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Motivational, Emotional, and Behavioral Correlates of Fear of Missing Out

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... If adolescents perceive rejection or low support from their parents, they experience negative emotions, such as fear, anxiety, and depression [13,28,29]. FoMO refers to one's desire to keep track of what others are doing due to the fear that one will fail to follow a trend in their group or be left out [30]. FoMO occurs when an individual lacks basic psychological needs of autonomy, proficiency, and relationship; deficiency in relationships particularly makes one fear being omitted from social relationships [30,31]. ...
... FoMO refers to one's desire to keep track of what others are doing due to the fear that one will fail to follow a trend in their group or be left out [30]. FoMO occurs when an individual lacks basic psychological needs of autonomy, proficiency, and relationship; deficiency in relationships particularly makes one fear being omitted from social relationships [30,31]. In other words, if individuals fail to satisfy basic psychological needs from their relationship with parents, they may experience heightened FoMO [28,29]. ...
... Adolescents with increased FoMO may attempt to ease negative feelings by focusing on others' experiences, building and maintaining relationships with them, and such behaviors can lead to PSU [55]. In addition, such adolescents tend to participate more heavily on social media without even noticing their psychological wellbeing; as this can create a vicious cycle, increasing the FoMO again, relevant management needs to take place [30,40]. ...
Based on problem behavior theory and interpersonal acceptance-rejection theory, this study aimed to examine the mediating roles of self-esteem and fear of missing out (FoMO) on the influence of parental support on adolescents' problematic smartphone use. This study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A total of 260 Korean adolescents from two public middle schools were selected through convenience sampling (female, 50.4%; mean age, 13.16 ± 0.84; range age, 12~15). Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing sociodemographic characteristics, parental support, self-esteem, FoMO, and problematic smartphone use. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and mediation analysis. The findings show that self-esteem and FoMO play a serial mediating role in the relationship between parental support and adolescents' problematic smartphone use. Specifically, parental support had a negative effect on adolescents' problematic smartphone use by increasing self-esteem but decreasing FoMO. These results provide further guidance in the prevention of and intervention of adolescent problematic smartphone use.
... Excessive use of smartphones among students can either assist their education [18] or cause distraction, waste students' time, and negatively affect their performance [7]. Researchers have shown that FoMO can lead to daily behaviors such as excessive social networks use, using smartphones before going to bed, immediately after waking up, and during meals [19]. Most studies have investigated the relationship between FoMO and smartphone addiction in developed countries, and no studies have examined this association in Iran. ...
... Most students with this addiction suffer from sleep disorders, poor eating habits, lack of energy, obesity, and poor academic performance [21]. Several factors can lead students to smartphone addiction, including emotional problems, loneliness, poor academic performance [1,3,6,8], and FoMO [19]. ...
... FoMO was conceptualized using self-determination theory (SDT) developed by Ryan and Deci (2000) [25] and used by Przybylski et al. (2013) to comprehend what causes FoMO [19]. Przybylski applied SDT to FoMO, suggesting that FoMO is a negative emotional state resulting from unmet social requirements. ...
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Background Fear of missing out (FoMO) can increase loneliness and smartphone addiction and decrease academic performance in university students. Most studies investigated the relationship between FoMO and smartphone addiction in developed countries, and no studies were found to examine this association in Iran. The mediating role of loneliness and academic performance in the relationship between FoMO and smartphone addiction is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between FoMO and smartphone addiction and the mediating role of loneliness and academic performance in this relationship in Iranian university students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 447 students from Urmia University of Medical Sciences were investigated. Data were collected using demographic questionnaires, Przybylski's FoMO scale, Pham and Taylor's academic performance questionnaire, Russell's loneliness scale, and Kwon's smartphone addiction scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 23 and SmartPLS ver. 2. Results FoMO had a positive and direct association with smartphone addiction (β = 0.315, t-value = 5.152, p < 0.01). FoMO also had a positive and direct association with students’ loneliness (β = 0.432, t-value = 9.059, p < 0.01) and a negative and direct association with students' academic performance (β = -0.2602, t-value = 4.201, p < 0.01). FoMO indirectly associated with smartphone addiction through students' loneliness (β = 0.311, t-value = 5.075, p < 0.01), but academic performance was not mediator of smartphone addiction (β = 0.110, t-value = 1.807, p > 0.05). FoMO also indirectly correlated with academic performance through students' loneliness (β =—0.368, t-value = 6.377, p < 0.01). Conclusions FoMO can be positively associated with students' smartphone addiction, and loneliness is an important mediator of this association. Since smartphone addiction could harm students' academic performance, thus, healthcare administrators should reduce students' loneliness and improve their academic performance by adopting practical strategies to help students to manage their time and control their smartphone use. Holding self-management skills classes, keeping students on schedule, turning off smartphone notifications, encouraging students to engage in sports, and participating in group and family activities will help manage FoMO and loneliness.
... Then, while examining the impacts of stressors of COVID-19, it is critical to examine the mediators that influence the emergence of problematic social media use. Fear of missing out is characterized as a constant fear that others may be enjoying gratifying experiences that one is not a part of, and the urge to keep up with what others are doing (36). The fear of missing out has grown ubiquitous in popular society (37,38). ...
... Eighty-one percent of participants in recent research of 936 people from various socio-demographic backgrounds reported experiencing fear of missing out at least periodically (39). Previous studies have found that the association between negative factors and social media engagement was mediated by fear of missing out (36). Meanwhile, fear of missing out was an important risk factor for social media engagement (37,40). ...
... We used the 10-item Fear of Missing Out Scale (36) to assess the missing out on social events and spending time with friends. Each item (e.g., I fear that my friends have more rewarding experiences than me.) was rated on a five-point scale (from 1 = Not at all true of me" to "5 = Extremely true of me). ...
Article
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Purpose Isolation policies are long-term and strictly enforced in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Social media might be widely used for communication, work, understanding the development of the epidemic, etc. However, these behaviors might lead to problematic social media use. The present study investigated the effect of stressors of COVID-19 on problematic social media use, as well as the internal mechanisms involved. Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-three Chinese college students ( M age = 19.53, SD age = 1.09) were recruited randomly from four grades who completed Coronavirus Stress Scale, Fear of Missing Out Scale, Problematic Mobile Social Media Usage Assessment Questionnaire, and Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale. Results Stressors of COVID-19 were positively related to problematic social media use. The link between stressors of COVID-19 and problematic social media use was mediated by fear of missing out. Additionally, the association between fear of missing out and problematic social media use, as well as the association between stressors of COVID-19 and problematic social media use were moderated by regulatory emotional self-efficacy. Conclusion The current findings reveal the mechanism that may be used to reduce the likelihood of problematic social media use in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak. To prevent and intervene in problematic social media use during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study stressed the importance of decreasing the fear of missing out and enhancing regulatory emotional self-efficacy.
... According to Przybylski et al. (2013), fear of missing out (FOMO) is a relatively recent phenomenon. The authors describe FOMO as a phenomenon marked by an intense want to stay connected to what others are doing and a widespread concern that others may hav e rewarding experiences while missing (Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
... According to Przybylski et al. (2013), fear of missing out (FOMO) is a relatively recent phenomenon. The authors describe FOMO as a phenomenon marked by an intense want to stay connected to what others are doing and a widespread concern that others may hav e rewarding experiences while missing (Przybylski et al., 2013). According to Zang et al. (2020), fear of missing out is a psychological feeling, the dread that a person experiences when they miss out. ...
... Numerous studies have shown an increased frequency and acceptability of grieving symptoms such as FOMO and loneliness among newly minted university students (Tarsha, 2016, Adams et al., 2017. These findings were anticipated, given the connection between FOMO and the desire for relatedness (Przybylski et al., 2013) and the association between loneliness and the urge to belong (Berezan et al., 2020). Individuals who felt more lonely engaged in more FOMO. ...
Article
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Fear of missing out (FOMO) is a relatively new syndrome that has emerged in recent years due to the rapid development of social media platforms. It is becoming increasingly prevalent, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fear of missing out and loneliness and predict loneliness by examining two degrees of fear of missing out in participants. 354 Vietnamese undergraduate students from three universities responded to the Fear of Missing Out questionnaire, with 349 of those responses being valid for study purposes. It was discovered through the study's findings that there is a positive association between loneliness and the fear of missing out (FOMO), with two components of FOMO, namely the personal and societal aspects, being predictive of loneliness. The outcomes of this study will have implications for our understanding of loneliness and the fear of missing out, as well as for the treatment of mental illnesses.
... Problematic social media use, particularly overuse, can cause symptoms similar to those seen in substance addictions (e.g., withdrawal, conflict, and loss of control; Blackwell et al., 2017;Bloemen & De Coninck, 2020;Chang et al., 2015;de Calheiros Velozo & Stauder, 2018;Durak, 2018;Elhai, Dvorak, Levine, & Hall, 2017;. In contrast, despite recent data supporting its significance in various adverse outcomes (Scott & Woods, 2018), fear of missing out (FoMO) (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell, 2013) was first introduced to identify a probable particular pathway to high social media engagement. ...
... FoMO is an issue that has lately gained attraction among secondary school students due to increased social media use (D'Lima and Higgins, 2021). This syndrome has been defined as anxiety in which a person is obsessively worried about missing out on a chance for social connection, a pleasant experience, a profitable investment, or other enjoyable activities (Przybylski et al., 2013). Scholars have identified FoMO as a critical and emerging feature of social media's dark side (Oberst et al., 2017;Tandon, Kaur, Dhir, & Mäntymäki, 2020). ...
