The African Fusarium/maize disease

ArticleinMycotoxin Research 25(1):29-39 · March 2009with15 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s12550-008-0005-8 · Source: PubMed
There is a general but rather vague feeling that the use of maize (corn) as a staple foodstuff by black rural Africans is somehow a factor in, or is linked to, chronic disease found in these populations. An attempt is made in this review to consider the evidence for this connection and to identify what is actually the root of the problem. The main thrust of the argument to explain this perception is that maize is routinely contaminated with fungi and of these Fusarium verticillioides is found in maize throughout the world. Evidence is presented to this effect and, further, of the mycotoxins found in maize, the fumonisins are the most common and at the highest levels. Various animal chronic diseases arising from the consumption of contaminated maize are reviewed and possible human conditions listed, in some cases related to the known animal ones. A brief overview of the complicated cellular mechanisms of fumonisin B1 is given and it is concluded that the prime suspect in what might be called "the maize disease" can be attributed to the ingestion of this mycotoxin, sometimes in combination with other synergist mycotoxins and other disease factors, such as smoking and drinking.
    • "The most mycotoxins have strong immunosuppressive effects and often compromise animals and human health provoking development of secondary bacterial infections (Stoev et al., 2000 ) or deteriorating some existing diseases (Pósa et al., 2011, 2013). It is well known, that Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is one of the most frequent contaminant of the feeds for pigs in all over the world (Dutton, 2009). In Hungary, FB 1 was found in relatively high percentage of maize used as animal feed (Fazekas et al., 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations. The most typical damages in FB1 treated pigs were the strong oedema in the lung and the slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological findings in pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida was broncho-interstitial pneumonia. FB1 was found to aggravate pneumonic changes provoked by P. multocida in the cranial lobes of the lung and to complicate pneumonic damages with interstitial oedema in the lung. No macroscopic damages were observed in the pigs infected only with Pasteurella multocida. It can be concluded that the feed intake of FB1 in pigs may complicate or exacerbate the course of P. multocida serotype A infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
    • "A major concern could be that the rural populations in South Africa are exposed to mycotoxins, in particular FB 1 , which can cause health effects. According to Dutton (2009), the use of maize as a staple diet by black rural populations in South Africa is somehow linked to chronic disease considering the evidence that maize is contaminated with fungi-producing FB 1 , which is regarded as a maize disease in humans. Chelule et al. (2001) measured FB 1 in staple maize and in faeces in rural and urban populations in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Fusarium toxins with reference to fumonisin B1 (FB1) have long been regarded as contaminants of maize and maize-based related products. However, when consumed can cause intoxication, especially in humans. Therefore, effective quantitative methods for assessing dietary exposure of this toxic fungal metabolite are required. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect on the use of bio-wipe kit, which is a faecal material collection kit to detect the presence of FB1. Faecal materials were collected from a rural farming community in Gauteng Province, South Africa. In total, 200 samples of faecal material were analysed for Fusarium species using a serial dilution method, while FB1 was further analysed and quantified by reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. The study showed the presence of 11 different Fusarium species grown on potato dextrose agar culture medium of which, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, producers of FB1 and F. oxysporum, were the dominant species. Fumonisin B1 was recorded at an incidence rate of 65% of the total using TLC. Results from HPLC showed that 84% were positive at different ranges of concentration for FB1. This study supports the use of bio-wipe as a rapid method to determine human exposure to FB1.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
    • "These observations are similar to those made by Stoev et al. (2010) in pigs exposed simultaneously to food contaminated with AFs and FBs. In addition, FBs and trichothecenes have also been implicated in the disturbance of the immune system, digestive system and haemorrhage in animals (Dutton 2009). Amongst carcasses of patients presented with aflatoxicosis at OVAH, some showed signs of icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis, serosanguinous ascites and serosal petechiation that might also be the effect of exposure to food contaminated with OTA as found in this study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analysed 60 dog food samples obtained from commercial outlets following the 2011 aflatoxicosis outbreak in South Africa. Results obtained from the selected dog food samples revealed that 87% of samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) (mainly AFB1 and AFB2). Amongst these samples, 45 (75%) were above the 20 parts per billion (ppb) set by most countries and 10 ppb regulated by the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act (Act No. 36 of 1947) for South Africa. In addition to AFs, other mycotoxins were also detected in the same samples with fumonisins (FBs) (mainly FB1 and FB2) contaminating 98% of samples with 49 (81.81) above the tolerable limit of 1000 ppb in feedstuff set up by the Federal Drug Agency (FDA) (USA). The FBs mean obtained was 1556 ppb (Table 1) with contamination varying between 5.2 and 4653.8 ppb. Ochratoxin A (OTA) was detected in 41 (68%) of the analysed samples, with a mean value of 13.7 ppb. Amongst these samples, 15 (25%) were above the 20 ppb highest limit set by the Codex Alimentarius standard. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in 96% of samples, with a mean value of 354.1 ppb. Thirty-three samples (55%) were above the regulated level 1000 ppb tolerable limit. The recoveries were up to ten times the tolerable daily limits of the FDA and EU. The correlation between mycotoxin findings and clinical signs reported on patients presented for aflatoxicosis led to the conclusion that the outbreak was associated with the presence of other mycotoxins found simultaneously in the analysed samples by additive or synergistic effects.
    Article · Feb 2013
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