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The effects of jasmine Oil inhalation on brain wave activies and emotions

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  • Mahidol University Salaya, Nakornpathom, Thailand

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In Thailand, jasmine oil is widely used as a preferred odor in aromatherapy. However, there are a small number of researches investigating effects of jasmine oil on the nervous system functions. In this study, we aimed to examine effects of jasmine oil inhalation on the function of central nervous system and mood responses. Twenty healthy volunteers have been participated in this study. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was then recorded from 31 electrodes on scalp before and after odor inhalation. In addition to the EEG recording, subjects have also been inquired to estimate their emotion responses. According to the international 10-20 system, the EEG measurements were recorded and the EEG power spectra were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The data was analyzed by comparing two sessions; first during resting and inhaling sweet almond oil, and second between inhaling sweet almond and inhaling jasmine oil. These parameters of assessment were measured before and after using paired t-test statistical procedure. The results showed that the beta wave power (13-30 Hz) was increase in the anterior centre as well as the left posterior region. On one hand, the positive emotions including the feeling of well-being, active, fresh and romantic have been increased by jasmine oil. On the other hand, the negative emotions for example the feeling of drowsy were significantly decreased. It could be suggested from these results that jasmine oil has stimulatory effects on the function of nervous system. Interestingly, it could be concluded from this study that inhalation of jasmine oil affected to brain wave activities and mood states
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Original Article 73
http://www.jhr.cphs.chula.ac.th J Health Res
vol.27 no.2 April 2013
THE EFFECTS OF JASMINE OIL INHALATION ON
BRAIN WAVE ACTIVIES AND EMOTIONS
Winai Sayowan1, Vorasith Siripornpanich2, Tapanee Hongratanaworakit3,
Naiphinich Kotchabhakdi4, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi5, *
1Kanchanabhishek Institute of Medical and Public Health Technology, Nonthaburi 11150, Thailand
2Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakornpathom 73170,
Thailand, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakhon-nayok 26120, Thailand, 4Salaya Stem Cell Research
and Development Project; Research Center for Neuroscience, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom 73170, Thailand
5College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
ABSTRACT: In Thailand, jasmine oil is widely used as a preferred odor in aromatherapy.
However, there are a small number of researches investigating effects of jasmine oil on the
nervous system functions. In this study, we aimed to examine effects of jasmine oil inhalation on
the function of central nervous system and mood responses. Twenty healthy volunteers have
been participated in this study. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was then recorded from 31
electrodes on scalp before and after odor inhalation. In addition to the EEG recording, subjects
have also been inquired to estimate their emotion responses. According to the international 10-
20 system, the EEG measurements were recorded and the EEG power spectra were calculated
using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The data was analyzed by comparing two sessions;
first during resting and inhaling sweet almond oil, and second between inhaling sweet almond
and inhaling jasmine oil. These parameters of assessment were measured before and after using
paired t- test statistical procedure.
The results showed that the beta wave power (13-30 Hz) was increase in the anterior centre as
well as the left posterior region. On one hand, the positive emotions including the feeling of
well-being, active, fresh and romantic have been increased by jasmine oil. On the other hand, the
negative emotions for example the feeling of drowsy were significantly decreased.
It could be suggested from these results that jasmine oil has stimulatory effects on the function
of nervous system. Interestingly, it could be concluded from this study that inhalation of jasmine
oil affected to brain wave activities and mood states
Keywords: Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait, EEG, Stimulation
INTRODUCTION
An essential oil is a concentrated volatile aromatic
compound derived from plants. Owing to the
different in environmental conditions and
neighbouring fauna and flora, each plant species
nurtured in a certain country has specific
characteristics. Essential oil can be extracted from
oil ‘sacs’ in flowers, leaves, stems, roots, seeds,
wood and bark [1, 2]. It is widely known that the
odor of essential oils can be used to treat illnesses
using a therapy called aromatherapy. Aromatherapy
can then be defined as a therapy that uses aromas.