... Our results also show that there was a significant, positive, and weak relationship between FoMO levels and social media engagement. Higher FoMO was linked to more social media engagement in previous research (Przybylski et al., 2013;Stead & Bibby, 2017 2016). In our study, there was no significant difference between the FoMO levels of the students in terms of gender. ...
... with an online social media environment. They defined it as "a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" (Przybylski et al., 2013(Przybylski et al., , p. 1841. Different researchers have confirmed the harmful effects that FoMO may generate on people. ...
... There are two facets of FoMO. The first facet is "self-initiated" and comes from within and what their friends are up to (Przybylski et al., 2013). Due to FoMO, individuals may modify their normal behaviour and take action, like purchasing a product, due to strong influence that is felt from their surroundings, like peer pressure, not to feel isolated, excluded from their group or an opportunity to 'fit in' (Abel, Buff and Burr, 2016, p. 35). ...
... Nowadays, digital media, which includes online advertising, may amplify the idea of communities and networks in social media, which may result in added social pressures (Hampton, Rainie, Lu, Shin and Purcell, 2015). Przybylski et al. (2013) argue that individuals frequenting social media sites may well be more prone to adverse psychological responses to positive experiences in other people's lives. Hence, the FoMO sensation reverberates in these situations. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract The educator in modern society interacts with a diverse group of children/students when she/he works with or teaches extremely heterogenous groups of individuals who may be characterised by diversity that is not only cultural and linguistic in nature, but also moral. A similar situation arises in terms of moral customs, modes of behaviour and habits. A whole range of lifestyles and normative opinions converge at school and in the classroom. Consequently, educators need methods and sound knowledge in order to be able to address moral and ethical problems. According to Banks, Stárek, the most controversial area of ethics in helping professions is the conflict between ethical values and principles. The job of educators is becoming more and more complicated and demanding. Educators have to increasingly take into account the voice and reaction of parents. Students are more diverse. School management is becoming more professional and more administratively complex. Schools and other institutions are newly defined and there are changes in legislation and key documents. Consequently, educators have to work strategically in a field that is increasingly more determined by the social and personal interests of higher positions along with cashflow/economy, legal frameworks and political power. On the other hand, it is becoming increa+63singly clear that the core of the teaching profession includes not only teaching but also the relationship with students and parents. Educators can barely cope with the speed of changes in the teaching profession when they have to protect its core and sometimes even fight for it, not only in schools but even in society, where the issue of teacher status is often addressed. Educators can better protect themselves and have a professional space to defend the quality of their profession. Professional ethics can play an important role in this task. For the teacher, it is not a top-down ethics but the ethics of educators that frames what governs and interconnects teaching professionals. The research sample consisted of teaching staff working at a primary school in Prague. The teachers work in the first stage of primary school. The selected primary school has a code of ethics as an internal regulation. In total, five interviews with teachers were conducted. Respondents agreed that the Code of Ethics and Ethical Decision-making Model are good support for their professional practice. They are primarily useful in the communication process, especially when talking to children, colleagues and parents.
... Considering the depth of informedness regarding grouprelated information needs, we investigate the role played by social media users' FOMO. It is defined as a "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" (Przybylski et al., 2013(Przybylski et al., , p. 1841, leading to a desire to constantly stay connected with what others are doing. Based on the psychological need for belonging, FOMO thus drives some to continuously seek the social information needed to determine their position in the social hierarchy (Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
... It is defined as a "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" (Przybylski et al., 2013(Przybylski et al., , p. 1841, leading to a desire to constantly stay connected with what others are doing. Based on the psychological need for belonging, FOMO thus drives some to continuously seek the social information needed to determine their position in the social hierarchy (Przybylski et al., 2013). Social media platforms are considered an especially suitable resource for keeping in touch with peers, and FOMO has been found to be associated with more intensive use of social media (e.g., Bloemen & De Coninck, 2020;Franchina et al., 2018). ...
... FOMO was measured using the ten-item Fear of Missing Out Scale (Przybylski et al., 2013). Participants provided their answers on a 7-point scale ranging from "does not apply at all" (1) to "applies fully" (7). ...
Article
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In recent years, much research has—more or less candidly—asked whether the use of social media platforms is “making us dumber” (Cacciatore et al., 2018). Likewise, discussions around constructs such as the news-finds-me perception or illusions of knowledge point to concerns about social media users being inadequately informed. This assessment of inadequacy, explicitly or implicitly, builds on the ideal of the informed citizen with a broad interest in current affairs who knows about all important societal issues. However, research has largely ignored what citizens themselves understand as “being informed.” Accordingly, this research project asks what people actually want to be informed about, which user characteristics predict different self-concepts of informedness, and how both of these aspects relate to feelings of being informed in the context of social media platforms. Based on a preregistered, national representative survey of German social media users ( n = 1,091), we find that keeping up with news and political information is generally less important for people than staying informed about their personal interests and their social environment. However, feelings of being informed through social media are most strongly predicted by how suitable a given social media platform is perceived to be for keeping up-to-date with current affairs. This suggests that while information needs are diverse and related to different sociodemographic and personal characteristics, most people indeed seem to associate “being informed” with political information and news.
... These are operationalized as latent orientations reflected by the participants' activities, both holding a strong social component, and differing from the typical operationalization of self-reported total media use time, or "screen time". Although the below described two orientations (social media networking and gaming orientation) do not capture the whole complexity of digital media engagement, they provide information on two debated facets of digital participation, both of which share a deep underlying social dimension (Kaarakainen & Saikkonen, 2019) and engagement that is likely to be motivated by basic psychological needs (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell, 2013;Ryan, Rigby, & Przybylski, 2006), especially in adolescence. ...
... Thus comprising a mix of private, synchronous and asynchronous social media activities that can be defined as interactive social media use (Valkenburg et al., 2021). Similar operationalizations have been utilized in earlier research (Huang, 2017;Zhang & Leung, 2015), and can be seen driven by the need to belong to a peer group and to keep up with peers (Barker, 2009;Dhir, Yossatorn & Kaur, 2018;Hakkarainen et al., 2015;Hietajärvi, Seppä & Hakkarainen, 2016;Li et al., 2016;Przybylski et al, 2013). Such social networking consists of various activities of interaction with friends and other people through social media, as well as the pressures of keeping up one's own social media presence (Uski & Lampinen, 2016) and seems to be a slightly more prominent among girls than boys (Smahel et al., 2020). ...
... In line with demands-resources model in the context of academic functioning (Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2014), we expected that when students show elevated drive for social media networking compared with their own typical level, they shall consequently show higher overall school burnout (Hietajärvi et al, 2019) and lower academic performance (Liu et al., 2017), due to increased psychosocial demands related to keeping up with the social media information flow (Przybylski et al., 2013). With respect to gaming orientation, we expected that when students show a stronger preference to engage in gaming, they shall consequently show higher school burnout (Hietajärvi et al, 2019) and lower academic performance (Ferguson, 2015). ...
Preprint
The years of adolescence form a crucial period in students’ academic path, as it is during these years that the maladaptive or adaptive academic pathways begin to diverge. Simultaneously, the unsupervised engagement with digital media begins a sharp increase during these years. The dynamics between these have been a recent topic of concern – does engagement with digital media contribute to maladaptive academic pathways? By applying the demands-resources framework we examined the longitudinal within-person relations among social media networking and gaming orientations, school burnout, and academic performance from 7th to 9th grade (age 13 to 16). The participants were 1,834 (41% male) Finnish students. The data were analyzed using multiple-indicator random-intercept cross-lagged panel models. The results indicated that when students showed elevated social media networking orientation, they showed increased school burnout later in adolescence, and vice versa. Further, both elevated burnout and poorer academic performance predicted increased gaming orientation. Controversially, poorer academic functioning appeared to predict increased digital engagement.
... However, excessive use of OSM can lead to addiction in a minority of cases, disrupting the lives of such individuals. One of the possible contributory causes of OSM addiction is fear of missing out (FoMO), where individuals become constantly preoccupied with what others are doing online and feel unable to log off in case they miss something [5]. ...
... FoMO has been one of the most studied concepts in the past decade. FoMO has been defined as "a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" [5]. In modern society, young people spend a lot of time posting things on social media, following current trends with their friends, and constantly updating their status [6,7]. ...
... It has been reported that increased use of social media can lead to anxiety among some users with regards to missing out on new experiences and opportunities [8]. Individuals who experience FoMO have a desire to know what others are currently doing elsewhere [5]. When individuals have more opportunities or options for activities to participate in, they have more difficulty in choosing between them. ...
Article
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Background In online environments, fear of missing out (FoMO) is where individuals become constantly preoccupied with what others are doing online and feel unable to log off in case they miss something. FoMO is a concept associated with the use of online social media (OSM; e.g., Facebook use, Instagram use) and various scales have been developed to assess the concept. One such scale is the Online Fear of Missing Out (On-FoMO) Inventory. The present study translated the On-FoMO Inventory into Turkish and its main aim was to test the validity and reliability of the scale. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationships between FoMO, social media addiction, smartphone addiction, and life satisfaction. Methods A total of 419 participants (289 females and 130 males, mean age = 25.43 years, SD = 6.37) completed a self-report questionnaire including the On-FoMO Inventory, Fear of Missing Out Scale, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. In the adaptation process of the On-FoMO Inventory, confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity, and reliability analyses were performed. Results The four-factor structure of the On-FoMO Inventory was confirmed and the Turkish version of the scale demonstrated good reliability. Online FoMO was positively related to social media addiction and smartphone addiction, and negatively related to life satisfaction. Conclusion The results showed that the Turkish version of the On-FoMO Inventory has strong psychometric properties.
