth (Emmons, 2003). For example, Christian theology offers several ways of understanding suffering that makes the voluntary acceptance of it a point of spiritual growth and transformation of consciousness. ...
Thesis
p>A substantial body of mainly US research has suggested the mental health benefits of religiosity and spirituality and that this relationship is mediated by extrinsic factors such as health behaviours, social support and sense of personal meaning or coherence. However, as Pargament argues, it is also possible that religion has unique benefits through providing contact with the sacred. Such benefits can be expected to be more evident in a religious society such as Iran. In order to assess religious coping in Iran, a religious coping scale modelled on Pargament’s scale was developed specifically for Iranian Muslims and tested in a sample of university students (N = 185). Similarly, the validity and reliability of Reker’s Personal Meaning scale was tested on a sample of university students (N = 136) and school teachers (N = 162). These studies also demonstrated the associations with well-being variables of both religious coping and personal meaning. To investigate the relative efficacy of religious coping and personal meaning in dealing with physical disability and traumatic experiences, a sample of disabled war veterans of the Iran-Iraq conflict was studied (N = 78). Many Iranian veterans perceived the war as a sacred defence. It was expected that such sanctification would have helped protect them from mental health problems and distress. Results showed that religious coping had a significant contribution to mental health of veterans beyond and above other predictor variables such as physical function, social support and personal meaning. These predictor variables did not explain the relationship between religious coping and mental health. This research also indicated that participants used positive religious coping strategies more frequently than negative religious coping strategies in coping with their physical disability problems and traumatic experiences. The limitations of this study are discussed and suggestions made for the sanctification hypothesis in other samples.</p
... Synthesizing the past research, three source characteristics have been consistently used to define humility: (a) accurate self-assessment, (b) open-mindedness, and (c) egalitarianism. Accurate self-assessment refers to an individual's understanding and acknowledgment of their strengths and weaknesses (e.g., Morris et al., 2005) attempting neither to overestimate their worth nor underestimate their merits or achievements (Emmons, 1999). Accurate self-assessment is thus associated with a person having a 'balanced' self-view, which requires self-acceptance, acknowledgment of their superiority and merits, awareness of their importance, self-confidence, and at the same time, an understanding of, and the willingness to face, their imperfections and limitations (Emmons, 1999;Harrell and Bond, 2006). ...
... Accurate self-assessment refers to an individual's understanding and acknowledgment of their strengths and weaknesses (e.g., Morris et al., 2005) attempting neither to overestimate their worth nor underestimate their merits or achievements (Emmons, 1999). Accurate self-assessment is thus associated with a person having a 'balanced' self-view, which requires self-acceptance, acknowledgment of their superiority and merits, awareness of their importance, self-confidence, and at the same time, an understanding of, and the willingness to face, their imperfections and limitations (Emmons, 1999;Harrell and Bond, 2006). Subsuming this sense of balance in self-awareness, humility has been conceptualized as "a crest of human excellence between arrogance and lowliness" (Morris et al., 2005(Morris et al., , p. 1331), a realistic appraisal of positive and negative characteristics (Sandage and Wiens, 2001), a prudential mean between unlimited self-denial and excessive self-orientation (Fullam, 2009), or a moderate selfview neither too positive nor too negative (Sedikides et al., 2007). ...
... Humility thus precludes intentional self-denial or selfdisparagement (Sandage and Wiens, 2001), denial of superior positions or accomplishments (Ben-Ze'ev, 1993), depressed opinion of the self (Emmons, 1999), self-abasement (Fullam, 2009), lowly demeanor (Neuringer, 1991), decreased valuation of the self (Means et al., 1990), or unduly underestimating the self, particularly for purpose of impression management (Driver, 1989). Humility does not "consist in handsome people trying to believe they are ugly, and clever people trying to believe they are fools. . ...
Article
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Examining the nature of humility using self-report measures has been a challenging endeavor due to concerns of response biases and the common misconception that equates humility with self-deprecation. Alternatively, this study attempts to validate the construct of humility by assessing subjects’ ( N = 553) responses to a speech written to represent the core elements of humility as opposed to self-deprecation or unconditional self-underrating. Data show that (a) humility comprises a latent construct subsuming accurate self-assessment, open-mindedness, and egalitarianism; and (b) humility outperforms self-deprecation in enhancing perceived sincerity, source credibility, and the intention to interact with the source. Results indicate, particularly for expert sources, that humility cues can promote approachability while maintaining perceived expertise.
... While educational goals involve individuals planning what kind of training they will receive in the future, and relationship goals involve individuals' demands and expectations for their social and emotional relationships, entertainment goals involve activities that individuals plan to do for satisfaction and relaxation (Eryılmaz, 2010;Miller, 1991;Nair, 2003). These goals that are about different life areas influence each other (Emmons, 2003). In other words, an activity done for relationship goals, educational goals or entertainment goals can also help achieve career goals. ...
... Parallel to our result, De Vos et al. (2009) also concluded in their study that individuals' goals are effective on proactive career behaviors. Life goals refer to situations that are desired to be reached in the future (Emmons, 2003). Proactive career behaviors are the future-oriented behaviors performed to achieve these goals (Parker & Bindl, 2017;Grant & Ashford, 2008). ...
... Thus, the existence of healthy coping strategies developed with life goals can help individuals to be optimistic rather than pessimistic about the future. Individuals having life goals enables them to focus on the future (Emmons, 2003). Individuals who focus on the future take action to achieve their goals (Hadley & MacLeod, 2010). ...
Article
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Dominated by uncertainties, today’s work world pushed university students to exhibit proactive career behaviors. Thus, this created a need for more research conducted to determine the variables associated with proactive career behaviors, on the grounds that additional research may contribute to an increase in proactive career behaviors. In this context the study explored the mediating role of visions about the future and the moderating role of intolerance of uncertainty in the relationship between university students’ life goals and their proactive career behaviors. The study was carried out with 519 students (299 females and 220 males) studying at a university in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The Scale of Setting Life Goals with Respect to Positive Psychotherapy, the Visions about the Future Scale, the Career Engagement Scale, and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were employed as data collection tools. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis, structural equation modeling methods, and regression analysis based on the bootstrap method. The correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between proactive career behaviors, life goals and visions about the future, and a negative relationship between proactive career behaviors and intolerance of uncertainty. Furthermore, the analyses put forth that visions about the future have a mediating role in the relationship between life goals and proactive career behaviors and that intolerance of uncertainty has a moderating role in the same relationship. Increasing university students’ life goals and their visions about the future and reducing their intolerance of uncertainty will help them exhibit proactive career behaviors.
