Mean mid-arm circumference and blood pressure cuff sizes for US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2010
aDivision of Health and Nutrition Examination Statistics bOffice of Research and Methodology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland, USA. Blood pressure monitoring
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04/2013; 18(3). DOI: 10.1097/MBP.0b013e3283617606
BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring blood pressure (BP) requires choosing an appropriate BP cuff size. OBJECTIVES: This study examined trends in mid-arm circumference (mid-AC) and distribution of BP cuff sizes using 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. METHODS: NHANES uses a complex multistage probability sample design to select participants who are representative of the entire civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. The analytic sample consisted of 28 233 participants aged 20 years or older. Mid-AC and BP cuff sizes were analyzed across survey years by sex, age, race/ethnicity, hypertension, and diabetic status. RESULTS: Data from NHANES 2007-2010 show that the mean mid-AC for men was 34.2 cm and for women was 31.9 cm. Men showed a significant trend in mid-AC (from 33.9 cm in 1999-2002 to 34.2 cm in 2007-2010; P<0.05 for trend). In addition, 42.9% of men and 25.3% of women needed a large adult BP cuff and 1.9% of men and 2.8% of women needed thigh cuffs to be appropriately cuffed. Moreover, 52% of hypertensive men, 38% of hypertensive women, 59.1% of diabetic men, and 53.6% of diabetic women required the use of BP cuffs with sizes different from those of standard adult-sized BP cuffs for accurate BP measurement. CONCLUSION: There was an overall significant trend in the mean mid-AC in cm for men but not for women. On the basis of NHANES 2007-2010 data, ∼45% of adult men and ∼28% of adult women required the use of BP cuffs with sizes different from those of standard adult-sized BP cuffs for accurate BP measurement.
Available from: Shu Wen Ng
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It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time.
The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001).
US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given day. Efforts to boost the healthfulness of the US diet should focus on promoting the preparation of healthy foods at home while incorporating limits on time available for cooking.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity and hypertension frequently coexist. Measuring blood pressure (BP) accurately in obese patients is challenging and may require strategies that are less accurate, such as forearm cuffing or use of wrist cuffs. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension may differ between obese and non-obese individuals, which may result in differing effects of common BP-lowering medications. However, to date, there is insufficient trial data to recommend a different approach to medication selection based on body mass index. Additionally, the goal BP is generally not different between obese and non-obese patients. Weight loss should be emphasized for obese patients with hypertension, and interventions in addition to diet and exercise may include weight loss medications and bariatric surgery. Recognition and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is also important.
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ABSTRACT: Accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) requires choosing an appropriate BP cuff size.
The objective of this study was to examine the validity of regression equations to predict mid-arm circumference (mid-AC) using 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey height and weight data.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a complex multistage probability sample design to represent the civilian, noninstitutionalized US resident population. The sample consisted of 29 745 participants aged 20 years and older.
For both men and women, the correlations between the predicted and measured mid-AC values were as follows: r=0.91 and 0.92, P<0.001, respectively. For both sexes, the difference between the predicted and measured mid-AC mean values was less than 1.5 cm. The overall percent agreement for selecting the appropriate BP cuff, using the American Heart Association cuff size criteria and comparing the predicted mid-AC values with measured values, was 83.0% for men and 80.0% for women. The percent agreement for small adult cuff was 10.0% for men and 54.0% for women; for adult cuff it was 87.0% for men and 88.0% for women; for large adult cuff it was 82.0% for men and 80.0% for women; and for thigh cuff it was 84.0% for men and 74.0% for women. All agreement statistics were above chance (for men, γ=0.96, and Kendall's Tau-b=0.73; for women, γ=0.97, and Kendall's Tau-b=0.76).
When possible, mid-AC should be directly measured for appropriate BP cuffing; however, the results of this validation study suggest that the prediction equations for mid-AC estimations were highly correlated and had an overall 80.0% agreement with measured mid-AC.
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