More accurately, aromatherapy is a branch of
botanical medicine using volatile and aromatic plant
compounds that has been considered as a treatment
tool for various conditions. It is believed that
essential oils have certain effects on the person
* Correspondence to: Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
E-mail: nijsiri.r@chula.ac.th
inhaling it [2, 3]. The result from the study of Patin
[4] demonstrated that jasmine oil was the most
popular of the essential oils used in Thailand for
aromatherapy, inhalation or massage.
Jasmine is scientifically labeled as Jasminum
sambac (L.) Ait. Jasmine oil has beneficial in the
treatment of severe depression and soothes the
nerves, producing a feeling of confidence, optimism
and euphoria, while revitalizing and restoring
energy and improving memory [5]. The main
chemical components of jasmine oil are Benzyl
acetate, β linalool, Benzyl propionate. The
reported properties of volatile oils include being
carminative, aromatic, antispasmodic, antidepressant,
antimicrobial, astringent and stimulatory. The
information regarding the effects of jasmine odor
on research participants is a stimulation of human
attention [6], The basic level being that of alertness
which ranged from sleep to wakefulness. In 1991
Tsuchiya [7] and his colleagues reported the effects
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Table 1 Demographic data of the subjects
Parameters
Number
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Age
Height(cm)
Weight (kg)
Body Mass Index
Smell test
20
20
20
20
20
18
154
45
18.21
8
32
179
72
27.97
11
22.70
168.25
58.57
21.33
9.60
of jasmine aroma on mice sedated using
pentobarbital. In humans the study by
Hongratanaworakit [8] studied the effects of
applying jasmine oil topically to the abdomen of 40
volunteers. Compared with placebo, jasmine oil
caused significant increases of breathing rate, blood
oxygen saturation, and systolic and diastolic blood
pressure, suggesting an increase of autonomic
arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the
jasmine oil group rated themselves as more alert,
more vigorous and less relaxed than subjects in the
control group. Some researchers studying the
effects of jasmine on nervous system activity also
showed contrasting results. For example, Jasmine
absolute (Jasminum grandiflora L.) has a relaxant
activity on the guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus in
vitro [9] and jasmin lactone odor enhanced the
amount of alpha and theta waves which suggested a
relaxing effect from the odor [10].
In Thailand, there are only a few recent studies on
the effects of essential oils on physiological and
emotional activities. In addition, human transdermal
techniques have been often used in many researches
to evaluate the effect of essential oils, e.g.
rosemary, orange, ylang-ylang and jasmine oils [9,
11-13]. A review of the literature suggests that this
study is the first experimental research in Thailand
to evaluate the physiological effects of essential oils
on the central nervous system using EEG. Thus, the
purpose of this study is to determine the effects of
jasmine oil on the brain wave function and on
subjective emotions.
METHODS
Essential oil analysis
The composition of jasmine oil obtained from the
Thai China Flavours and Fragrances Company, was
analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry
(GC/MS) equipped with Finnigan DSQ MS
detector, Thermo Finnigan model Trace GC Ultra.
Identify the oil’s constituents by matching their
mass spectra and retention times, indicated in
NIST05 MS library; the percentage compositions
also were computed from GC peak area [14]. The
result revealed that jasmine oil mainly consists of
26.09% Benzyl acetate, 11.02% Beta linalool and
9.65% Benzyl propionate.
Subjects
The study was approved by the Ethical Review
Committee for Research Involving Human
Research Subjects, Health Science Group,
Chulalongkorn University, Permissions no. COA
NO.009/2011.
A total of 10 males and 10 females subjects aged
between 18 to 32 years (mean age 22.70 ±4.27
years) with a body mass index ranged 18-25 kg/m2
[15] (mean BMI 21.33 ± 2.10) were enrolled for the
study. A number of studies have reported that there
is different brain wave activity in left-handed and
right-handed subjects during olfactory tasks. In the
present study only right handers were recruited.
Handedness was tested using Edinburgh
Handedness Inventory scale [16]. The subjects were
then screened for a normal sense of smell by the n-
butyl alcohol test (mean score 9.60 ± 0.86). [17].