... During the first session of the study, participants were asked to generate a list of six goals that they pursue in any domain of their lives. These goals were listed by participants in an open-ended fashion, and the instructions provided for the generation of their goals followed the personal strivings approach (Emmons, 1986(Emmons, , 1999. They were encouraged to think about the things that they typically try to do regardless of whether they are successful in their strivings, and were given a few examples (i.e., 'trying to be physically attractive to others' and 'trying to do well in school'). ...
... Participants rated each of their goals on several dimensions using the strivings assessment scale (Emmons, 1986(Emmons, , 1999 which has been used extensively in research on personal strivings and has been evaluated multiple times on its reliability and validity (Emmons, 1999). Each item was rated on a 5-point scale (1 = not at all, 5 = very committed/important). Goal commitment was assessed using the item 'How committed are you to the striving?' (M = 4.00, SD = .81). ...
... Participants rated each of their goals on several dimensions using the strivings assessment scale (Emmons, 1986(Emmons, , 1999 which has been used extensively in research on personal strivings and has been evaluated multiple times on its reliability and validity (Emmons, 1999). Each item was rated on a 5-point scale (1 = not at all, 5 = very committed/important). Goal commitment was assessed using the item 'How committed are you to the striving?' (M = 4.00, SD = .81). ...
Article
Objectives: The study aimed to determine whether perceived goal sharing (i.e., perceiving a partner as having the same health-related goal) and/or perceived goal congruence (i.e., being able to spend time together in health-related goal activities) with a romantic partner are associated with health-related goal commitment and importance. Design and main outcome measures: 80 participants with a health-related goal in a larger study on newly dating relationships completed two self-report questionnaires 3 months apart using validated assessments of goal commitment and importance. Results: Perceived goal congruence was associated with concurrent goal commitment and importance and higher goal commitment over time. However, perceived goal sharing was not associated with the health-related goal dimensions (even when interacting with goal congruence) with the exception of increased goal importance over time for those scoring lower than the average on relationship satisfaction. Conclusion: One way to enhance health-related goal importance and commitment is to ensure goal congruence exists within romantic relationships, and partners can spend time together engaging in goal-related activities with their partner. Moreover, the results suggest that romantic partners exert an influence even among the newly dating, who are often presumed to be less impactful on health outcomes and processes.
... People are Aware of Their Uniquely Spiritual Strivings When asked to list personal strivings, uniquely spiritual strivings tend to be spontaneously reported by 28% of community adults, and these strivings tend to supersede all others in terms of priority (Emmons, 1999). The presence of spiritual strivings is linked with lower levels of inter-goal conflict, suggesting that these strivings function as master goals that serve to integrate other goals (Emmons, 2005). ...
... Well-Being Indicators of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, absence of depression, marital satisfaction) are more strongly correlated with the presence of spiritual strivings than with any other type of striving, and that these relationships persist after controlling for more basic motivations, such as desires for affiliation and nurturance (Emmons, 1999). From a trait perspective, the spiritual personality factor has been shown to uniquely predict well-being (e.g., level of stress, social support) above and beyond other traits (Piedmont, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Revisions are proposed to the taxonomic model of human motivation of Forbes (Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 85-98, 2011) in order to incorporate a heretofore missing fourth life domain, the spiritual. The growing literature on spiritual motives is systematically reviewed in accordance with literature review standards for theory development (Templier & Paré, 2018) focusing on the objective of identifying comprehensive theoretical systems that explicitly incorporate the spiritual domain as one of a limited set of human life domains. The structure of the Forbes model is contrasted with thirteen theoretical systems that explicitly incorporate the spiritual as a fourth life domain. Consistent with the Forbes model, the spiritual domain is proposed to consist of three modes of existence (Being, Doing, Having) represented as justice motivation, moral motivation, and transcendental motivation, respectively, as well as both promotion and prevention goals within each of the three motives. Empirical evidence is reviewed in support of a revised heuristic device wherein the Spiritual domain is closely linked with the Intrapsychic and Interpersonal domains, but not the Instrumental domain, resulting in a pyramidal structure and corresponding set of testable hypotheses.
... One of the ties that bind individuals to life is life goals (Korkmaz & Cenkseven-Önder, 2019). Life goals are situations that are desired to be achieved with cognitive and behavioral strategies (Emmons, 1999). Including different living spaces and constructs, life goals vary from person to person (Visconti et al., 2015). ...
... When people try to realize a goal, they put an effort proportional to the goals they are trying to achieve (Locke, 2002). According to Emmons (1999), one of the most important effects of life goals on individuals is to increase their personal struggle power. Moreover, the nature of resilience includes fighting for the sake of achieving a goal (Gürgan, 2006). ...
Article
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Turkey This study aimed to explore the mediating role of university students' resilience in the relationship between their life goals and hopelessness. The participants of the study consisted of a total of 455 students (252 females [55.4%], 203 males [44.6%]) from universities in six different cities in Turkey. The Scale of Setting Life Goals with Respect to Positive Psychotherapy (Eryılmaz, 2012), the Resilience Scale (Gürgan, 2006), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (Beck et al., 1974) were used as data collection tools. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The correlation analysis revealed, that hopelessness was negatively correlated with both life goals and resilience. Also, the mediation analysis put forth that resilience had a full mediating role in the relationship between life goals and hopelessness. Raising life goals and resilience of university students will help decrease their hopelessness.
... It seems that apart from supporting activities and psychoeducation, promotional activities can play a huge role in this area. Getting to know oneself, orientation to personal development, raising emotional intelligence, increasing social competences and the ability to set and implement one's goals -these are the resources of an individual that contribute to their well-being (Emmons, 2003) and are a precondition for self-fulfi lment (Deci, Ryan, 2002). Therefore, it is worth taking such actions, regardless of current problems and confl icts. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... Varied conceptualizations regarding sources of MIL have been offered, and these share commonalities as well divergence. For example, Emmons (1999) identified five such sources: personal strivings, achievement, intimacy, religion/ spirituality, and generativity. Wong and Ebersole, respectively, each pointed to somewhat similar factors: a personal meaning profile, achievement, relationships, religion, and self-transcendence (Wong, 1998); and life narratives, life work, relationships, religious beliefs, and service (Ebersole, 1998). ...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the unique perspectives and contributions in this volume, to offer insights regarding search for meaning in life in a post-modern socio-cultural context. We suggest that instead of major overarching cultural schemes, institutions or narratives for meaning in life which were prominent and dominant in the past, such as religion, contemporary societies in the post-modern era offer a large variety of narratives, termed here 'master narratives of meaning'. Individuals adopt and adapt such narratives to fulfil their need for meaning in life and to have clarity and stability, and specifically to satisfy their need for comprehension, purpose and mattering. Exploring illustrative case studies within the Israeli scene, we identified several broad dimensions of the search for meaning that might be relevant in other cultures as well, such as, the mix and match quality of the narratives, the centrality of spirituality both within and outside established religions, the centrality of legitimation of a variety of narratives versus their de-legitimation and adoption of a rigid dogma, and a self-focused process versus the focus on belonging to a community or becoming a 'citizen of the world' with responsibility to make it a better place. These master narratives of meaning weave cultural characteristics and contextual imperatives with personal processes of meaning-making and appear to also highlight broader processes of search for meaning around the globe.
