Article

A VIRUS FROM CASES OF ATYPICAL PNEUMONIA

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Abstract

From the lungs of two fatal cases and from the sputum of two non-fatal cases of atypical bronchopneumonia, a psittacosis-like virus was isolated by direct intranasal inoculation of mice. Intraperitoneal injection of the same human material into mice gave negative results. The virus has a relatively high virulence for mice by intranasal or intra-cerebral inoculation, but does not kill after intraperitoneal inoculation. Its virulence for Java ricebirds is low and it fails to produce a carrier state in mice and birds. Two cases showed an increase in complement-fixing antibodies to the new virus and to psittacosis. The virus is antigenically related to the viruses of meningopneumonitis and psittacosis by complement fixation and by active immunity tests in mice.

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Chapter
A wide variety of viruses may cause pulmonary infections in man and in animals. Knowledge of virus pneumonia has developed not only from study of the human infections but also from the experimental production of this disease with various known viruses in animals, and the discovery of new pneumotropic agents in experimental animals during attempts to transmit the agents of human respiratory infections to them.
Article
1. The virus of primary atypical pneumonia can be isolated and fixed by the mouse-intracerebral as well as the chorioallantoic membrane inoculations. 2. Patient sera at initial febrile stage did not neutralize this fixed virus, but the neutralizing power increased following the passage of time. 3. All the three fixed strains proved immunoserologically as the same. 4. Complement fixation test for the convalescent serum with the fixed virus is suitable not only for identification of the virus, but also for clinical diagnosis. 5. Monkeys (Macaca fuscata) inoculated with this fixed virus showed a comparable X-ray photograph as in the human beings. 6. Size of the virus is estimated as 52–82 mμ by ultrafiltration and 100–200 mμ by electron microscopy. These studies were aided by the Ministry of Welfare in 1951 and by the Ministry of Education in 1954.
Article
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. AGENTS of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma-venereum-trachoma group (bedsoniae) have been isolated in cases of pneumonitis in both animals and man, and transmission of psittacosis and ornithosis to man by avian vectors is now well recognized. Sporadic outbreaks of pneumonitis due to so-called "human strains" of bedsoniae have occurred in San Francisco,¹ the bayou region of Louisiana²³⁴⁵⁶⁷ and Chicago.⁸ In these cases no animal reservoir of the infection could be directly incriminated. Cases of human infection with nonavian animal strains of bedsoniae have rarely been described. Two isolated cases of laboratory infection with the bedsonia strains responsible for bovine encephalomyelitis⁹ and enzootic abortion . . . *From the departments of Pathology and Medicine, University of California School of Medicine. Supported in part by a grant from the Lawrence C. Wolfsen Memorial Fund. We are indebted to Drs. K. F. Meyer and B. Eddie, of the George Williams Hooper Foundation, for advice and assistance during the investigation of this case, to Dr. Charles Carman, of the Department of Medicine, who interpreted the blood gas saturation studies, to Dr. Peter C. Kennedy, of the Department of Veterinary Pathology at Davis, who provided information on the patient's contact with epizootic bovine abortion, and to Drs. Werner Rosenau and Henry Moon, of the Department of Pathology, for encouragement and suggestions. Source Information SAN FRANCISCO †Assistant resident in pathology, University of California School of Medicine. ‡Professor of medicine and chairman, Department of Medicine, University of California School of Medicine.
Article
This chapter is concerned with the recent contributions on the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma (P-LV) group of viruses. An important general biologic characteristic of P-LV viruses is latency of infections in birds, mammals, and possibly in human beings. The chapter discusses the human and animal P-LV viruses. It is customary to segregate newly recovered viruses possessing morphologic characters of P-LV viruses on the basis of the common group antigen. Attention has been directed toward finding suitable diagnostic methods and improving existent methods in order to study antigenic relationships. The chapter is confined to interpretations and in some respects integration of data, particularly on the antigenic relationships between various members of the group. It also discusses the antigenic structure of P-LV and the developmental cycle of the virus. Studies concerned with sources of metabolic energy and nutritional factors essential for growth of P-LV viruses are based partially on models of bacteriophage multiplication, with the exception that the P-LV viruses have a number of distinct properties separating them from the smaller viruses. The chapter summarizes the essential findings of the biochemical studies and discusses some further properties of P-LV viruses.