Personal health status was also recorded; including
weight, height and blood pressure. The subjects
who passed the screening procedure were non-
smokers [18] without any symptoms of upper
respiratory infection, neurological diseases,
hypertension or cardiovascular disease. According
to previous studies, it has been found that the
pleasantness of the oil smell could induce
variability of nervous system function [19];
therefore the subjects were asked to inhale base oil
and jasmine oil to rate the level of pleasantness on a
5-point Likert scale before starting the experiment.
The subjects who rated the pleasantness of the oil
within 2-4 points were allowed to proceed with the
experiment. A summary of the demographic
findings and smell test results are presented in
Table 1.
Procedure
An A-B design was used in this study. Each
individual session consisted of two trails. This
design was chosen because, with olfactory
stimulation, the times court of stimulatory effects is
unknown, which might make results obtained from
other designs, such as A-B-A, difficult to interpret
the data [6]. All activities were done in a silent
room with an ambient temperature of 24±1˚C and
40-50% humidity. After they sat comfortably in the
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Table 2 Mean and SD Power Values in Eyes closed, sweet almond oil and jasmine inhalations.
Area
Eyes closed
Sweet almond oil
Jasmine
p-value
EC and SO
p-value
SO and JO
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Beta Power (13-30Hz) (µV2)
left anterior
0.33
0.04
0.34
0.04
0.43
0.04
0.078
0.009*
right anterior
0.34
0.04
0.36
0.04
0.44
0.04
0.072
0.009*
Center
0.44
0.05
0.46
0.05
0.53
0.05
0.071
0.039*
left posterior
0.32
0.04
0.34
0.05
0.45
0.04
0.154
0.017*
right posterior
0.36
0.04
0.39
0.05
0.45
0.04
0.118
0.075
* Significant difference, p-value < 0.05 Rest (R), Sweet almond oil (SO) , Jasmine oil (JO)
Figure 1 Brain topographical map of the distribution of beta brainwave activity
High
Low
Eyes Closed
sweet almond oil
Jasmine
Figure 1 shows the brain topographical map of the distribution of beta brainwave activity. The red areas indicate a
significant increase in power.
adjustable armchair a set of 31 electrodes with 1
additional ground electrode were placed onto the
subject’s head. This was done according to the
international 10-20 system at FP1, FP2,FZ, F3, F4,
F7, F8, FT7, FC3, FCZ, FC4, FT8, T3, T4, T5, T6,
TP7, TP8, C3, CP3, C4, CZ, CPZ, CP4, P3, P4, PZ,
Ol, O2 and OZ. Two mastoids were used as a
recording reference (average of both mastoids, Al +
A2/2). The electro-oculogram (EOG) was measured
by placing 4 electrodes in two external acanthi
(HEOL and HEOR), left supraorbital (VEOU) and
infraorbital (VEOL) regions. Electro-Cap is made
of an elastic spandex-type fabric with recessed
silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes attached
to the fabric. Electrode impedances were adjusted to
below 5 kOhms. Acquire Neuroscan version 4.3
(Neurosoft, INC) used as recording system. An
online filter was set to band pass; with low
frequency of 70 Hz and high frequency of DC. A/D
rate was 500 Hz and the gain was set at 19. Notch
filter was open at 50 Hz [20, 21]. The relative
power spectrum of the respective frequency bands
derived by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was
expressed as follows: Delta (0 3.99 Hz), Theta (4
7.99 Hz), Alpha (812.99 Hz), Alpha1 (89.99 Hz),
Alpha2 (1012.99 Hz) and Beta (1330 Hz) wave
ranges [22]. The procedure was divided into 3
sessions of 7-min each. Baseline EEG recording
was done in eye-close. Sweet almond oil was
administered on the second trial, whereas 10% (v/v)
jasmine oil diluted in sweet almond oil was exposed
on the third trial. Subjects had to rate their emotion
response at the end of each trial. This emotions
scale consisted of a 100 mm monopolar visual
analog scale following by 5 factors: pleasant
(good), unpleasant (bad, uncomfortable, disgusted,
frustrated, and stressful), sensual (romantic),
relaxed (relax, clam, drowsy), and refreshing (fresh,
active) [23].