... Life goals, considered in terms of long-term goals (Eryılmaz, 2012), include individuals' desires for building general life structures such as career, family, and a specific lifestyle and shaping their life (Roberts & Robins, 2000). Life goals, which are reported to be an important feature in individuals' adaptation to life, are defined as situations desired to be reached with the help of individuals' cognitive and behavioral strategies (Emmons, 1999). A review of the related literature shows that life goals are divided into two as intrinsic and extrinsic goals. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to examine the predictive of career goal feedback and life goals on career adaptabilities. The research using the relational screening model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was carried out on university students. The participants of the research group consist of 277 (175 women, 102 men) university students studying at a public university in a province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region (Turkey) in the 2017-2018 academic year. Personal information form, Career Goal Feedback Scale, Career Adapt-abilities Scale, and Life Goals Scale-Short Form were used as data collection tools in the study. The data were analyzed using Pearson Moments Multiplication Correlation and path analysis techniques. Research findingsshowed that career goal feedbacks and internal life goals are important predictors of career adaptabilities. The findings are discussed within the framework of the literature and suggestions are presented.
... Apart from being similar to religion, spirituality is also a broader concept than religion (Macdonald, 2002). Spiritual intelligence combines the variables of spirituality and intelligence into a new structure (Macdonald, 2002) and is listed under such headings as human abilities and experiences and the integrated connection between us and the world in which we live (Emmons, 1999). Since psychological wellbeing is one of the important indicators of mental health, quality of life and life satisfaction, as well as social, personality, emotional, cultural, occupational, and other factors playing a role in people's wellbeing. ...
Article
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Psychological well-being, meaning cognitive and emotional evaluations of one's life, which is one of the components of positive psychology, is of particular importance in students' behavior today. Therefore, recognizing the factors affecting it plays a crucial role in enhancing students 'psychological well-being. The present study aims at predicting students' psychological well-being based on the components of spiritual intelligence and a sense of coherence. The present study is applied as well as descriptive/correlational research in terms of purpose and in terms of the nature and method respectively. Based on the Morgan Table, a sample of 248 of Bilesavar Moghan Azad University students in the academic year 2019-2020 is randomly selected. Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI-24) and Psychological Well-being Questionnaire are employed for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression are used for analysis data. The results show that there is a significant and positive relationship between spiritual intelligence as well as sense of coherence and students' psychological well-being; this means that whenever spiritual intelligence as well as sense of coherence increase, there is also improvement in psychological well-being. Spiritual intelligence can be a good predictor of psychological well-being and mental health. The spiritual tendency in life prevents a person from doing wrong and showing unacceptable behavior; it can ensure person's mental health.
... Hope is important because people are intrinsically goal oriented and tend to think about their future (Emmons, 2003;ed. Ryan, 2012;Snyder, 1995). ...
Article
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Snyder’s model of hope conceptualises and operationalises hope as a cognitive, trait-like bi-dimensional future-oriented construct consisting of pathways thinking and agency thinking for goal achievement. The present study implemented exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the Dispositional Hope Scale, using data from two South African student samples (n = 383, 48% female, 21.70 years average age and n = 251, 68% female, 20.55 years average age), with the aim to examine its factor structure in an African context. The results showed that a six item unidimensional solution of hope fit the data best. This model characterises hope as the ability to make plans, informed by past experiences and to spontaneously manoeuvre around obstacles as any situation may call for it. This finding has implications for the measurement of hope and development of emic operational models in an African context.
... In addition to functioning as a critical element of healthy development, purpose in life even serves as a fundamental source of motivation in a person's life and a deep reason for living (Bronk, 2011;Frankl, 1959). More specifically, purpose in life functions as an important motivator to drive individuals' actions toward long-term goals (Emmons, 1999). There are several reasons. ...
Article
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Understanding the factors that affect student engagement remains important in service learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between purpose in life, civic mindedness, class engagement in service learning, and personal need for structure. Especially, this study investigated the moderating effect of personal need for structure on the relationship between purpose in life and class engagement, as well as the relationship between civic mindedness and class engagement. A cross sectional non experimental design was adopted in this study. A total of 171 students were recruited from a service learning course designed in the 2018 and 2019 spring semesters at a large research university in the USA. SPSS statistical software and Hayes’ PROCESS were utilized to analyze the data. Study results showed that purpose in life is positively associated with civic mindedness β = .41, p < .01) and class engagement β = 0.21, p < .01). Also, civic mindedness is positively related to class engagement ( β = p < .01). Personal need for structure moderates the relationship between civic mindedness and class engagement ( β = 0. 38, p < .01). Theoretical and practical implications and limitations were also provided in this study.
... "Values" enter into many psychological theories through the notion of goal pursuits (Emmons, 1986(Emmons, , 1999. Some of these theories are concerned with innate drives and other aspects of behavior and the motivational system that do not meaningfully engage with reasoning, reflection, or valuation, which makes them an ungainly fit with Tiberius' theory. ...
Article
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This paper integrates Valerie Tiberius’ theory of wellbeing as value-fulfillment with a range of complementary theories from psychology, especially the psychology of the self. These theories include self-discrepancy theory, self-determination theory, self-verification theory, theories of multiple selves from developmental psychology, and the notion of contingencies of self-worth. Tiberius argues that wellbeing consists in the fulfillment of “appropriate” values, which are those values that are “emotionally, motivationally, and cognitively suited to a person.” The psychological theories and empirical results integrated herein provide a great deal of depth regarding how emotions, motivations, and cognitions fit together to guide processes of goal achievements and self-actualization, which is how psychologists speak of value-fulfillment. This depth allows Tiberius’ theory to respond more forcefully to a range of critiques, and also to explain the process by which appropriate values are identified, refined, and affirmed.