... FoMO is the individual's fear of missing out on environments they cannot participate in and the feeling that other people are having a good time in those environments (Gökler et al., 2016). Individuals with high levels of FoMO tend to check social media via their smartphones to see what other people are doing or to avoid missing out on rewarding experiences (Przybylski et al., 2013). Individuals with a high FoMO level usually deal with their smartphones for a different topic than the current topic in their interpersonal relationships. ...
... The concept of FoMO has grown in importance since the internet and social media have secured their place at the center of human life. FoMO can be explained as people having negative emotions after seeing happy posts of other people on social media (Przybylski et al., 2013). People with high levels of FoMO instinctively want to spend more time on their social media accounts and smartphones (Duan et al., 2020). ...
... FoMO Scale. FoMO scale was developed by Przybylski et al., (2013) adapted into Turkish by Gökler et al., (2016). The scale was developed to measure individuals' fear of missing out. ...
Article
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Phubbing among undergraduate has become an area of increasing research interest in recent years. In recent years, studies on phubbing have increased. However, no empirical study has deal with the mediating effect of fear of missing out (FoMO) on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The dark triad refers to three personality traits: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Machiavellianism is characterized by prioritizing one’s own wishes and desires. Psychopathy, is a personality trait where lack of emotion and self-control is seen. Narcissism is characterized by low empathy and egocentrism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether FoMO mediator between dark triad and phubbing among undergraduates. For this purpose, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method was used. Mediation analyses were performed using AMOS 22.00. The present study comprised 506 undergraduate (%70.7 female; %29.3 male). The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 29 (x = 22.41).The measures used included the General Scale of Phubbing, Fear of Missing Out Scale, and Dirty Dozen Scale. The results showed that FoMO mediated the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The results of bootstrapping procedure indicated that the indirect effect of FoMO on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing was significant. In conclusion, the study suggests that FoMO is a meaningful mediator in the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. Research results are discussed in the light of the related literature and suggestions are presented for future researchers.
... According to Przybylski et al. (2013), FoMO is defined as "a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent, FoMO is characterized by the desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing" (p. 1841). ...
... In addition to Przybylski et al. (2013) definition of FoMO, there are different definitions, and FoMO has been defined by scholars in both social media contexts (online) and offline behavior (Dinh & Lee, 2021;Zhang et al., 2020). For instance, FoMO is characterized by Wortham (2011) as a rise in anxiety, inadequacy/deficiency, and anger experienced by people when utilizing social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram. ...
... Furthermore, scholars have studied FoMO through different theoretical approaches. For instance, self-determination theory (SDT; Beyens et al., 2016;Przybylski et al., 2013), the stressstrain-outcome (SSO) model (Dhir et al., 2018;, social comparison theory (Reer et al., 2019;Talwar et al., 2019), uses and gratifications theory (UGT; Conlin et al., 2016;Wolniewicz et al., 2018), compensatory internet use theory (CIUT; Elhai et al., 2018;Tandon et al., 2020), and the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model Wegmann et al., 2017) have been used as theoretical lenses in previous FoMO research. ...
Article
Fear of missing out (FoMO) is a psychological construct that recently emerged in the age of social media. This study aims to provide an overview of the progress on FoMO research and offer a future research agenda based on FoMO-related scientific articles published. We carried out this aim using a two-stage methodological approach, based on an initial pool of 314 peer-reviewed articles in the Scopus database: (1) co-citation analysis, a bibliometric analysis technique, with a subset of 103 articles to show how FoMO research develops intellectually; and (2) a systematic review to discuss clusters that emerged after co-citation analysis. Results of the co-citation analysis uncovered four clusters: (1) social media, (2) negative affectivity, (3) problematic social media use, and (4) problematic smartphone use. We discuss the content of each cluster in the context of central themes, key theoretical influences, and characteristic methodological approaches. We also present a future research agenda based on this discussion. In conclusion, this study provides an up-to-date overview that can assist researchers in understanding and designing future FoMO research and for practitioners to improve the well-being of society or users.
... Excessive use of the Internet for entertainment can lead to neglecting activities of daily life such as studying, social relationships, and relaxation (Davis, 2001). FoMO is currently described as "a pervasive apprehension that others may have rewarding experiences from which one is absent" and is characterized by "the desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing" (Przybylski et al., 2013). Previous research has highlighted the positive association between FoMO, depression and anxiety (Elhai et al., 2016(Elhai et al., , 2020, as well as a negative association with well-being (Stead & Bibby, 2017). ...
... Some research has shown that boys have higher PIU levels (Akbaş et al., 2019), however others have found no gender differences (Smahel et al., 2012). Similarly, FoMO has been shown to vary by gender (Rozgonjuk et al., 2021) or to be higher in boys (Przybylski et al., 2013). Research with gifted students has shown no gender differences (Kurnaz & Tepe, 2019). ...
... Therefore, changing relationships in the wake of the pandemic may increase the level of loneliness among adolescents. In addition, loneliness is associated with PIU and FoMO (Przybylski et al., 2013). Although previous researches on mediating effects of PIU and FoMO has provided insight into underlying mechanisms to elucidate the relationship between peer perception and loneliness, some further areas of investigation can be explored. ...
Article
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The current study examined the effects of Internet usage characteristics and peer perception on loneliness. The mediating role of Internet usage characteristics was examined in the relationship between loneliness and peer perception. The sample included 661 Turkish adolescents (Ngirls =379, 57.34%; Ngifted= 211, 31.92%) aged 11–18 years. Structural equation model analyzes were conducted to test the hypothesis model across the group. Moreover, multigroup structural model was conducted to test the differences of the relationships across gifted and normally developing adolescents. The results of the structural model showed that Internet use characteristics did not have a mediating role in the relationship between adolescents’ peer perception and loneliness. On the other hand, problematic Internet use had a full mediator role in the relationship between fear of missing out and loneliness. The results of the multigroup structural model emphasized the similar effects between the research variables in gifted and normally developing adolescents. The results were discussed with the effects of Internet use characteristics and peer perception on loneliness. We also pointed out that gifted and normally developing adolescents have similar social and technological outcomes and that these outcomes influence mental health.
... If one receives a message or call, most people will reply in time (16). The fear of missing out is a psychological state in which other people might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent, can become an issue (29). Previous research has shown that this fear increases the desire to remain in touch with others and is the main driver of PSU (30). ...
... The 10-item FoMO scale was developed by Przybylski et al. (29). The scale reflects current anxiety of missing out on social events and getting along with friends. ...
... Items are rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all true of me) to 4 (extremely true of me). The scale has evidenced adequate internal consistency and good reliability and validity in multiple studies (29,43,44). In the present sample, the Cronbach's alpha for the FoMO was 0.90 (McDonald's Omega ω = 0.90). ...
Article
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AimThe objective of this study was to evaluate the Chinese version of the Smartphone Distraction Scale (C-SDS), which is an easy-to-use tool for screening the risk of smartphone distraction in Chinese college students.Methods The C-SDS, Smartphone Addiction Scale - Short Version (SAS-SV), Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMO) and Metacognition about Smartphone Use Questionnaire (MSUQ) were used in a sample of 1,002 Chinese college students to test smartphone distraction and its influencing factors. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to test measurement properties and factor structures of the C-SDS. Multi-variable linear regressions examined the relationships of sex, age, education level, the purpose of using a smartphone, usage of smartphone (hours per day), fear of missing out, smartphone addiction and positive and negative metacognitions about smartphone use with the C-SDS.ResultsThe EFA showed a 3-factor structure, which consisted of attention impulsiveness, multitasking and emotion regulation. The CFA showed that the 3-factor demonstrated an overall better model fit (RMSEA = 0.07, SRMR = 0.05, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.93). The C-SDS showed internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.88, McDonald’s Omega ω = 0.88). Findings included that negative metacognition about smartphone use was most correlated with the C-SDS (b = 0.73; p < 0.001). Smartphone addiction, positive metacognition about smartphone use and fear of missing out also correlated with the C-SDS (b = 0.66, p < 0.001; b = 0.53, p < 0.001; b = 0.40, p < 0.001, respectively). The study shows that males compared to females (b = –1.65; p = 0.003), had a higher C-SDS score.Conclusion The C-SDS was valid and reliable for assessing the distraction of using smartphones in the Chinese context. Being female, the purpose of using a smartphone, smartphone usage (hours per day), fear of missing out, smartphone addiction and positive and negative metacognitions about smartphone use were positively correlated to the C-SDS.
... The conditions known as the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is one of the. FoMO is explained as the desire to keep up with what others are doing constantly (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan and Gladwell, 2013). When the literature is examined, it is seen that FoMO is quite a new phenomenon (Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
... FoMO is explained as the desire to keep up with what others are doing constantly (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan and Gladwell, 2013). When the literature is examined, it is seen that FoMO is quite a new phenomenon (Przybylski et al., 2013). FoMO has definitions such as "missing out things", "staying behind things", "fear of missing out the agenda", and "social anxiety individuals experience in case when they are not informed about a social interaction". ...