DATA AND STATISTIC ANALYSIS
The statistical software was used for data analysis
on the effects of jasmine oil on physiological and
mood states before and after assessments. A paired
t-test was carried out on the data from power of
brain wave and mood ratings.
RESULS
EEG data
The mean and standard deviation (SD) of EEG
power was calculated for each frequency band
during resting, sweet almond oil and jasmine oil
inhalations. The results are shown in Table 2. The
areas of interest were grouped into left anterior
(Fp1, F3, F7), right anterior (Fp2, F4, F8), left
posterior (P3, T5, O1), right posterior (P4, T6, O2)
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Table 3 Mean and SD of emotional state change, resting, sweet almond oil and jasmine
Emotion
Eyes closed
sweet almond oil
Jasmine
P-value
EC and SO
P-value
SO and JO
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Good
55.90
14.46
54.30
18.18
78.10
12.74
0.620
0.000*
Active
50.40
13.78
37.10
19.02
53.40
20.56
0.062
0.014*
Drowsy
33.20
19.41
40.85
17.35
30.10
16.81
0.121
0.042*
Fresh
55.20
14.96
41.85
17.35
60.80
17.84
0.15
0.002*
Romantic
34.40
19.93
30.55
22.07
49.05
22.76
0.582
0.007*
* Significant difference, p-value < 0.05 SO = Sweet almond oil, JO = Jasmine oil
and central (Fcz, Cz, Cpz) regions [22]. In jasmine
session, the band power of beta in the left and right
anterior center and left regions showed a significant
increase (p-value < 0.05). However, theta and alpha
band power decreased with no significant statistic
change (p-value > 0.05, data not show). Brain
Topography Compared to resting and sweet almond
oil, the topographic map after smelling jasmine oil,
shown in Figure 1, demonstrated obviously less
spreading power in alpha brain, particularly in
bilateral temporal and central area. In contrast, the
power in beta brain increased in the frontal and
posterior areas.
Emotional State response
The mean and standard deviation SD of mood state
responses are shown in Table 3. In the second trial,
the subjects became significantly less fresh after
inhaling sweet almond oil, as compared to eyes
closed condition (at rest). In the third trial, exposure
to jasmine oil increased positive emotions including
the feelings of well-being, active, fresh, and
romantic (p-value < 0.05). Furthermore, negative
emotions such as feeling drowsy were significantly
reduced (p-value < 0.05).
DISCUSSION
In the present study jasmine oil was
inhaled by healthy subjects. Brain wave activity
was recorded to assess the arousal levels of the
central nervous system. In addition, subjects had to
rate their mood state in terms of pleasant (good),
unpleasant (bad, uncomfortable, disgusted, frustrated,
and stressful), sensual (romantic), relaxed (relax,
clam, drowsy), and refreshing (fresh, active) in
order to assess subjective behavioural arousal.
After jasmine oil inhalation, the CNS effects of the
oil were assessed. The power beta (13-30 Hz)
increased considerably in frontal center and left
posterior brain areas. No significant changes of the
power of alpha1 (8-10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11-12.99
Hz) in all brain regions. This result showed that the
effect of aromas is to produce cortical brain wave
activity responses. Brain waves are known to vary
with extreme sensitivity according to the level of
consciousness of the subject [11]. Beta activity
increase is closely linked to motor behaviour and is
generally attenuated during active movements. Low
amplitude beta with multiple and varying
frequencies is often associated with active, busy or
anxious thinking and active concentration [21]. Our
result are similar to Nakagawa, et al [24] found
methyl jasmonate and cineole, a major component
of jasmine oil, increased beta wave and inhibited
alpha and theta waves with a enhancement that
corresponded with the stimulating effect on the
brain function. Furthermore, a study conducted at
the University of Occupational and Environmental
Health, Kitakyushu Japan, indicated a stimulating
effect of jasmine odor. There was a significant
increase of beta wave activity [25]. According to
Tsuchiya and colleagues’ experiment, they found
that jasmine and lemon oil responded to the
sleeping time in mice by reducing the duration of
sleep induced by barbiturates [8].