... Research indicates that the sense of belonging, along with all other primary goods, needs to be presented in individuals' lives to some extent if they are to achieve high levels of wellbeing (Baer, 2003(Baer, , 2010Burke, 2010;Chiesa & Serretti, 2009;Emmons, 1999;Greenberg & Harris, 2012;Hofmann et al., 2010;Keng et al., 2011;Luberto et al., 2014;Zoogman et al., 2015). Developers of models based on inclusion conclude: "The chances of successfully achieving the caring aims will be enhanced if clinicians have acquired the virtues of attentiveness, responsiveness, and respectfulness" (Ward & Salmon, 2011, p. 12). ...
Article
Spiritual criminology (SC) is an umbrella term for various criminological theories, models and practices that share reference to the spiritual dimension of human existence. Informed by a growing body of research that applies spiritual approaches to various aspects of criminology, SC attempts to provide a common thread shared by most approaches to spirituality: a voluntary self-journey that begins with an elevated level of self-centeredness and is aimed at self-transformation. Based on an extensive review of the literature, this paper proposes three general principles for spiritual accompaniment of people who offended: mindful non-doing, being and acting; love and compassion; and compassionate inclusion. These principles can be applied by combining several practices: renouncing control over knowledge, process and outcomes; creating a moral atmosphere that includes forgiveness and nonjudgment; and self-modeling. SC is shown to contribute to the rehabilitation of people who offended and also to crime prevention. Keywords compassion, forgiveness, non-doing, mindfulness, spiritual criminology
... Commitment to spiritual growth. 13 Keeping Higher Self in charge. 14 Living your purpose and values. ...
Article
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As we all know that today's adolescents are facing more challenges and opportunities in this age of the Google world. Reducing their stress and improving their well-being is a very important issue. Emotional intelligence allows us to judge in which situation we are involved and then to behave appropriately within it. Spiritual intelligence allows us to ask if we want to be in this particular situation in the first place. Spiritual Intelligence has a significant influence on the quality of life and success of Adolescents in 21 st century which needs to be understood.
... Global goals are individuals' ideals, states, or objects toward which they work to be, obtain, accomplish, or maintain [22,23]. Common global goals include relationships, work, health, [24]. Subjective feelings of meaning refer to a sense of "meaningfulness" or purpose in life [19,25]. ...
Chapter
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Taking a positive psychology perspective on cancer survivorship, this chapter focuses on three interrelated topics: meaning, spirituality, and perceived growth. The meaning-making model (Park, Psychological Bulletin 136:257–301, 2010a; Park, Stress, coping, and meaning. In: Folkman S (ed.), Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 227–41), 2010b) serves as a framework for discussing current research in meaning, spirituality, and perceived growth within psycho-oncology. A brief overview of this meaning-making model is presented, and literature regarding meaning in the context of cancer is reviewed. A description of research on spirituality, an important aspect of meaning in the lives of many survivors, follows. Perceptions of stress-related growth, a product of meaning-making that has been receiving a great deal of attention within psycho-oncology research, is the third positive psychology topic discussed. Clinical implications and future research directions conclude the chapter. Importantly, because cancer survivorship spans a continuum from diagnosis through treatment and far beyond, and because survivors’ experiences of cancer change across this continuum, this chapter attends to the ways that issues of meaning, spirituality, and perceived growth may differ across the survivorship continuum and begins with an overview of this continuum.
... Over the few last decades, human spirituality and its empowerment have been noticed as an important issue (Karami & Imani, 2014). The importance of spirituality has also been highly emphasized in recent studies conducted in educational psychology (Emmons, 1999;Vaughan, 2002;Zohar, 2005). Spiritual intelligence is explained by Zohar and Marshall (2000) as the intelligence which helps individuals to gain a better understanding of meanings and values, the intelligence which guides them to see actions and life from wider, meaning-based perspective, the intelligence which gives them the ability to evaluate different pathways in life and helps them to choose the more meaningful ones. ...
Article
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Highlighting the key role of EFL teachers in academic performance of students in particular and the success of educational systems in general, the present study attempted to investigate the relationship between EFL teachers' spiritual intelligence and their burnout level. For this purpose, 100 EFL teachers (50 males and 50 females) working at different private language institutes in Mashhad, Iran participated in the study. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SIRI) were used to gather the required data from the participants. The results revealed a significant negative relationship between the EFL teachers' spiritual intelligence and their burnout level. Furthermore, the correlations between the different subscales of the variables were reported. The results indicated that there were not any statistically significant differences between the male and female participants with regard to both their spiritual intelligence and their burnout.
... The expectation of a highly religious environment is that it will be driven by high self-commitment given the strong morals required by the religion. This should translate into a high work ethic as the perception of work as a divine calling is expected to be an imperative in such societies (Emmons, 2003;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997;McCullough & Willoughby, 2009;Mahoney et al., 2005). Yet, this outcome is not reflected in the current study's results. ...
Article
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Studies on the determinants of financial development have been silent on the role of religion. Growing evidence in the literature about how financial development positively affects economic growth and development highlights a greater interest in understanding the determinants of financial development. Despite the growing interest in this direction, less focus has been given to the role of religion in financial development. Using data from the World Values Survey, this study explores the relationship between finance and religion. In this study, finance is modelled through different measures of financial development and religion is represented by the intensity of religiosity. Results showed that on average there is a significant negative relationship. Subsequent analysis showed that as countries become financially developed, this negative relationship becomes insignificant. The quantile regression technique was employed to capture the nature of the relationship at different levels. The analysis showed that as countries become financially developed, the negative relationship becomes insignificant to financial development. These results account for some of the differences in the level of financial development between developed and developing countries where the latter tend to be more religious than the former.
... It seems that apart from supporting activities and psychoeducation, promotional activities can play a huge role in this area. Getting to know oneself, orientation to personal development, raising emotional intelligence, increasing social competences and the ability to set and implement one's goals -these are the resources of an individual that contribute to their well-being (Emmons, 2003) and are a precondition for self-fulfi lment (Deci, Ryan, 2002). Therefore, it is worth taking such actions, regardless of current problems and confl icts. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... It seems that apart from supporting activities and psychoeducation, promotional activities can play a huge role in this area. Getting to know oneself, orientation to personal development, raising emotional intelligence, increasing social competences and the ability to set and implement one's goals -these are the resources of an individual that contribute to their well-being (Emmons, 2003) and are a precondition for self-fulfi lment (Deci, Ryan, 2002). Therefore, it is worth taking such actions, regardless of current problems and confl icts. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... It seems that apart from supporting activities and psychoeducation, promotional activities can play a huge role in this area. Getting to know oneself, orientation to personal development, raising emotional intelligence, increasing social competences and the ability to set and implement one's goals -these are the resources of an individual that contribute to their well-being (Emmons, 2003) and are a precondition for self-fulfi lment (Deci, Ryan, 2002). Therefore, it is worth taking such actions, regardless of current problems and confl icts. ...