... Also according to this study, it occurs more in young people, young males, and individuals with a low life satisfaction. Another significant results of this study is that FoMO is more prevalent among students (Przybylski et al., 2013). Students with FoMO may try to check their social media accounts instead of listening to their teachers and participating in lessons during class hours. ...
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As the adaptation of the young to novel technologies is more rapid than people of other ages, it can be said that the use of mobile devices is more common among the young. The constant updating behavior of individuals in social networks has brought about a new behavioral disorder known as Fear of Missing Out (FoMO). This lead the individuals to checking their mobile phones or tablets as they have fears such as “Did I miss something?”, “Who shares anything now?”, or “Am I outside the topic of discussion?” and spending too much time on social networks. This study was carried out in order to assess the fear of missing out among university students. No sampling was performed and questionnaire form was implemented on 155 persons who volunteered to take part in the study. The 10-item introductory information form and the 10-item, 5-point Likert-type missing out scale were implemented on the participants. Keywords: social development, student nurse, smartphone
... Despite the important connection and information-sharing that social media can facilitate, researchers have begun exploring the negative consequences of social media use. For example, "fear of missing out" (FoMO) is the desire to not only keep up with what others are doing, but also the belief that others' experiences are more interesting than one's own (Przybylski et al., 2013). Some studies have led to the belief that high levels of social media frequency can create or exacerbate the feeling of, and outcomes associated with, FoMO. ...
... Although social media is able to "give people the power to build community and bring the world closer together" (Facebook, 2019), studies have shown that social media can disrupt day-to-day activities and interpersonal relationships. Social media consumption has been connected to negative mental health outcomes (Vannucci et al., 2017), including the "fear of missing out," or a desire to not only keep up with what others are doing, but also believing that others' experiences are more interesting than one's own (Przybylski et al., 2013). Some have argued that the FoMO is "a fundamental human motivation that consists in craving interpersonal attachments" (Blachnio & Przepiorka, 2018, p. 514). ...
... Fear of Missing Out. Participants responded to nine items (Przybylski et al., 2013) using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely true of me) to indicate how much each item is true to them. They were asked to consider "friends" as people they follow on social media that they also know in real life (i.e., friends, family members, co-workers, acquaintances, etc.). ...
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Research has suggested that social media usage increases during times of social isolation. However, rather than making users feel more connected to others, social media may cause negative mental health and relational outcomes, including a fear of missing out (FoMO). Against the backdrop of the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, this health communication study sought to understand the impact of physical and emotional isolation (i.e., prescribed social isolation) on people as we turned to social media more frequently. As the pandemic wore on, many remained online, watching people they knew “returning to normal,” potentially creating high levels of FoMO despite disagreeing with others’ decisions. This study examines whether social media use (frequency and purpose) influences individuals’ perception of the acceptability of others’ behavior, and whether those perceptions impact individuals’ own behavioral decisions. Participants (N = 459) from the United States were recruited from late 2021 to early 2022 to complete an anonymous online survey regarding the “acceptableness” of behavior shown in posts by friends and family. Results indicated that increased social media frequency was correlated with an increased sense of FoMO, which was significantly and positively associated with favorable perceptions of others’ behaviors, such as gathering indoors with others, even when public health officials discouraged it. However, FoMO was not significantly related to users’ personal intentions to follow public health recommendations. A post hoc analysis determined that fear of COVID-19 moderated the relationship between FoMO and the perception of others’ behavior, as well as the relationship between FoMO and behavioral intentions.
... It is often emphasized that SM have a dual nature. On the one hand, SM provide ample opportunities for social engagement/communication which can lead to an increase in social capital and a person's self-esteem (Bailey et al., 2022;Przybylski et al., 2013;Roberts & David, 2019;Venta et al., 2019). On the other hand, too many opportunities for engagement and the unique type of peer pressure through "quantifiable social endorsement" can cause problems such as excessive social comparison/feedback-seeking, high FoMO, heightened levels of anxiety and depression, i.e. low well-being in general [10][11][12][13][14][15] (Primack & Escobar-Viera, 2017;Stead & Bibby, 2017;Venta et al., 2019;Worsley, Mansfield, & Corcoran, 2018;Worsley, McIntyre, et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2021). ...
... In considering SMU, the concept of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) has a special role. It is a "pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent" (Przybylski et al., 2013(Przybylski et al., , p. 1841. SM offer fulfillment of the need characterizing FoMOto be continuously connected with what others are doing. ...
... It is not a generational phenomenon inherent to digital natives but a matter of individual differences (Barry & Wong, 2020). Since the conceptualization of the FoMO construct and the construction of the scale for its measuring (Przybylski et al., 2013), there have been indications that FoMO predicts SMU (and SM addiction) above and beyond personality traits and attachment style (Blackwell et al., 2017). Recent studies have shown a positive association of FoMO to SMU (Blackwell et al., 2017;Roberts & David, 2019) as well as SM addiction (Yin et al., 2019). ...
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The vast majority of research on social media use (SMU) is focused on its negative effects while often disregarding that it can also help adolescents form and maintain a network of social relations and support. This study explores the possibility of predicting SMU intensity based on peer attachment dimensions (Trust, Communication, Alienation) and FoMO on a sample of adolescents (N = 557; Mage = 18.09; SDage = .275). The results show that Trust and Communication (merged in one dimension of Peer support) are positive predictors of SMU and that this effect is partly mediated by FoMO which was also found to be a positive predictor. Alienation was not a significant predictor in the first step of regression analysis, but it became significant upon the addition of FoMO. The indirect effects analysis showed that FoMO suppresses the effect of Alienation on SMU intensity – the stronger FoMO the smaller the effect of Alienation. To sum up, when there is trust and good communication in relationships with friends, but also Fear of missing out, there will be more intensive use of SM. In addition, although being alienated from friends can restrict the use of SM, this effect is diminished if there is Fear of missing out. Taken together, these results point to the role of peer attachment and FoMO in predicting the intensity of SMU which can be viewed not as a negative phenomenon but as a way of acquiring social capital and a means of preserving and maintaining already acquired social capital.
... An important variable for understanding PSU is the fear of missing out (FoMO) -i.e., the apprehension of missing out on rewarding experiences, and a corresponding need to always stay connected with one's social network (Przybylski et al., 2013). Numerous studies have found moderate to large positive correlations between FoMO and both self-reported (e.g., Elhai et al., 2018bElhai et al., , 2020Oberst et al., 2017;Servidio et al., 2021;Wolniewicz et al., 2018) and objectively measured PSU (Sela et al., 2020). ...
... Fear of missing out. The Italian version of the FoMO Scale contains 10 items involving anxiety from missing rewarding social events and experiences, in accordance with the parent version (Przybylski et al., 2013). A sample item is "I fear others have more rewarding experiences than me". ...
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The present study introduces a new construct potentially associated with problematic smartphone use, i.e., the Fear of not being up to date (FoBU), and tests two serial mediation models, in which it was hypothesised that: (i) metacognitions and social smartphone use would be serial mediators of the relationship between the fear of missing out (FoMO) and problematic smartphone use (PSU); and (ii) metacognitions and process smartphone use would be serial mediators of the relationship between FoBU and PSU. A sample of 364 participants (F = 72.8%; mean age = 36.80 ± 15.32 years; age range: 18–75 years), who were recruited online, were administered a battery of self-report measures assessing FoMO, FoBU, metacognitions about smartphone use, process and social smartphone use, and PSU. The serial mediation effect of metacognitions about smartphone use and process use on the relationship between FoBU and PSU was significant (indirect effect = 0.004; 95% CI: [0.0006, 0.009]). Conversely, the serial mediation effect of metacognitions about smartphone use and social use on the relationship between FoMO and PSU was not significant (indirect effect = 0.002; 95% CI: [-0.003, 0.009]). Smartphone social use did not predict PSU. The current study highlights a possible pathway towards process smartphone use via a relatively new phenomenon termed “fear of not being up to date” within a metacognitive framework.
... En la misma línea se debe contemplar el concepto FoMO (fear of missing out) (Przybylski et al., 2013), descrito como la sensación de malestar, incluso miedo, que puede llegar a sentirse al saber que otras personas están realizando actividades agradables y uno no forma parte de ello. Es un fenómeno social relacionado estrechamente con la digitalización de nuestra sociedad actual. ...
... *Escala Likert de 7 puntos *Las puntuaciones se suman para obtener un índice de implicación (engagement) con las redes sociales. *El análisis se lleva a cabo a través del SPSS-17 (Przybylski et al.(2013). ...
... The Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOs) [46] refers to the fear that others are having a rewarding experience without us, it is a feeling of being "left out"; it literally means "fear of being cut off" and can be considered a new form of social anxiety. FoMOs consists of 10 items, for example "I'm afraid that others have more rewarding experiences than mine". ...