The result demonstrated that subjects felt better,
more active, fresher, and more romantic after the
inhalation. Consequently, negative emotions such
as drowsiness had been decreased. The results also
supported previous study referring jasmine odor
induced stimulating effects [7, 8]. To study the
underlying mechanisms of the main components of
jasmine oil it may also relevant to notes that the
second messenger for some serotonin receptors is
also cAMP and serotonin is felt to be involved in
the control of emotion within the central nervous
system. The stimulant effect of inhaling jasmine
vapor is probably due to its absorptions and sequent
pharmacological action within the brain or is
merely due to the stimulation of odor receptors
[26]. For example, one study investigated the
effects a jasmine oil massage on menopausal
symptoms in Korean climacteric women for 8
weeks. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to
compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric
women with a wait-listed control group of 27
climacteric women. The experimental group
reported a significantly lower total menopausal
index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). These
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findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be
an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms
such as hot flushes, depression and pain in
climacteric women [27].
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, our study shows a stimulating effect
of inhaling jasmine oil. The findings suggest that
brain wave activity and emotions. The results lend
some support for including jasmine oil in the group
of stimulating essential oils.
Psychoactive medications for treating mood
disorders have a range of unpleasant and
undesirable side-effects. Studies on the effects on
mood from aromatic oils may assist in the
development of medications with less adverse
effects.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was financially supported by Herbal
Remedies and Alternative Task Force of STAR:
Special Task Force for Activating Research under
100 years Chulalongkorn University fund and
Kanchanabhishek Institute of Medical and Public
Health for the research grant support this study. The
author is grateful to Dr. Chanida Palanuvej and
Miss Thidarat Duangyod for GCMS protocol
recommend.
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... [23] It has been also shown that aromatherapy with JEO inhalation had stimulating effects on brain wave activities and mood states. [24] There is a possible that JEO stimulates the locus coeruleus in the brain into releasing noradrenaline that creates an activating effect. The next possibility, JEO applies its effects by an interaction with central structures such as hypothalamic, limbic, thalamus which control the autonomic behavioral. ...
... [2] Despite the long history of JEO application in traditional medicine, particularly in Thailand, Iran, and Egypt, the physical and psychological effects of this essential oil have not been yet fully investigated. [24] Consistent with our findings, a large number of studies have also reported the positive effects of aromatherapy with various essential oils on anxiety and depression. [27][28][29] It was previously shown that aromatherapy with lavender oil could significantly reduce premenstrual symptoms including pain, anxiety, and nervousness in university students. ...
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Context: Anxiety is an unpleasant emotion and inhaling Jasmine Essential Oil (JEO) may decrease anxiety before laparotomy. Aims: Determining effects of inhaling JEO on anxiety and blood cortisol levels in patients undergoing laparotomy. Setting and Design: The setting was 5th Azar Hospital in Gorgan (Iran) and the study was a single blind parallel, randomized, controlled clinical trial that was conducted in 2016. Materials and Methods: The subjects (84 patients) were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. The intervention and control group inhaled two drops of JEO and two drops of distilled water respectively for 60 min. Blood cortisol and anxiety levels were measured immediately after intervention by ELISA kit, and the Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The data were described with mean, Median, Interquartile Range (IQR) and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann–Whitney U and correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean score of anxiety in JEO group before and after intervention was 50.90 ± 7.71 and 36.42 ± 6.62 (P = 0.001), respectively and median (IQR) of the cortisol was 160.7 (60.88) and 93.15 (52.38), respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, cortisol (IQR) level increased (124.1 (67.42) to 127.9 (62.42), P = 0.02) and the mean anxiety score decreased slightly (P = 0.43). Median and IQR of difference cortisol level before and after in the intervention and control group were significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that aromatherapy with JEO may have beneficial effects on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing laparotomy.
