Effects of Free Fatty Acids on Human Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells

Clinical Research Center for Diabetes, Tokushima University Hospital, 2-50-1 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.
Journal of dental research (Impact Factor: 4.14). 04/2013; 92(6). DOI: 10.1177/0022034513487378
Source: PubMed


Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity and higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma. Among FFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate, have been proposed to promote inflammatory responses. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration and destruction of epithelial cells in the salivary and lacrimal glands. IL-6 production and α-fodrin degradation are increased in salivary gland epithelial cells of patients with primary SS. Although previous studies have shown a link between SS and either dyslipidemia or T2D, little is known about the clinical significance of FFAs in primary SS. Here we report that SFAs, but not unsaturated fatty acids, induced IL-6 production via NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in human salivary gland epithelial cells. Moreover, palmitate induced apoptosis and α-fodrin degradation by caspase-3 activation. Unlike salivary gland epithelial cells, induction of IL-6 production and the degradation of α-fodrin in response to palmitate were undetectable in squamous carcinoma cells and keratinocytes. Taken together, SFAs induced IL-6 production and α-fodrin degradation in salivary gland epithelial cells, implicating a potential link between the pathogenesis of primary SS and SFAs level in plasma.

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    • "For cytotoxicity analysis, we used an " In Vitro Toxicology Assay Kit, Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) based " (TOX7). A stock solution of FFA was prepared, conjugated with FFA-free bovine serum albumin (BSA), and checked for LPS contamination as described previously with modification (Cousin et al., 2001;Shikama et al., 2013;Shikama et al., 2015). Briefly, a 100 mM FFA stock solution of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid was prepared by dissolving them in 0.1 M NaOH. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity and higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma. Among FFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate, have been suggested to promote inflammatory responses. Although many epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and T2D, little is known about the clinical significance of SFAs in periodontitis. In this study, we showed that gingival fibroblasts have cell-surface expression of CD36, which is also known as FAT/fatty acid translocase. Moreover, CD36 expression was increased in gingival fibroblasts of high-fat diet-induced T2D model mice, compared with gingival fibroblasts of mice fed a normal diet. DNA microarray analysis revealed that palmitate increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Consistent with these results, we confirmed that palmitate induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 secretion in HGF, using a cytokine array and ELISA. SFAs, but not an unsaturated fatty acid, oleate, induced IL-8 production. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly suppressed palmitate-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. Treatment of HGF with a CD36 inhibitor also inhibited palmitate-induced pro-inflammatory responses. Finally, we demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) lipopolysaccharide and heat-killed P.g. augmented palmitate-induced chemokine secretion in HGF. These results suggest a potential link between SFAs in plasma and the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate (Pal), is linked to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although recent studies have investigated the direct effects of SFAs on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, it remains unknown whether SFAs also induce these responses mediated by circulating cells. In this study, especially focused on adhesion molecules and monocytes, we investigated the indirect effects of Pal on expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in vascular endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 (pTHP-1) cells and human monocytes were stimulated with various free fatty acids (FFAs). SFAs, but not unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion and decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) secretion, resulting in an increase in the IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion ratio. UFAs dose-dependently inhibited the increase in IL-1β secretion and decrease in IL-1Ra secretion induced by Pal. Moreover, in human aortic and vein endothelial cells, expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin were induced by treatment with conditioned medium collected from Pal-stimulated pTHP-1 cells and human monocytes, but not by Pal itself. The up-regulated expression and release of adhesion molecules by the conditioned medium were mostly abolished by recombinant human IL-1Ra supplementation. These results suggest that the Pal-induced increase in the ratio of IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion in monocytes up-regulates endothelial adhesion molecules, which could enhance leukocyte adhesion to endothelium. This study provides further evidence that IL-1β neutralization through receptor antagonism may be useful for preventing the onset and development of cardiovascular disease. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity–insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed.
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