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Abstract: Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with a number of negative consequences for individuals. Some of these consequences relate to many symptoms of behavioral addiction. The present study aims to investigate whether participants with high levels of smartphone usage may have difficulty with their ability to wield the self-control that is needed to restrict smartphone usage compared to participants with lower levels of smartphone addiction. Specifically, we expect that people with high levels of smartphone usage may have problems in refraining from using a smartphone. In addition, we expect people with a high level of smartphone use may show deficiencies in cognitive tasks such as memory, executive control, and visual and auditory attention. An ABA design was applied to analyze the effects of smartphone withdrawal. The first A refers to baseline measurements: Visual RT, Auditory RT, Go/No-Go RT and N-Back RT and Eriksen flanker RT. The B refers to 3 days of smartphone withdrawal, whereas the second A refers to the same measurements used in the baseline. In addition, several standardized scales were administered, among them: Smartphone addiction scale-short version (SAS-SV), Fear of missing out scale (FoMOs), Procrastination scale, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. One hundred and eleven participants took part in the study. Based on median split they were divided into two groups: high level and low level smartphone users. Moreover, thanks to an app installed on the participants’ smartphones, it was possible to measure levels of compliance with the task. Results indicate that participants with low levels of smartphone usage show less difficulty in their ability to wield the self-control needed to withdraw smartphone use and faster reaction times on cognitive tests than participants with high levels of smartphone usage. Moreover, the profile of participants with high levels of smartphone usage shows higher scores on the FoMOs and Procrastination scale, and lower scores in the Psychological GeneralWell-Being Index. The results are discussed in light of self-regulation theory.
... These findings suggest that the mechanism behind the significant correlation between excessive social use and decreased level of well-being could be understood, given the level of insomnia one might experience. One legitimate explanation could be provided by fear of missing out [66] . As defined by Przybylski and his colleagues, fear of missing out is one's feeling of apprehension which suggests that he/she misses out on information, events, experiences, or life decisions that could make one's life better. ...
Article
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Recently, the use of social media has penetrated many aspects of our daily lives. Therefore, it has stimulated much debate and polarisation regarding its impact on mental well-being. The present study investigated the association between problematic use of social media, subjective well-being, and insomnia’s potential mediator. A proportionate random sample was collected from a Univerity in Algeria between March and April 2020.The participants (n=288; mean [SD] age = 20.83 [2.13]) involved 101 (35.1%) males. Nearly three-fourths of the participants (n=214; 74.3%) used up more-than three hours daily surfing on social media. Their mean (SD) score was 15.64 (4.80) on the Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, 16.19 (9.15) on the Arabic Scale of Insomnia, and 28.13 (7.90) on the overall subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect correlation between problematic use of social media and the overall subjective well-being of users. Similarly, the indirect but not direct effects were found for the overall subjective well-being subdomains. Moreover, all SEM models have a satisfactory fit with the data. Based on the results, it can be concluded that insomnia appears to play an important role in mediating the association between subjective well-being and problematic social media use. This suggests the importance of tackling the issues of insomnia and problematic use of social media for university students. It also has important implications in dealing with the misuse of social media, especially during the covid-19 pandemic.
... First, the Autonomous Choice to Use Mobile Devices reflects the extent to which young people use mobile devices out of their own choice rather than a feeling of obligation or compulsion. Such a feeling of compulsion can, for example, appear as the desire to stay connected and go online frequently in order to prevent missing out on what others are doing online (Przybylski et al., 2013). The second aspect of autonomous decision-making relates to Autonomy within Digital Contexts and refers to deliberately choosing and pursuing goals in digital contexts according to own interests and values. ...
Preprint
Building on research of psychosocial maturity and self-determination theory, we introduced and investigated the concept of digital maturity as a novel view on young people’s digital technology use. We conceptualized digital maturity as the self-determined use of digital technologies supporting psychological growth and well-being while shielding potential threats and considering needs of the social environment. To measure digital maturity, we developed the Digital Maturity Inventory (DIMI). In Study 1 (N = 390, age 12-18), we developed and selected items for the ten dimensions based on an exploratory factor analysis. In Study 2 (N = 558, age 12-18), we examined the scale’s factor structure and internal consistency using confirmatory factor analysis, and tested the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. The results confirmed that digital maturity is linked to personality maturity (agreeableness, conscientiousness, negative emotionality), and a hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed the unique influence of digital maturity in predicting problematic mobile device use beyond individual differences in personality, age, and amount of mobile device use.
... Ciò comporta un controllo eccessivo, compulsivo dello smartphone e delle notifiche inviate dai social. Infatti, la letteratura scientifica (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell, 2013) lo delinea sulla base di due componenti: 1. l'ansia relativa alla possibilità che gli altri possano avere delle esperienze piacevoli e gratificanti dalle quali si è assenti; 2. il desiderio persistente di essere in contatto con gli altri attraverso i social network. ...
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Gli autori presentano e discutono il concetto di interpassività, nato in ambito extra-clinico e chiaramente distinto da quello di interattività, come possibile chiave interpretativa delle forme del malessere contemporaneo. Partendo da punti in comune tra le pratiche interpassive e la nevrosi ossessiva da un lato, la perversione dall'altro, ed attraversando le nozioni di processo senza soggetto e narcisismo, gli autori propongono una lettura psicodinamica della Fear Of Missing OUT (FOMO). La paura di essere tagliati fuori da esperienze gratificanti, che implica tra l'altro un controllo coattivo dello smartphone, interpretato come movimento insignificante e privo di qualsivoglia valore affettivo, viene interpretata, attraverso la chiave di lettura proposta, quale emblema delle pratiche interpassive che, nell'orizzonte del malessere contemporaneo, inducono processi di desoggettivazione. Parole Chiave Interpassività, malessere contemporaneo, processi senza soggetto, narcisismo, Fear Of Missing Out Autore responsabile per la corrispondenza: Ferdinando Ramaglia, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Abstract The authors present and discuss the concept of interpassivity, which originated in the extra-clinical field and is clearly distinct from that of interactivity, as a possible key to interpreting the forms of contemporary malaise. Starting from commonalities between interpassive practices and obsessive neurosis on the one hand, perversion on the other, and traversing the notions of subjectless process and narcissism, the authors propose a psychodynamic reading of Fear Of Missing OUT (FOMO). The fear of being cut off from gratifying experiences, which implies, among other things, a coactive control of the smartphone, interpreted as an insignificant movement devoid of any affective value, is interpreted, through the proposed key, as emblematic of interpassive practices that, in the horizon of contemporary malaise, induce processes of desubjectification.
... Fear of missing out (FoMO) is a relatively new concept meaning the fear of missing satisfying experience when the individual is absent from 239 his/her companions and having a strong desire to always be with others [36]. It is strongly related to mental issues such as smartphone addiction, compulsive social media use, internet addiction, phubbing behavior, insomnia, and poorer academic performance [37]. ...
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This topic was dedicated to the complexity of internet addiction and contains 23 articles submitted by prestigious workgroups and originally launched as a Special Issue entitled “Internet Addiction” [...]
... These findings suggest that the mechanism behind the significant correlation between excessive social use and decreased level of well-being could be understood, given the level of insomnia one might experience. One legitimate explanation could be provided by fear of missing out (Przybylski et al., 2013). As defined by Przybylski and his colleagues, fear of missing out is one's feeling of apprehension which suggests that he/she misses out on information, events, experiences, or life decisions that could make one's life better. ...
Article
Recently, the use of social media has penetrated many aspects of our daily lives. Therefore, it has stimulated much debate and polarisation regarding its impact on mental well-being. The present study investigated the association between problematic use of social media, subjective well-being, and insomnia's potential mediator. A proportionate random sample was collected from a Univerity in Algeria between March and April 2020.The participants (n=288; mean [SD] age = 20.83 [2.13]) involved 101 (35.1%) males. Nearly three-fourths of the participants (n=214; 74.3%) used up more-than three hours daily surfing on social media. Their mean (SD) score was 15.64 (4.80) on the Bergan Social Media Addiction Scale, 16.19 (9.15) on the Arabic Scale of Insomnia, and 28.13 (7.90) on the overall subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect correlation between problematic use of social media and the overall subjective well-being of users. Similarly, the indirect but not direct effects were found for the overall subjective well-being subdomains. Moreover, all SEM models have a satisfactory fit with the data. Based on the results, it can be concluded that insomnia appears to play an important role in mediating the association between subjective well-being and problematic social media use. This suggests the importance of tackling the issues of insomnia and problematic use of social media for university students. It also has important implications in dealing with the misuse of social media, especially during the covid-19 pandemic.
... One of the variables that has shown consistent associations with PSU severity ) is fear of missing out (FoMO) on rewarding experiences of others (Przybylski et al. 2013). Unsurprisingly, FoMO has also been linked to negative affectivity (Elhai et al. 2018a;, trait neuroticism (Balta et al. 2018;Rozgonjuk et al. 2020c), depression symptoms (Yuan et al. 2021), as well as negative links to academic outcomes (Alt and Boniel-Nissim 2018;Rozgonjuk et al. 2019b) and daily-life productivity (Rozgonjuk et al. 2020c). ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce and describe how digital technologies, in particular smartphones, can be used in research in two areas, namely (i) to conduct personality assessment and (ii) to assess and promote physical activity. This area of research is very timely, because it demonstrates how the ubiquitously available smartphone technology—next to its known advantages in day-to-day life—can provide insights into many variables, relevant for psycho-social research, beyond what is possible within the classic spectrum of self-report inventories and laboratory experiments. The present chapter gives a brief overview on first empirical studies and discusses both opportunities and challenges in this rapidly developing research area. Please note that the personality part of this chapter in the second edition has been slightly updated.