Chapter
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... It seems that apart from supporting activities and psychoeducation, promotional activities can play a huge role in this area. Getting to know oneself, orientation to personal development, raising emotional intelligence, increasing social competences and the ability to set and implement one's goals -these are the resources of an individual that contribute to their well-being (Emmons, 2003) and are a precondition for self-fulfi lment (Deci, Ryan, 2002). Therefore, it is worth taking such actions, regardless of current problems and confl icts. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The book presents the authorial model of the psychologist's work at school which assumes that this work should include monitoring of the educational process taking place at school, followed by extensive promotional activities, prevention and, in the event of problems, intervention. The model allows holistic approaches to the psychologist's activity in the school environment, including planning and checking the effectiveness of his/her actions, which were described with reference to school realities.
... The abstract sense of Khudi has been described by Maslow (1943) as the state of self-actualization and later self-transcendence; based on the meaning of life (Maslow, 1967(Maslow, , 1968(Maslow, , 1969. Emmons (1999) viewed the goal of self-transcendent is to know the purpose of life.They are compassionate, philanthropic, and highly determined toward entrepreneurial goals while taking oneself and society together. They know their skills, achieve goals, and help others to grow. ...
Article
What motivates an individual to become an entrepreneur is at the heart of entrepreneurship research, although the topic is nebulous and requires further elaboration. Extrinsic motivation has always been related to understanding the entrepreneurial motivation of underdog entrepreneurs. We contribute to a more practical understanding of their many motivations, which are not always extrinsic. For this, we conceptualize a matrix based on self-esteem and its levels where we unearth self-esteem as the underlying factor of their motivation. This effort extends the theory of push-pull entrepreneurship. It can be used in future studies to investigate the matrix further.
... In other words, in individuals for whom AA philosophy is an important value, this importance translates into an attitude in life manifesting itself in a specific perception of reality, the emotional attitude to it, and the behaviour towards it. Additionally, like other religious meaning systems, it can influence the formation of goals for self-regulation [115,116]. ...
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Involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an important psychosocial factor for the recovery of alcohol-dependent individuals. Recent studies have confirmed the beneficial role of involvement in AA for abstinence and reduction in drinking alcohol. Little is known about the mechanism underlying the relationship between involvement in AA and subjective well-being. This study aims to verify whether in a sample of Polish AA participants involvement in AA is indirectly related to subjective well-being through existential well-being consisting of hope and meaning in life. The achieved results have confirmed that involvement in AA is positively related to existential well-being, which in turn positively predicts subjective well-being including life satisfaction as well as positive and negative affect. It was confirmed that AA involvement in self-help groups indirectly via existential well-being is related to subjective well-being. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... Educational systems, thus, should play a key role in providing a safe, caring, and validating environment for meaning exploration and commitment processes. This may assist young people in achieving better academic performance (Martin Sanz & Rodrigo, 2017) and developing a deeper sense of engagement with life and social connectedness (Noble-Carr et al., 2014), as well as influencing their goals, aims, and life paths (Emmons, 1999). A sense of meaning in life may also contribute to resilience and coping with challenging situations (e.g., Hamby et al., 2020) and to a greater sense of hope (e.g., Feldman & Snyder, 2005). ...
Article
Education is among the most powerful gateways to social change and mobility. It is also a potentially vital backbone for the development of young people’s sense of meaning, purpose, and responsibility, enhancing their ability to face the unique challenges of our volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) world. The global scale of the current wave of political and social changes heightens the need for a renewed examination of the educational system and its challenges. This paper asserts the importance of education for meaning and meaningful education as essential ingredients in preparing children and adolescents for the changing and uncertain world of the future. Yet meaning in life, which is almost unanimously recognized as a fundamental component of subjective well-being, has received little attention in education. This paper considers empirical evidence of the importance of meaning to the education and healthy development of children and adolescents and then proposes a heuristic model for intervention.
... Religion is important because it plays a major role in the self-concept and social reality for many people (Emmons, 1999;Wimberly, 1989). Religion is also associated with the founding (Yan et al., 2018) and persistence of socially responsible investments (Peifer, 2011), and potentially creates substantial identity expectations (Ysseldyk et al., 2010), particularly in Christianity and Isalm (Gümüsay, 2020;Smith et al., 2021). ...
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While research has focused on financial and social goals in impact investing, we add to the limited research that focuses on how individuals manage identity multiplicity , defined as three or more role identities. Based on our qualitative study of Christian impact investors, we develop a model of identity multiplicity work, explaining how individuals manage their multiple role identities (financial, social, and religious) to reduce identity tensions during the process of impact investing. We find individuals engaged in an interactive, ongoing three-step process of identity multiplicity work: prioritizing one of their salient identities, managing their identity multiplicity interrelationships, and reinforcing their prioritized identity. Investors generally prioritized an identity that was neither financial nor social, but rather religious. We also find this identity work implemented through three novel mechanisms: shadowing , one identity casts a shadow over another thereby enabling the simultaneous pursuit of related goals; distinguishing , all identities are retained and at least a minimum threshold of role expectations are met; and surrendering , partial sacrificing of goals of one (or more) identity in favor of another identity based on an individual’s self-reflective importance of the role. Our findings offer new insights to multiple identities, impact investing and business ethics literatures.
... Spirituality is the search for sacred elements, meaning-seeking, high awareness and transcendence; while spiritual intelligence includes the ability to use such subjects to predict a person's ability to function and adapt, leading to valuable results. Emmons (1999Emmons ( , 2000aEmmons ( , 2000b offers various definitions of intelligence, but the core of all these definitions is the focus on problem-solving to adapt and to achieve goals. For example, Emmons (2000aEmmons ( , 2000b defines intelligence as the ability to achieve goals in the face of obstacles based on decisions that are based on rational principles. ...