Article
A virus may have oscillated in the course of evolution, between being an independent parasite and a cell constituent. It is wrong to think of the evolution of methods of transmission as proceeding always in one direction. Bacteria infecting insects by the horizontal route could have evolved into symbionts, transmitted vertically, and becoming dependent on the interior of the cell for their nourishment. In attempting to piece together the story of virus evolution, it is the varying methods of successful attack and defense which particularly engage the attention. In the field of virus transmission one can obtain the clues about virus evolution: this aspect of the subject is discussed in this chapter. The chapter also explores the immunological aspect of the virus evolution. The viruses can multiply and vary and therefore evolve much more rapidly than their victims. Viruses are able to circumvent defensive weapon of victims. They may, as with mosquito borne yellow fever, get from one host to another before the antibodies of the first host have had time to develop. They may remain for long periods within cells where antibody cannot get at them, as with rabbit papilloma. They may make their attack on a mucous surface without having to enter the blood stream, as the common cold does, and thus by-pass any antibodies the body may have prepared, or they may achieve vertical transmission. It is also found that passing viruses serially in the host can enhance the virus virulence and mutants have greater powers of multiplication.
Chapter
Unter der „ frühinfantilen Viruspneumonie“ (de Rudder) oder nach der früher üblichen aus der Histologie abgeleiteten Bezeichnung, der interstitiellen, plasmaeellulären oder monoeytären Pneumonie versteht man heute eine recht umschriebene Virusinfektion, die mit ungünstiger Prognose eine Aufzuchtskranhheit lebensschwacher, „debiler“Kinder darstellt. Vorzugsweise, aber nicht ausnahmslos, werden Frühgeburten und elende Kinder um die neunte Lebenswoche befallen. Die klinischen Erscheinungen — mit Atemnot, Husten und Cyanose — sind uncharakteristisch und gehen in dem allgemeinen Bild pneumonischer Zustände unter. Dagegen heben sich pathologisch-anatomisch die Befunde mit oft wechselnd intensiver interstitieller plasmacellulärer Infiltration mit intra- alveolärem Ödem — was zur Bezeichnung der Ödempneumonie veranlaßte — deutlich von den üblichen Pneumonieformen ab.
Article
Der Begriff der Viruspneumonie wird abgegrenzt und eine Einteilung dieser Krankheitsgruppe nach tiologischen Gesichtspunkten gegeben.Aus der Gruppe der Viruspneumonien wird das Q-Fieber mit Rcksicht auf sein Auftreten in Europa und neuerdings auch in Deutschland auf Grund eigener Erfahrungen und der Literatur besprochen, dabei die tiologie, Klinik, spezifische Diagnostik und Epidemiologie errtert.ber die Virusgrippe wird nach den Erfahrungen bei einer in Hessen abgelaufenen Epidemie berichtet, dabei neben klinischen Beobachtungen und der Epidemiologie die Pathogenese und die spezifische Diagnostik der Grippe besprochen und auf Grund der neueren Erkenntnisse auf die Mglichkeit und Notwendigkeit schrferer diagnostischer Abgrenzung des Krankheitsbegriffs hingewiesen.Die Differentialdiagnose beider Krankheitsbilder bei gemischten Epidemien in Sdwestdeutschland im Frhjahr 1948 wird unter Bercksichtigung von Epidemiologie, Klinik und Laboratoriumsmethoden errtert.