... For example, they spent a lot of time on mobile phones or surfing the Internet, when lonely (Ali et al., 2017). And individuals with low level of attachment avoidance would show stronger sense of trust in others, and incline to use the social media functions to seek connections once suffering loneliness (Haciyakupoglu & Zhang, 2015;Przybylski et al., 2013). Furthermore, it resulted in much more loneliness, negative psychological experience, poorquality social relationships in real life, and eventually, nomophobia (Mehmood et al., 2021;Rodríguez-García et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Nomophobia is the fear feeling unable to communicate via mobile phone or the Internet, which is very common in the technical world. The study aimed to explore the effect of neuroticism on nomophobia among Chinese college students, and the chain mediating effect of attachment and loneliness. One thousand two hundred and twenty-eight Chinese college students were surveyed using the Revised Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), Solitude Behavior Scale, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR), and Nomophobia Questionnaire, all in Chinese version. Results showed that (1) neuroticism, loneliness, attachment anxiety, and nomophobia were positively correlated with each other. Attachment avoidance was not significantly correlated with neuroticism, loneliness, and nomophobia. (2) Neuroticism directly positively predicted nomophobia. (3) Attachment anxiety and loneliness sequentially played a chain intermediary role in the relationship between neuroticism and nomophobia. (4) At different levels of attachment avoidance, the chain mediating models had differences in the subdimension of nomophobia—losing Internet connection (especially social media). In conclusion, the study revealed that attachment and loneliness played a chain mediating role between neuroticism and nomophobia, providing empirical evidence for future researches and interventions among the college students.
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Social media connects people in a myriad of ways, yet when prevented from staying connected, an experience of missing out on information and events perceived to be integral to one's well-being may ensue. Relatedness, a core construct of self-determination theory, is a primary influencer of motivation, and therefore being cut off from others has a negative impact on one's quality of life. Across diverse groups of people, social media is utilized for a variety of purposes directly related to connectedness, which implies inherent differences in how one's fear of missing out (FoMO) manifests in everyday life. This study employed the previously validated Fear of Missing Out Scale (FoMOS) with a nonclinical sample of African American and Caucasian college students in the United States, with a particular focus on validity of the measure with an African American cohort due to a lack of empirical evidence pertaining to with this demographic. Factor analyses yielded inconsistent findings from the FoMOS initial validation study, and results indicated differences in self-reported FoMO between the two racial groups. We speculate that observed group-based differences are at least partially the result of how individuals from each group understood and internalized the conceptual meaning of FoMO, supporting a hypothesis of practical differences in how anxieties related to missing out manifest. This may be due to individual or group-based differences in motivations for, or general purpose of, using social media.
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Mahasiswa perantau rentan mengalami kesepian, salah satu cara untuk mengalihkan perasaan kesepian dengan penggunaan smartphone sehingga smartphone akan menjadi penting dan menyebabkan timbulnya perasaan takut yang berlebihan apabila tidak dapat menggunakan smartphone yang disebut dengan nomophobia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kesepian dengan nomophobia pada mahasiswa perantau Universitas Negeri Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan teknik accidental sampling. Subjek pada penelitian ini berjumlah 202. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan uji Spearman rho. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kesepian dannomophobia pada mahasiswa perantau Universitas Negeri Makasssar (p = 0,001 < 0,05). Koefisien korelasi variabel kesepian dengan nomophobia sebesar 0,377 dan tergolong lemah. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan tingkat kesepian dan nomophobia berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Implikasi penelitian ini dapat menjadi evaluasi bagi mahasiswa perantau pada penggunaan smartphone guna meminimalisir munculnya perilaku nomophobia.
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There has been an upsurge in signs of gloom, tension, dietary problems, and other dysfunctional behaviors in undergrad populaces lately. At the same time, the need for advisory services is constantly increasing. Some have interpreted these patterns as mental health emergencies that require immediate investigation and the development of possible treatments to meet the needs of students. Later, other studies have linked the observed increase in side effects to shape individual shape enhancement, especially the widespread use of web-based entertainment, and the time spent on such development is clearly a decrease in psychological well-being. Showed to be related while the use of personalized computing innovations has drastically changed the scene in which undergrads interact with one another and appears to have a significant impact on emotional wellness. Similar advances also offer various opportunities for psychological well-being improvement and dysfunctional behaviour treatment. In this segment, we examine the hardships and open doors for undergrad psychological wellness that PC gadgets give. We accentuate potential for extra examination in this field, as well as ways for people and associations to draw in more benefits with these advances in valuable and health-advancing ways.
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Chapter
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Social media is playing both positive and negative role on the mental health of individuals. The core objective of the study was in twofold i.e. to investigate the relationship between social media, loneliness and depression among youth and to analyze the magnitude of effect of loneliness, depression and social media usage among youth. A cross sectional study was conducted on the students of three renown public universities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan and N=384 respondents were approached through simple random sampling technique. Data was collected through questionnaire based four distinct parts i.e. socio-demographic profile, UCLA loneliness scale by Russel, Peplau and Ferguson (1978), Young Internet Addiction Test Short Form (YIAT-SF) by Young (1998) and items of depression were retrieved from Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) by Derogatis (1977). Data was analyzed through Statistical Package for social sciences SPSS-21 version. Basic profile of the respondents was demonstrated through frequency and percentage while relationship and magnitude of effect of loneliness, depression and social media usage was analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient P<0.01<0.05 and linear regression analysis. Findings of the study showed a positive significant relationship between depression and social media and little significant relationship between loneliness and social media. While depression was highly effected by social media usage and loneliness was little affected through social media usage. This study concluded that social media not only give benefits to people but also produce loneliness and severe depression among youth.
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The fear of missing out (FoMO) concerning social media is increasingly becoming a concern, especially among college students. Although existing studies have theoretically investigated FoMO from different perspectives, fewer studies have explored cognitive bias as the antecedent of FoMO and its cognitive, motivational, and cultural mechanisms. This study investigated the contribution of cognitive bias in explaining FoMO and related cognitive, motivational, and cultural factors. A sample of 748 undergraduates was recruited from two universities in China and filled out five questionnaires: Attention to Negative and Positive Information Scale, Attentional Control Scale, Need to Belong Scale, Self-Construal Scale, and Fear of Missing Out Scale. We used structural equation modelling to analyze the associations among study constructs. Analyses found that ANI was positively/negatively associated with the need to belong /attentional control, which were positively/negatively associated with FoMO. In addition, ANI was negatively/positively associated with independent/interdependent self-construals, which were positively associated with FoMO. The findings can provide valuable suggestions for designing an attentional bias modification program aiming at decreasing FoMO in Chinese college students by adding or emphasizing improving attentional control, meeting the need to belong, and promoting independent self-construal at the individual level.
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Bogor merupakan kota/kabupaten penyangga ibukota, dan merupakan salah satu daerah strategis yang sering didatangi wisatawan nusantara (wisnus) maupun wisatawan mancanegara (wisman) yang memiliki banyak daya tarik wisata (DTW). Sebelum memutuskan hendak menentukan DTW mana yang hendak dikunjungi, calon wisatawan seringkali mencari informasi tersebut dari berbagai sumber, medium berbasis jaringan salah satunya. Instagram merupakan salah satu media sosial yang bisa diakses dalam jaringan, telah menjadi salah satu sumber informasi yang dapat dinilai efisien dan efektif oleh berbagai instansi dan organisasi sebagai alat untuk memperkenalkan produk atau jasanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui fenomena proses pencarian infomasi DTW di Bogor melalui media sosial instagram yang memengaruhi niatnya untuk berkunjung ke DTW tersebut. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan metode deskriptif survei dengan menggunakan model infomation search process untuk menggambarkan perilaku wisatawan dalam proses pencarian informasi sebagai rangkaian dari pikiran, perasaan dan tindakan. Penyebaran kuesioner kepada 166 pengikut akun instagram visitbogor dan wisatabogor untuk memenuhi sampling kuota penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian ini menemukan bahwa perilaku pencarian informasi wisata didapat melalui media online. Ketersediaan informasi yang dicari di media tersebut adalah yang memiliki kejelasan dalam pencantuman deskripsi lokasi wisata, ketersediaan penginapan dengan lokasi wisata, pencantuman informasi biaya, dan kejelasan mengenai tempat wisata..
Chapter
The main objective of this chapter is to gain an in-depth understanding of the social media addiction construct. For this purpose, prior studies on social media addiction are reviewed. Based on this review the influence of several personal, social, and situational factors on social media addiction are examined. Firstly, personal factors such as demographic characteristics, personality traits, self-esteem, well-being, loneliness, anxiety, and depression are studied for their impact on social media addiction. Next, the social correlates and consequents of social media addiction are identified, namely need for affiliation, subjective norms, personal, professional, and academic life. Lastly, situational factors like amount of social media use and motives of use are inspected. Following the review of literature an empirical study is made to analyze factors that discriminate addicted social media users from non-addicted social media users on the basis of these different factors.