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One of the critical crises observed in human society, especially in the so-called advanced and industrial societies, is the spiritual crisis. Spirituality in various types of cultural and religious concepts is considered a spiritual path one in which can achieve something like a high level of consciousness, wisdom or union with God. In addition, self-esteem is a sense of worth. This feeling comes from the sum of our thoughts, feelings, emotions and experiences throughout life. Dignity also means honour and pride, which has been mentioned many times in the Qur’an. In contrast to dignity, there is humiliation, which means lack of dignity in which one simply accepts defeat. Religious teachings, especially Islamic teachings, do not summarise dignity as wealth, luxury and the enjoyment of material possibilities, but interprets dignity as spirituality, and liberation from the shackles of worldliness, which give Muslims a moral identity. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of moral identity between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem of Muslims. The statistical population includes 834 Muslim employees working in 20 branches of one Iranian university. Necessary data were collected by standard questionnaires. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) were used to analyse the data. According to the results of the analysis, there is a positive relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem of Muslims. There is also a positive relationship between moral identity and self-esteem. Furthermore, moral identity plays a mediating role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem, and it strengthens this relationship. Contribution: The present study proves the mediating role of ethical identity on the relationship between spiritual intelligence and self-esteem in an Islamic society.
... Research has shown that students are more likely to achieve concrete personal goals than goals in abstract terms (H€ ochli et al., 2018). Alessandri et al. (2020) claimed that self-set specific goals of moderate difficulty are associated with higher performance and it seems like this is exactly what the respondents described in the interviews; goals that provided a sense of meaning hence contributed to the feeling of having a specific and useful purpose in their everyday lives (Emmons, 1999). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify and describe how students experience academic coaching in higher education in Norway. Design/methodology/approach The study employed a descriptive and exploratory qualitative design where semi-structured interviews formed the basis for data collection. Thematic analysis was used as an analytic strategy to identify, organise and find patterns or themes that emerged from the data. Findings The findings showed that academic coaching positively influenced the respondents' ability to identify the necessary and efficient cognitive processes and metacognitive skills needed to cope with everyday scholastic challenges. Academic coaching affected the respondents' metacognitive skills and cognitive processes in terms of evolving their self-efficacy, self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, stress identification, goal identification, goal setting and development of new strategies. Research limitations/implications The findings in this study reflect the respondents' subjective opinions and further research is needed to validate these findings. Originality/value This article addresses a gap in the field of research by offering a descriptive pilot study and thematic analysis of students' experiences with academic coaching in Norway.
... Life goals, also defined as the desired states that individuals try to achieve and maintain through cognitive and behavioral strategies (Emmons, 1999), are considered an important component of happiness (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Previous studies have shown a significant relationship between purpose in life and need satisfaction (DeWitz et al., 2009;Ryff, 1989). ...
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This study examined the mediating role of self-control and goal striving in the relationship between need satisfaction, life goals and Internet addiction. A total number of 320 university students participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Need Satisfaction Scale, The Scale of Setting Life Goals with Respect to Positive Psychotherapy, Brief Self-Control Scale, Goal Striving Scale, Internet Addiction Test and Personal Information Form. Structural equation modeling and bootstrapping were used to test the hypothesized model. Structural equation modeling results provide evidence for indirect effects of need satisfaction on Internet addiction fully mediated by self-control and goal striving. Besides, goal striving and self-control fully mediated the relationship between life goals and Internet addiction. The findings emphasized the role of self-control and goal striving in explaining the relationship between life goals, need satisfaction and Internet addiction. The findings of the research were discussed in the light of the literature and research, and suggestions were presented.
... Modelul valori-în-acțiune (VIA) sau a virtuților din perspectiva psihologiei pozitive (Peterson și Seligman 2002)conține 6 virtuți și 24 de valori în acțiune care pot fi regăsite în toate culturile și tradițiile religioase: 1) înțelepciunea și cunoașterea (curiozitatea, plăcerea de a învăța, discernământul, inventivitatea, inteligența socială, simțul perspectivei); 2) curajul (vitejia, perseverența, integritatea); 3) umanitatea și iubirea (bunătatea și capacitatea de a iubi și a te lăsa iubit); 4) dreptatea (responsabilitatea cetățenească, imparțialitatea, spiritul de conducere); 5) cumpătarea (autocontrolul, prudența, umilința); 6) transcendența (aprecierea frumuseții, gratitudinea, speranța, spiritualitatea, iertarea, simțul umorului, entuziasmul), trăirile emoționale care apar în contextul diferitelor experien țe sau manifestări religioase și satisfacția vieții în contextul credinței religioase Un exemplu de abordarea științifică a mulțumirii este un studiu condus de Emmons prin care s-a examinat mulțumirea și recunoștința în viața cotidiană (Emmons, 1999). În cadrul studiului au fost cuprinși un grup de studenți de la specializarea psihologia sănătății cărora li s-a cerut să completeze într-un jurnal săptămânal propriile emoții, simptome fizice și comportamente sănătoase. ...
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Publicat în volumul ”Educație si formare în contextul provocării lumii contemporane”: http://psihoped.psiedu.ubbcluj.ro/resurse/2016%20A-Rosan%20V-Timis%20G-Hagau%20-%20Educatie%20si%20formare%20in%20contextul%20provocarilor%20lumii%20contemporane%20-%20Argonaut.pdf
... Lydon & Zanna, 1990;McGregor, Gailliot, Vasquez, & Nash, 2007;McGregor et al., 2010, b, Study 3;Sheldon, 2014;Thrash & Elliot, 2004;Yeager et al., 2014). Various theories of goal regulation characterize ideal values as general action-identifications (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987), system concepts (Carver & Scheier, 1998;Powers, 1973), personal project meanings (Little, 1993), ideal self-guides (Higgins, 1997), transsituational goals (Schwartz, 1992), or spiritual strivings (Emmons, 1999;) that orient people toward meaningful priorities they yearn to abide by (McGregor & Little, 1998). If so, focusing on them should activate the same buoyant BAS states that more concrete desires activate. ...
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Fidelity with self-transcendent values is hailed as a hallmark of mature and magnanimous character by classic psychological and philosophical theories. Dozens of contemporary experiments inspired by self-affirmation theory have also found that when people are under threat, focus on self-transcendent values can confer magnanimity by improving psychological buoyancy (less anxious and more courageous, determined, and effective) and decreasing belligerence (less defensive, extreme, and hostile). The present research was guided by the postulate that both aspects of magnanimity—its buoyancy and its freedom from belligerence—arise from the approach motivated states that self-transcendent foci can inspire. Experimental manipulations of self-transcendent foci (values, spirituality, compassion) heightened state approach motivation as assessed by electroencephalography (Study 1, n = 187) and self-report (Study 2, n = 490). Further, even though the heightened approach motivation was transient, it mediated a longer-lasting freedom from moral (Study 1) and religious (Study 2) belligerence. Importantly, self-transcendent-focus effects on approach motivation and belligerence occurred only among participants with high trait meaning search scores. Results support an interpretation of meaningful values and spiritual ideals as self-transcendent priorities that operate according to basic motivational mechanics of abstract-goal pursuit. The transient, approach-motivated state aroused by transcendence-focus causes longer lasting relief from preoccupation with threat, leaving people feeling buoyant and generous. Relevance of results for self-affirmation theory and the psychology of spirituality are discussed.