Article
Nach einer einleitenden kurzen Definition der interstitiellen-plasmacellulren Pneumonie wird zu den bestehenden, sehr divergierenden Ansichten zur Aetiologie dieser Erkrankung Stellung genommen. Dann werden neue Gedanken zu diesem Problem aufgezeigt und experimentell erwiesen:1. Die Beobachtung eines greren klinischen Materials zeigt neben sporadischen Einzelerkrankungen deutliche Reihung vom Typ der Infektketten, wie sie nur bei Infektionskrankheiten vorkommen. 2. Nimmt man darausfolgernd an, da es sich um eine Infektionskrankheit handelt, und sucht klinische und anatomische Vergleiche in der allgemeinen menschlichen und tierischen Pathologie, so findet man in der groen Gruppe der Viruspneumonien die meisten, vor allem auch histologisch oft zum Verwechseln hnliche Befunde. 3. Aus diesen Beobachtungen und Vergleichen den Schlu ziehend, da es sich um eine Virusinfektion handeln drfte, haben wir in Zusammenarbeit mit Prof. Dr. Bieling an Musen und Meerschweinchen Infektionsversuche vorgenommen mit aufgearbeiteten Nasen-Rachenabstrichen, Venen-und Herzblut und Milz und Leber. Dabei erkrankten die Tiere an den gleichen pulmonalen Prozessen wie die Kinder. Diese Tierversuche zeigten also: a) da es sich um eine Infektion mit einem pneumotropen Virus handelt welches im Tierversuch seine Pneumotropie erhlt. b) Es konnten vllig atypische Dyspepsien ohne Lungenbefund oder Keimtrger aus der Umgebung klassicher Flle interstitieller Pneumonien durch den Tierversuch in die gleiche Gruppe der Erkrankung eingereiht werden — worber spter ausfhrlich berichtet wird —und somit ist uns heute die interstitielle Pneumonie als typische und atypische Form bekannt geworden, was epidemiologisch sicher von weittragender Bedeutung sein wird. 4. Wurde der Nachweis von Elementarkrperchen, analog anderer Virus-pneumonien, gestreift, was weiterer Besttigungen bedarf. Wir sehen somit heute in der interstitiellen-plasmacellulren Pneumonie eine Virusinfektion, die klinisch verschieden intensiv und unter verschiedenen Bildern ablaufen kann.
Article
Full-text available
Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the finding of frequent homologous recombination across the genome of the sexually transmitted and trachoma pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We sought to determine if similar evolutionary dynamics occurred in C. psittaci. We analyzed 20 C. psittaci genomes from diverse strains representing the nine known serotypes of the organism as well as infections in a range of birds and mammals, including humans. Genome annotation revealed a core genome in all strains of 911 genes. Our analyses showed that C. psittaci has a history of frequently switching hosts and undergoing recombination more often than C. trachomatis. Evolutionary history reconstructions showed genome-wide homologous recombination and evidence of whole-plasmid exchange. Tracking the origins of recombinant segments revealed that some strains have imported DNA from as-yet-unsampled or -unsequenced C. psittaci lineages or other Chlamydiaceae species. Three ancestral populations of C. psittaci were predicted, explaining the current population structure. Molecular clock analysis found that certain strains are part of a clonal epidemic expansion likely introduced into North America by South American bird traders, suggesting that psittacosis is a recently emerged disease originating in New World parrots.
Chapter
Die Miyagawannellen, d. h. die Viren der Psittakose-Lymphogranuloma venereum-Trachom-Gruppe (PLT) umfassen eine Reihe von Viren, die zu Erkrankungen des Menschen, verschiedener Säugetiere und Vögel führen. Sie gehören zu den in der Natur am meisten verbreiteten Erregern. Moshkowsky (1945) hat vorgeschlagen, sie zur Ordnung der Rickettsials zu rechnen und — unabhängig von der Familie der Rickettsiaceae (Rikkettsien) — als Familie der Chlamydocoaceae und die zu ihnen gehörigen Krankheiten als »Chlamydozoosen« zu bezeichnen. Dabei ist zu berücksichtigen, daß im Gegensatz zu den Rickettsien die Chlamydozoen nicht durch Arthropoden übertragen werden.
Chapter
Jede Einteilung ist willkürlich und sollte daher nie als endgültig aufgefaßt werden. Die Prinzipien medizinischer Klassifikation sind davon nicht ausgenommen, und auch sie können sich nicht über eine nur provisorische Gültigkeit erheben.
Chapter
Scitdem Staehelin das Pneumoniekapitel der 2. Auflage dieses Handbuches schrieb (1930), hat das Problem der Lungenentzündungen zwei grundlegende Änderungen erfahren: 1 Durch die Einführung der Chemotherapie wurde die Letalität in entscheidender Weise gesenkt.
Article
Mycoplasma is a well-recognised pathogen that colonises mucosal surfaces of humans and animals. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infects the upper and lower respiratory tracts of children and adults, leading to a wide range of respiratory and non-respiratory clinical conditions. M. pneumoniae infection is frequently considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with respiratory illnesses, and is commonly managed empirically with macrolides and fluoroquinolones. This contrasts with patients who present with non-respiratory symptoms in the context of a recent or current unrecognised M. pneumoniae infection, for whom this pathogen is rarely considered in the initial differential diagnosis. This review considers the microbiological, epidemiological, pathogenic and clinical features of this frequent pathogen that need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory and non-respiratory infections.
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