Research
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Abstrak Media sosial dalam banyak hal memang memberi keuntungan terutama dalam membuat orang merasa terhubung, namun harus diakui juga bahwa di balik keuntungan tersebut media sosial memiliki sisi gelap tersendiri. Media sosial menciptakan utopia tetapi juga distopia, artinya media sosial dianggap sesuatu yang baik (utopia) tetapi juga tidak baik (distopia). Salah satu bentuk distopia dari media sosial adalah karena hal tersebut membentuk fear of missing out pada diri individu. Fear of missing out merupakan ketakutan dan kekhawatiran dari individu akan melewatkan sesuatu yang menyenangkan dan perasaan untuk tetap terhubung dengan orang lain. Fear of Missing Out didorong oleh keinginan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan self-esteem khususnya social self-esteem. Social self-esteem adalah social-self seseorang dimana terbentuk evaluasi diri dalam suatu situasi sosial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat hubungan antara social self-esteem dengan FoMO. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Hasil analisis product moment menujukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang negatif yang sangat signifikan antara social self-esteem dengan FoMO (rxy =-0,547 pada p = 0,000). Berdasakan hasil tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa semakin rendah sosial self-esteem individu maka semakin tinggi kecenderungan individu mengalami fear of missing out. Generasi Z atau generasi post-milenial memiliki kecenderungan yang besar untuk mengalami fear of missing out karena beberapa karakteristik dari generasi ini menjadi dasar pembentuk fear of missing out seperti under-influence, being always connected, dan digital intuitiveness. Kata Kunci: fear of missing out, self-esteem, generasi Z Pendahuluan Disrupsi teknologi digital adalah era dimana terjadi terobosan besar-besaran secara fundamental karena kehadiran teknologi digital. Salah satu produknya adalah media sosial. Kehadiran media sosial di tengah-tengah masyarakat telah menghancurkan batasan-batasan dalam berkomunikasi. Saat semua "terdigitalisasi", informasi bukanlah sesuatu yang mahal untuk didapatkan lagi. Pola komunikasipun bergerak ke arah yang lebih interaktif. Platform-platform seperti Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, bahkan Tiktok adalah teknologi yang sangat menjanjikan untuk mereka yang mencari koneksi sosial. Teknologi yang menjangkau semua lini kehidupan masyarakat seperti pendidikan, politik, perekonomian, kesehatan, gaya hidup, hobi, sosial, dan sebagainya. Media sosial dalam banyak hal memang memberi keuntungan terutama dalam membuat orang merasa terhubung, namun harus diakui juga bahwa di balik keuntungan tersebut
Chapter
Smartphones allow for several daily life enhancements and productivity improvements. Yet, over the last decade the concern regarding daily life adversities in relation to excessive smartphone use have been raised. This type of behavior has been regarded as “problematic smartphone use” (PSU) to describe the effects resembling a behavioral addiction. In addition to other problems in daily life, research has consistently shown that PSU is linked to various psychopathology constructs. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of some findings in PSU research regarding associations with psychopathology. We also discuss some of the theoretical explanations that may be helpful in conceptualizing PSU. We then take a look at self-reported PSU in relation to objectively measured smartphone use, and, finally, provide some insight into current findings and future opportunities in objectively measuring smartphone use in association with psychopathology measures. This chapter may be useful as an introductory overview into the field of PSU research.
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This study investigates the relationships among social appearance anxiety, the fear of missing out (FOMO), and cyberloafing. The study further investigates the impact of social appearance anxiety and FOMO on cyberloafing. The research model is tested by employing a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach based on data collected from 396 higher education students. The results suggest that social appearance anxiety has a significant impact on FOMO and that FOMO has a significant impact on cyberloafing. However, the mediation analysis results suggest that FOMO full mediates the relationship between social appearance anxiety and cyberloafing.
Article
This study aims to examine the effect of the new concept of FoMO (fear of missing out) and individual awareness of contemporary surveillance practices on the consumer's online purchasing behavior. In this context, the monitoring of the target audience and their guidance in terms of sales practices play an important role for the institutions. With the development of technology in the process, it has become much easier to monitor the target audience. Therefore, the relationship between the facilitation and awareness of surveillance and purchasing behavior is examined in this study. It is claimed that digital technologies are subjected to surveillance in order to identify the target audience, determine their needs and intervene instantaneously in changing conditions. From this point of view, it is examined how the surveillance awareness of the target audience is directed to purchasing behavior by using FoMO as an intermediary factor. In this context, as the target audience spends more time in digital environments, surveillance becomes fluid and time and space boundaries disappear. However, every trace left in digital media turns into data. Data, which is one of the most important parts of contemporary surveillance practices, enables the target audience to be controlled and directed in a much better, efficient and instant way. The direct effects of snooping awareness and fear of missing out on the differentiation in purchasing behaviour and the indirect effect of awareness via fear of missing out were questioned. Mediation analysis based on regression model based on least squares method is applied. In addition, the moderator effect of gender is examined. As a result, the direct effect of the fear of missing out on purchasing behaviour is significant. This effect is positive. Moreover, the effect size differs by gender significantly. The mediating effect of FoMO in the effect of surveillance awareness on purchasing behaviour is significant. The mediation effect size is lower in men.
Chapter
With the growing prevalence of wireless communication technologies, social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter, etc. have become an important venues for interpersonal communication. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the current literature on online social networking with respect to its beneficial and detrimental effects on psychological wellbeing. In particular, it provides empirical evidence for the associations of SNS use with depression, self-esteem, loneliness, subjective wellbeing, social anxiety, attachment, personality traits, and addiction. Furthermore, it identifies the characteristics of individuals who are more prone to social networking, and presents possible mediators and moderators playing a role in the relationship between social networking and mental health. The chapter overall provides a comprehensive guideline to parents, researchers, educators, healthcare, and communication professionals to the issue of online social networking from a psychological perspective.
Article
Purpose The benefits associated with visibility in organizations depend on employees' willingness to engage with technologies that utilize visible communication and make communication visible to others. Without the participation of workers, enterprise social media have limited value. This study develops a framework to assess what deters and drives employees' use of enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 753 employees of a global company using an online survey. The response rate was 24.5%. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized framework. Findings The results show that various fears by workers may deter or motivate enterprise social media use. This offers an alternative viewpoint for examining the consequences of communication visibility in organizations. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that the fear of accountability and the fear of losing uniqueness reduce enterprise social media use through increased codification efforts. The fear of missing out is directly and positively related to collecting behaviors on enterprise social media. Research limitations/implications Expectations about participation in visible organizational communication environments are rising. However, as individuals may experience anxiety in such settings, the authors need to direct more analytical focus to the ways individuals manage communication visibility in organizing contexts and develop a deeper understanding of the consequences of fear in workplace communication. Originality/value The analysis recognizes that fear can play a key role in deterring or motivating workers' specific choices in navigating the challenges that occur when technology can make communication broadly visible. This study uses theorizing on communication visibility to bring together different fear mechanisms to predict enterprise social media use.
Article
In current information society, the smartphone has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. However, along with its advantages, its problems have also become prominent. Against this background, this study examines the influence of smartphones on cognitive function and the potential moderating role of fear of missing out (FoMO). One hundred undergraduate students were randomly recruited and divided into smartphone presence and absence groups to compare the working memory capacity, which is a key element of cognitive function, and the FoMO was also assessed. The results indicated that: (1) Compared with the absence group, participants in the presence group showed lower accuracy and longer response time in the operation span task, suggesting that the presence of smartphones has a negative influence on cognitive function; (2) The FoMO moderated the influence of smartphone presence on the accuracy and response time in the operation span task, specifically, the effect was stronger for individuals with higher level of FoMO. This study deepens our understandings on the influence of smartphone use by considering the regular usage in daily life and cognitive function, as well as the role of FoMO, providing guidance for reasonable smartphone use and improving work efficiency (especially cognitive function).
Article
Social Media Disorder (SMD) is characterised by the intense and excessive use of social media. Although previous studies have shown that SMD was associated with poor mental health, research across types of usage and platforms remain limited. Here, we conducted an initial investigation of social media usage across platforms and its relation to anxiety, sleep and loneliness in female adolescents. Forty one 16- to 19-year-old British female adolescents were administered online questionnaires. Intensity of social media activity across Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter was measured with the Social Media Disorder Scale. Anxiety was indicated by the Beck Anxiety Inventory Trait, loneliness was examined via a short three-point questionnaire and sleep quality was measured via both the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and self-reported seven-day sleep diaries. Results showed that, compared to those without SMD, users with SMD experienced elevated levels of loneliness and had less sleep on average, and during the weekdays in particular. Only frequency of posting on Facebook, but not general usage, was associated with poorer sleep quality. These preliminary findings showed that social media disorder across platforms and usage could potentially have different associations to mental health and sleep.
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Using data from a popular online social network site, this paper explores the relationship between profile structure (namely, which fields are completed) and number of friends, giving designers insight into the importance of the profile and how it works to encourage connections and articulated relationships between users. We describe a theoretical framework that draws on aspects of signaling theory, common ground theory, and transaction costs theory to generate an understanding of why certain profile fields may be more predictive of friendship articulation on the site. Using a dataset consisting of 30,773 Facebook profiles, we determine which profile elements are most likely to predict friendship links and discuss the theoretical and design implications of our findings.