... This review included published and unpublished randomized and non-randomized controlled trials published in English and Persian between January 2000 and November 2021. This period was chosen due to the introduction of the concept of spiritual intelligence in the academic literature of psychology in 1999 (Emmons, 2000(Emmons, , 1999, The studies with a non-exposed control group or the same group and single group pre-test post-test in experimental and quasi-experimental design were included if they assessed any self-report or objective measured quantitative data on spiritual intelligence interventions outcomes for nurses and nursing students using valid instruments. Observational and qualitative studies, conference abstracts and studies with concepts similar to spiritual intelligence such as spirituality were excluded. ...
Article
Aim To synthesize the best available research evidence regarding the effectiveness of spiritual intelligence educational interventions on spiritual intelligence and professional outcomes in nurses and nursing students. Background Spiritual intelligence is a form of intelligence with which individuals can deal with a crisis, alter situations, solve problems and achieve goals through a set of capacities and abilities. Possessing spiritual intelligence contributes to professional practice and competence in the workplace and has been seen to be beneficial for nurses and nursing students. Nursing interventions to teach and increase understanding of spiritual intelligence have been explored in the literature, but the effectiveness of spiritual intelligence training for nurses and nursing students remains uncertain. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources A three-step systematized search of sixteen electronic English and Persian databases was conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized trials published in English and Persian from January 2000 to November 2021. Methods The methodological quality of eligible studies was undertaken by two independent reviewers using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate using STATA v16. Results Seven studies involving 512 participants were included. Pooled results demonstrated that those who received the educational intervention had significantly higher spiritual intelligence scores at 2 weeks (MD 13.38, 95 % CI: 5.76, 20.99) and one month follow up (MD 20.03, 95% CI: 6.61, 33.45) compared with those who did not. No difference in spiritual intelligence scores was observed among those who received spiritual intelligence education or life skills training (MD 7.52, 95 % CI −1.78, 16.82). Significantly higher communication skills (MD 5.41, 95 % CI: 2.16, 8.66), job satisfaction (MD; 11.30, 95 % CI: 8.63, 13.97) and spiritual care competence (MD; 28.55, 95 % CI: 26.08, 31.02) and decrease in overall stress (MD; 10.30, 95 % CI: 6.84, 13.76) among those who received the educational interventions were reported at the one-month follow-up. Significantly higher job satisfaction levels were also reported at 2-month follow-up among those who received the educational interventions (MD; 16, 95 % CI: 11.06, 20.94). Conclusions The evidence from this review demonstrates that spiritual intelligence educational interventions have a positive effect on spiritual intelligence and professional outcomes in nurses and nursing students. We noted that the outcomes in the studies included were mostly measured at one-month follow-up and with subjective measures. Longer trials with objective measures are required to provide higher levels of evidence. The results of this review are largely based on single trials and were limited in terms of the number of outcomes. Conducting further trials is warranted to identify the influence of such education on various professional outcomes in nursing practice. Tweetable Abstract Systematic review and meta-analysis shows spiritual intelligence educational interventions have a positive effect on nurses' and nursing students’ spiritual intelligence, work-related stress and professional practice.
... Additionally, psychic intellect has been understood to be the opportunity to take action inside a caring additionally knowing way, preserving each interior and also external relaxed while looking after a person's personal wellbeing along with the wellness more (Wiggleworth, 2006). Emmons (1999) carried on to express that will faith based thinking ability guides around the latitudes with an knowledge of faith based ideas which will forecast procedures, versatility, as well as the capability so as to produce advantageous services, all of these are usually focused simply by religious brains. Mayer (2000) moved primary of spiritual mind far from considering ability plus in the direction of data in a higher-level regarding attention, according to Mayer (2000). ...
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between emotional and social intelligence and mil-lennial employees' involvement in the technology industry. The millennial generation was chosen as the target audience because, by 2025, they would account for 75% of the world's working population. This was a quantitative research in which primary data was collected through the use of a questionnaire. Also included in the study were self-reported questionnaires that were used to gather cross-sectional data. According to the findings of this study, both spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence are major drivers of employee engagement. So that millennia's' involvement can be improved, this study will give a deeper understanding of the function of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. This was the first survey of its sort to be conducted among mil-lennia's working in Malaysia's information and communications technology sector.
... Additionally, psychic intellect has been understood to be the opportunity to take action inside a caring additionally knowing way, preserving each interior and also external relaxed while looking after a person's personal wellbeing along with the wellness more (Wiggleworth, 2006). Emmons (1999) carried on to express that will faith based thinking ability guides around the latitudes with an knowledge of faith based ideas which will forecast procedures, versatility, as well as the capability so as to produce advantageous services, all of these are usually focused simply by religious brains. Mayer (2000) moved primary of spiritual mind far from considering ability plus in the direction of data in a higher-level regarding attention, according to Mayer (2000). ...
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Today SAIL is one of the largest industrial entities in India. Its strength has been the diversified range of quality Steel product catering to the domestic, as well as the export market sandal large pool of technical and professional expertise. Today, the accent in SAIL is to continuously adept to the competitive business environment and excel as a business organization, both within and outside in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate into the financial performance of Salem Steel Plant at Salam District, Tamilnadu understand their performance in a highly competitive environment. The study revealed that Salem Steel Plant in the study area have not performed well on all the parameters of financial performance. On plant performed best on one parameter, but worst on another which prove that the overall financial performance of the steels has not been quite good and all the Steel Plants have to make improvements on different fronts.