... Olfactory stimulation with jasmine and clary sage oil resulted in significant increase in RA and RAHB in both hemispheres of the prefrontal cortex, which indicate brain stability and relaxation, and peppermint oil significantly increased RAHB in the right prefrontal cortex. Compared with the results of previous studies that showed an increase in beta waves in the center of the frontal cortex and the left occipital cortex upon olfactory stimulation with jasmine oil [43], the RAHB index shown in this study not only increased relative alpha waves, but also increased the ratio of beta waves. It can be seen that the results are similar to the results of previous studies. ...
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This study investigated the effects of olfactory stimulation with aroma oils on the psychophysiological responses in women. Ten aromatic oils (lavender, rosemary, rose, eucalyptus, jasmine, geranium, chamomile, clary sage, thyme, and peppermint) were used on 23 women aged between 20 and 60 years. They inhaled the scent for 90 s through a glass funnel attached to their lab apron, 10 cm below their nose, while the pump was activated. Electroencephalography, blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured before and during inhalation of the aroma oils. The relative alpha (RA) power spectrums indicating relaxation and resting state of the brain significantly increased when lavender, rosemary, eucalyptus, jasmine, chamomile, clary sage, and thyme oils were inhaled compared to those of before olfactory stimulation. The ratio of alpha to high beta (RAHB), an indicator of brain stability and relaxation, significantly increased when rosemary, jasmine, clary sage, and peppermint oils were inhaled. The relative low beta (RLB) power spectrum, an indicator of brain activity in the absence of stress, significantly increased when stimulated with lavender, rosemary, rose, and geranium scents. Further, systolic blood pressure significantly decreased after introduction of all 10 types of aromatic oils, which indicates stress reduction. Thus, olfactory stimulation with aroma oil had a stabilizing effect on the prefrontal cortex and brain activity and decreased systolic blood pressure.
... 53 Jasmine oil has the function of antidepressant and antiseptic. [54][55][56][57][58] Geraniumoil can treat acne, reduce inflammation and alleviate anxiety. [59][60][61][62][63][64] There are various methods for extraction of essential oils from natural plants, including steam distillation, 65,66 solvent extraction, 67,68 Soxhlet extraction, 66,69 supercritical fluid extraction, 70,71 enfleurage 72,73 and cold pressing (expression). ...
... Over the course of history, odors have commonly been used by humans as powerful modulators of their emotional states. A growing number of studies has confirmed the emotional impact of odors, such as relaxing and stimulating effects on both physiology (Diego et al., 1998;Sayorwan et al., 2012;Sayowan, Siripornpanich, Hongratanaworakit, Kotchabhakdi, & Ruangrungsi, 2013) and behavior (for reviews see Herz, 2009;Hongratanaworakit, 2004;Johnson, 2011). The activation properties of odors are now considered major features of olfactory-elicited emotions in addition to their relative (un)pleasantness, according to Russell's classic bidimensional model (i.e., arousal dimension; e.g., Bensafi et al., 2002). ...
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Although several studies have reported relaxing and stimulating effects of odors on physiology and behavior, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. It has been proposed that participant expectancy could explain these activation effects. Since emotional stimuli are known to modulate time perception, here we used the temporal bisection task to determine whether odors have objective relaxing and stimulating effects by respectively slowing down or speeding up the internal clock and whether prior expectancy could alter these effects. In Experiment 1, 118 participants were presented either with a strawberry odor or an odorless blank. In Experiment 2, 132 participants were presented either with a lemon odor or an odorless blank. In both experiments, expectancy was manipulated using suggestion (verbal instructions). The stimulus was either described as relaxing or stimulating, or was not described. In the absence of prior suggestion, findings showed that, compared to participants presented with an odorless blank, participants presented with the strawberry odor underestimated sound durations (i.e., a relaxing effect) whereas participants presented with the lemon odor overestimated them (i.e., a stimulating effect). These results confirm that pleasant odors can have objective relaxing and stimulating effects by themselves, which are better explained by arousal-based mechanisms rather than attentional distraction. Furthermore, in both experiments, incongruent suggestions undid the effects of both odors without reversing them completely (i.e., strawberry did not become stimulating even if participants were told so). Both these bottom-up and top-down influences should be considered when investigating the emotional impact of odors on human behavior.