Conference Paper
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Previous research has shown a relationship between use of social networking sites and feelings of social capital. However, most studies have relied on self-reports by college students. The goals of the current study are to (1) validate the common self-report scale using empirical data from Facebook, (2) test whether previous findings generalize to older and international populations, and (3) delve into the specific activities linked to feelings of social capital and loneliness. In particular, we investigate the role of directed interaction between pairs—such as wall posts, comments, and "likes"— and consumption of friends' content, including status updates, photos, and friends' conversations with other friends. We find that directed communication is associated with greater feelings of bonding social capital and lower loneliness, but has only a modest relationship with bridging social capital, which is primarily related to overall friend network size. Surprisingly, users who consume greater levels of content report reduced bridging and bonding social capital and increased loneliness. Implications for designs to support well-being are discussed.
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This study examines the relationship between use of Facebook, a popular online social network site, and the formation and maintenance of social capital. In addition to assessing bonding and bridging social capital, we explore a dimension of social capital that assesses one's ability to stay connected with members of a previously inhabited community, which we call maintained social capital. Regression analyses conducted on results from a survey of undergraduate students (N=286) suggest a strong association between use of Facebook and the three types of social capital, with the strongest relationship being to bridging social capital. In addition, Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might provide greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction.
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This article reports a meta-analysis of personality-academic performance relationships, based on the 5-factor model, in which cumulative sample sizes ranged to over 70,000. Most analyzed studies came from the tertiary level of education, but there were similar aggregate samples from secondary and tertiary education. There was a comparatively smaller sample derived from studies at the primary level. Academic performance was found to correlate significantly with Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. Where tested, correlations between Conscientiousness and academic performance were largely independent of intelligence. When secondary academic performance was controlled for, Conscientiousness added as much to the prediction of tertiary academic performance as did intelligence. Strong evidence was found for moderators of correlations. Academic level (primary, secondary, or tertiary), average age of participant, and the interaction between academic level and age significantly moderated correlations with academic performance. Possible explanations for these moderator effects are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.
Article
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
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Self-determination theory posits 3 basic psychological needs: autonomy (feeling uncoerced in one's actions), competence (feeling capable), and relatedness (feeling connected to others). Optimal well-being results when these needs are satisfied, though this research has traditionally focused on individual well-being outcomes (e.g., E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000). Three studies examined the role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being. Study 1 found that fulfillment of each need individually predicted both individual and relationship well-being, with relatedness being the strongest unique predictor of relationship outcomes. Study 2 found that both partners' need fulfillment uniquely predicted one's own relationship functioning and well-being. Finally, in Study 3, the authors used a diary recording procedure and tested a model in which the association between need fulfillment and relationship quality was mediated by relationship motivation. Those who experienced greater need fulfillment enjoyed better postdisagreement relationship quality primarily because of their tendency to have more intrinsic or autonomous reasons for being in their relationship.
Article
This book addresses an important issue for the design of survey instruments, which is rarely taught in graduate programs beyond those specifically for statisticians. Item Response Theory is used to describe the application of mathematical models to data from questionnaires and tests as a basis for measuring abilities, attitudes, or other variables. It is used for statistical analysis and the development of assessments, often for high stakes tests such as the Graduate Record Examination. This volume includes examples of both good and bad write-ups for the methods sections of journal articles.
Article
Obra que estudia cómo las nuevas tecnologías de comunicación y las redes sociales que a través de ellas se han generado dan soporte a una nueva forma de establecer relaciones entre las personas y, por lo tanto, de nuevas formas de soledad.
Article
The present research examined the background and consequences of different styles of engagement in video game play. Based on self-determination theory(1) and the dualistic model of passion,(2) the authors hypothesized that high levels of basic psychological need satisfaction would foster harmonious passion for video play, supporting the subjective sense that play is something one wants to do. It was also predicted that low levels of need satisfaction would promote obsessive passion for games and contribute to the feeling that game play is something one feels compelled to or has to do. It was expected, in turn, that passion for play would directly influence player outcomes closely tied to games, moderate links between play and well-being, and relate to overall levels of well-being as a function of basic need satisfaction. As expected, results showed that low levels of basic need satisfaction were associated with more obsessive passion, higher amounts of play, greater tension following play, and low game enjoyment, whereas high levels of need satisfaction did not predict hours of play but were associated with more harmonious passion, game enjoyment, and energy following play. Moderation analyses showed that high amounts of play related negatively to well-being only to the extent that players reported an obsessive passion and that the unique relations between passion and overall levels of player well-being were quite small once controlling for their basic need satisfaction in daily life. Discussion of the current findings focuses on their significance for understanding disordered play and the value of applying a theory-based approach to study motivation for virtual contexts.
Article
Estimation of latent ability using the entire response pattern of free-response items is discussed, first in the general case and then in the case where the items are scored in a graded way, especially when the thinking process required for solving each item is assumed to be homogeneous.The maximum likelihood estimator, the Bayes modal estimator, and the Bayes estimator obtained by using the mean-square error multiplied by the density function of the latent variate as the loss function are taken as our estimators. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique maximum likelihood estimator and a unique Bayes modal estimator are formulated with respect to an individual item rather than with respect to a whole set of items, which are useful especially in the situation where we are free to choose optimal items for a particular examinee out of the item library in which a sufficient number of items are stored with reliable quality controls.Advantages of the present methods are investigated by comparing them with those which make use of conventional dichotomous items or test scores, theoretically as well as empirically, in terms of the amounts of information, the standard errors of estimators, and the mean-square errors of estimators. The utility of the Bayes modal estimator as a computational compromise for the Bayes estimator is also discussed and observed. The relationship between the formula for the item characteristic function and the philosophy of scoring is observed with respect to dichotomous items.
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
Article
Five studies on the relation between positive and negative affect are reported. In Studies 1 and 2 we found that positive feelings were remembered as being nearly independent of negative feelings in the past year, but the two types of affect were moderately negatively correlated for the past month. In Studies 3 and 5, subjects completed daily mood reports for 70 and 30 days, respectively. In Study 4, subjects completed three-week, daily, and moment mood reports and also filled out reports when they experienced strong emotions. The principal finding was that the relation between positive and negative affect differed greatly depending on the time frame. The strongest negative correlation between the two affects occurred during emotional times. The correlation decreased in a linear fashion as the time span covered increased logarithmically. It appears that positive and negative affect are independent in terms of how much people feel in their lives over longer time periods. Researchers need to focus on the processes that underlie both positive and negative affect and that are responsible for producing their relative independence.
Article
Attachment research has traditionally focused on individual differences in global patterns of attachment to important others. The current research instead focuses primarily on within-person variability in attachments across relational partners. It was predicted that within-person variability would be substantial, even among primary attachment figures of mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. The prediction was supported in three studies. Furthermore, in line with self-determination theory, multilevel modeling and regression analyses showed that, at the relationship level, individuals' experience of fulfillment of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively predicted overall attachment security, model of self, and model of other. Relations of both attachment and need satisfaction to well-being were also explored.
Social network activity and social well-being The theory and practice of item response theory
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Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010). Social network activity and social well-being. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 85, 455–459. A.K. Przybylski et al./Computers in Human Behavior 29 (2013) 1841–1848 1847 rDe Ayala, R. J. (2009). The theory and practice of item response theory . New York: Guilford Press
When I go on vacation, I continue to keep tabs on what my friends are doing Social network activity and social well-being
  • M Marlow
  • C Lento
When I go on vacation, I continue to keep tabs on what my friends are doing. References Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010). Social network activity and social well-being. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 85, 455–459.
Oh my god you are so missing out PARSCALE (version 3.5): Parameter scaling of rating data The role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being: A self-determination theory perspective
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Morford, M. (2010, August 4). Oh my god you are so missing out. San Francisco Chronicle. < http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2010/08/04/ notes080410.DTL&ao=all>. Muraki, E., & Bock, R. D. (1998). PARSCALE (version 3.5): Parameter scaling of rating data. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software, Inc. Patrick, H., Knee, C. R., Canevello, A., & Lonsbary, C. (2007). The role of need fulfillment in relationship functioning and well-being: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 434–457.
Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) Fear of Missing Out (FOMO)
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Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2007). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. JWT (2011). Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). <http://www.jwtintelligence.com/ production/FOMO_JWT_TrendReport_May20 11.pdf >. JWT (2012). Fear of Missing Out (FOMO), March 2012. <http:// www.jwtintelligence.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/F _JWT_FOMO-update_3.21.12.pdf>.
The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded form. Unpublished Manuscript Feel like a wallflower? Maybe it's your facebook wall. The New York Times
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Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded form. Unpublished Manuscript. University of Iowa. Wortham, J. (2011, April 10). Feel like a wallflower? Maybe it's your facebook wall. The New York Times. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/10/business/ 10ping.html>.
Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) <http://www.jwtintelligence.com/ production
JWT (2011). Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). <http://www.jwtintelligence.com/ production/FOMO_JWT_TrendReport_May20 11.pdf >.
Feel like a wallflower? Maybe it's your facebook wall. The New York Times
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Wortham, J. (2011, April 10). Feel like a wallflower? Maybe it's your facebook wall. The New York Times. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/10/business/ 10ping.html>.
Oh my god you are so missing out
  • M Morford
Morford, M. (2010, August 4). Oh my god you are so missing out. San Francisco Chronicle. < http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2010/08/04/ notes080410.DTL&ao=all>.
PARSCALE (version 3.5): Parameter scaling of rating data
  • E Muraki
  • R D Bock
Muraki, E., & Bock, R. D. (1998). PARSCALE (version 3.5): Parameter scaling of rating data. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software, Inc.