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Humility is thought to be associated with greater accuracy in self‐assessment. However, clear evidence is lacking. Two studies tested this central proposition. In Study 1 (N = 258), participants completed a task on logical reasoning before estimating both their raw and relative performance. Study 2 (N = 214) was aimed at replicating Study 1 with a task on English fluency. Results from both studies were consistent. There was evidence of overestimation bias across each sample in which participants’ estimated performance was higher than their actual performance. More importantly, humility was associated with less overestimation bias, such that the difference in estimated and actual performance was smaller or non‐existent among those higher in humility. We also replicated the Dunning–Kruger effect in which participants of lower ability in these skills (i.e., lower actual scores) were most likely to overestimate their performance. Further analyses found that the negative relationship between humility and overestimation bias was not moderated by actual performances. However, the same analyses revealed that the Dunning–Kruger effect was also not moderated by humility. Hence, there is strong replicable evidence that humility is associated with less overestimation bias, supporting the view that greater accuracy in self‐assessment is an attribute of humility, and that this relationship is independent of actual ability, but humility does not affect the robust Dunning–Kruger effect.
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Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and resilience in family caregivers of patients with chronic mental disorders referred to psychiatric clinics in Isfahan (Iran). Design and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 188 family caregivers. Data were collected using demographic characteristics checklist, spiritual intelligence self-report inventory, and Connor-Davidson resilience scale. Findings: There was a significant and positive relationship between resilience and spiritual intelligence, including all its components, among the family caregivers (p < 0.05) PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare managers are recommended to consider the components of spiritual intelligence and resilience in designing preventive, educational, and personal promotion interventions for patients with mental disorders.
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This introductory article to the thematic section on “Spiritual Intelligence” sets out the ways in which spiritual intelligence is currently conceptualized. Most prominently, spiritual intelligence is understood as an adaptive intelligence which enables people to develop their values, vision, and capacity for meaning. Questions arise as to whether spiritual intelligence is a distinct form of intelligence, and how to frame it if it is. It is questionable whether psychometric approaches justify concluding there is a distinct spiritual intelligence, and the authors reject any notion of a God spot in the brain specifically dedicated to spiritual intelligence, which is a much more broadly embodied phenomenon. The authors suggest that spiritual intelligence most likely makes use of existing cognitive architecture, though applied in a distinctive way. This article finishes with a brief introduction to the four main articles in this thematic section, which present spiritual intelligence as a kind of participation in transcendent being. The four articles approach the cognitive, embodied, meditative, and ritual aspects of spiritual intelligence as participation.
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The article examines the impact of different social environments on heritage education in the informal learning context of Heritage Hubs project, and considers these findings in comparison to experiences of learning about and from heritage in more formal settings. The data collected throughout the project is analysed and interpreted against the theoretical framework of situated learning theory. The findings indicate that introducing activities based on direct social encounters and immediate cultural niches (such as homes and local communities) into a formal educational context, makes a significant contribution to cultural heritage learning outcomes. The findings also show the advantages of group and communal activities over individual work in heritage education, without significant differences between the participating countries or schools. Finally, active participation in heritage processes is found to be an important agent of cultural understanding and development of cultural competencies. The core conclusion of the article is that heritage education is, in essence, a social learning process. Keywords: cultural heritage, heritage education, social learning, project-based learning.
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Workplace chaplaincy, a concrete manifestation of workplace spirituality, is defined as pastoral care serving the specific needs of people in workplaces. While scientific publications have so far emphasized its beneficial implications, scrutiny of the possible instrumentalization of workplace chaplaincy by the management has been neglected. Workplace chaplaincy can signify a real integration of spirituality implying a debate on the meaning of life and work, as well as a critical analysis of organizational structures and management (critical workplace spirituality). Just as well, it can be instrumentalized as a management technique to impel employees to achieve improved organizational results (positive workplace spirituality). This paper contributes to the management literature by elaborating decisive characteristics of a critical and positive workplace spirituality and discussing those characteristics that pertain to workplace chaplaincy. Furthermore, we provide a qualitative study on workplace chaplaincy illustrating a critical thought-provoking model facing different challenges, allegiances and logics in the secular working world. The elaborated characteristics and the qualitative study extend our understanding of workplace spirituality and chaplaincy as they provide a view beyond traditional management perspectives. Moreover, this paper contributes to the discussion what kind of spirituality and chaplaincy we are referring to in management theory and practice.
Chapter
Psychological correlates of cancer incidence, progression, and quality-of-life difficulties have been well-documented in the literature; however, recent developments in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) may provide further confirmation for the relationship between psychological factors and cancer. In this chapter, we review the current literature on how psychosocial factors (e.g., depression, marital support) and physiological processes (e.g., glucocorticoids) impact cancer incidence and progression. We then explore cutting-edge research on the biological mechanisms (e.g., bioenergetic health) that may explain quality-of-life difficulties among cancer survivors. Finally, we review studies that use biomarkers (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines) to evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention strategies.
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There is much to be gained from narratives and stories. This author’s perspective on transitioning from K-12 classrooms to higher education classrooms is one of many stories out there. The author acknowledges the experiences of others making the transition. The author wants to inform, educate, quicken, and inspire others in the unexpected journey into academia. There is much hope that the author’s story will provide a collective body of knowledge, reflections, and experiences to aid others in similar trajectories. This story is of a Christian woman of Chinese descent in academia. It offers a human side of academia, extrapolating the struggles and joy of making that transition.
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The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the employee spirituality scale. The employee spirituality scale was found to be a reliable measure with good internal consistency. The internal consistency of this instrument, measured with Cronbach’s � coefficient, was 0.94. Factor analysis confirmed the two-dimensional structure of this measure, the dimensions being: relationship to a Higher Power (God) and attitude towards workmates and employer. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between employee spirituality and job satisfaction, as well as age, and a negative correlation was found with their intent to leave their organization. According to expectation, the relationship to a Higher Power (God) as a religious dimension of employee spirituality was strong, positively related to religious practices and attitude towards workmates and employer, and a secular dimension of employee spirituality did not correlate with religious measures. Gender did not differentiate participants in terms of employee spirituality. The presented results provide evidence that the employee spirituality scale has good psychometric properties and is therefore recommended for use by researchers studying employee spirituality in Polish organizations.
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During the last decade, many organizations collapsed due to severe ethical crisis. Spiritual intelligence represents the extent to which higher values, meaning and a sense of purpose influence an individual’s decisions and actions. Spiritual intelligence concerns the ability to become more conscious of the lower motivations (i.e. fear, greed, ego) and how to transform these to higher motivations that are more sustainable (i.e. creativity, serving the community, etc.) The main objective of the current paper is to study the importance of Spiritual Quotient to restore ethical behaviour among the employees and thus promote organizational sustainability. Spiritual Quotient is the ultimate intelligence with which people address and solve the problems associated with meaning and value. Thus, the paper concludes that employee unethical behaviour in an organization can be solved through Spiritual Quotient and ethical values in organization.
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