Human airway trypsin-like protease induces mucin5AC hypersecretion via a protease-activated receptor 2-mediated pathway in human airway epithelial cells
Division of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No.74, Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010, China.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.02). 04/2013; 535(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.abb.2013.02.013
Mucus hypersecretion is a common feature in chronic airway diseases, and serine proteases play a critical role in this process. However, the mechanisms by which serine proteases induce mucin5AC hypersecretion have not been fully explored. In this study, we characterized human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT), a serine protease that is found in the mucoid sputum of patients with chronic airway diseases and is an agonist of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-induced cellular responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We also investigated the potential involvement of PAR2 in this process. We found that both HAT and PAR2-AP enhance the exocytosis of mucin5AC protein, whereas HAT, but not PAR2-AP, enhances the expression of mucin5AC mRNA. PAR2 is expressed at a much higher level in the cells than the other three PARs. Transfection with an siRNA against the PAR2 receptor or Gαq/11 protein or pretreatment with the Gαq/11 protein inhibitor YM-254890, the PLC inhibitor U73122 or the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM all effectively attenuated the HAT-induced cellular responses. Taken together, these results indicate that HAT can stimulate mucin5AC hypersecretion through a PAR2-mdiated signaling pathway in 16HBE cells. Thus, PAR2 could represent a novel therapeutic target for chronic airway diseases with mucus hypersecretion.
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ABSTRACT: Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production remain elusive. Recently, the level of YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein, has been found to be significantly increased in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of YKL-40 on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in this process. We found that elevated YKL-40 levels increased the mRNA and protein expression of MUC5AC in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in association with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), reflecting their activation. These responses were significantly suppressed by the knockdown of protease-activating receptor 2 (PAR2) with specific small interfering RNA or the inhibitors of ERK and NF-κB. YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overproduction was also effectively attenuated by the inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Taken together, these results imply that YKL-40 can stimulate excessive MUC5AC production through PAR2- and FAK-mediated mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer) whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP), HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the generation of DAG and of
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ABSTRACT: Mucus hypersecretion is a remarkable pathophysiological manifestation in airway obstructive diseases. These diseases are usually accompanied with elevated shear stress due to bronchoconstriction. Previous studies have reported that shear stress induces mucin5AC (MUC5AC) secretion via actin polymerization in cultured nasal epithelial cells. Furthermore, it is well known that cortactin, an actin binding protein, is a central mediator of actin polymerization. Therefore, we hypothesized that cortactin participates in MUC5AC hypersecretion induced by elevated shear stress via actin polymerization in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Compared with the relevant control groups, Src phosphorylation, cortactin phosphorylation, actin polymerization and MUC5AC secretion were significantly increased after exposure to elevated shear stress. Similar effects were found when pretreating the cells with jasplakinolide, and transfecting with wild-type cortactin. However, these effects were significantly attenuated by pretreating with Src inhibitor, cytochalasin D or transfecting cells with the specific small interfering RNA of cortactin. Collectively, these results suggest that elevated shear stress induces MUC5AC hypersecretion via tyrosine-phosphorylated cortactin-associated actin polymerization in cultured human airway epithelial cells.
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