... The use of scents to modulate mood is a common practice that seems to have always accompanied humans. However, it was not until the last two decades that olfactory research started to bring evidence supporting an emotional impact of scents, such as relaxing or stimulating effects on physiology and behavior (Diego et al., 1998;Ghiasi, Bagheri, & Haseli, 2019;Lehrner, Marwinski, Lehr, Johren, & Deecke, 2005;Lemercier-Talbot et al., 2019;Motomura, Sakurai, & Yotsuya, 2001;Sayorwan et al., 2012;Sayowan, Siripornpanich, Hongratanaworakit, Kotchabhakdi, & Ruangrungsi, 2013; for reviews see Herz, 2009;Hongratanaworakit, 2004). Perceived properties of odors and odor-elicited emotions are commonly assessed with self-report questionnaires assessing valence and arousal dimensions (in particular in food-related contexts, e.g. ...
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It is generally assumed that intensity can be used as a proxy of the arousing properties of odors: the more concentrated an odorant, the more intense an odor and the more stimulating and the less relaxing the odor. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between relaxing and stimulating properties of odors when judged on two independent scales, for different levels of stimulus concentration. Thirty-three volunteers judged relaxing, stimulating, pleasantness, familiarity and intensity properties of four odors, namely strawberry, lavender, coffee, and lemon, at five concentrations. Our findings show that for all odors, higher stimulus concentration is associated with higher perceived intensity and higher stimulating judgments whereas it was not associated with lower relaxing judgments. On the contrary, lavender and strawberry were also judged more relaxing when stimulus concentration increased whereas coffee and lemon relaxing properties remained the same overall whatever the concentration. Odor familiarity increased with stimuli concentration as well as pleasantness (with the exception of coffee odor). Our results underline the need to use two separate unipolar scales when assessing the relaxing and stimulating properties of odors in self-report questionnaires. They also question the suitability of the commonly used bidimensional framework (valence vs. arousal) to describe olfactory emotions.
... Lavender, chamomile, sandalwood, and eugenol decrease alpha 1 or slow alpha activity at the parietal and posterior temporal region of the brain and increases theta and alpha activities, according to another study [12]. Jasmine increases beta waves in the anterior center and the left posterior regions [13]. Cannabis essential oil decreases beta waves and increases alpha wave activity [14]. ...
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Essential oils are volatile fragrance liquids extracted from plants, and their compound annual growth rate is expected to expand to 8.6% from 2019 to 2025, according to Grand View Research. Essential oils have several domains of application, such as in the food and beverage industry, in cosmetics, as well as for medicinal use. In this study, Michelia alba essential oil was extracted from leaves and was rich in linalool components as found in lavender and jasmine oil. The effects of inhaling michelia oil on human brainwaves still need to be elucidated. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography was recorded. The raw data were spectrally analyzed for slow alpha, fast alpha, low beta, mid beta, and high beta activities. The results demonstrate that michelia leaf oil could reduce the alertness level observed by beta wave decrease and fast alpha wave activity increase. The inhalation of pure linalool showed virtually identical responses as the michelia oil inhalation. In conclusion, the sedative effects of michelia oil inhalation might originate from its major linalool component.
... Aromatherapy or essential oil therapy is achieved either through inhalation or through direct contact with the skin[25] [26]. It works by the activation of the smell receptors in the nose which links directly through the nervous system to the brain [27]. Thereby, activating various areas particularly the limbic system, which plays a prime role in emotions and the feel-good brain chemicals like serotonin are activated by the impact of the essential oils on the hypothalamus [28]. ...
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Aromatherapy or Essential oil therapy is attributed towards the field of conventional, alternative or complementary therapies which requires essential oils and other aromatic plant compounds. Essential oils (EOs) belong to the class of highly volatile compounds which, due to their higher concentrated natural constituents acquire unique properties and hence, are being used for its wide range of therapeutic health benefits. Their benefits widely range from being a potential antimicrobial, antidepressant, antiviral and antiseptic agents to the elevator of many CNS related behaviours like - anxiety, stress, wisdom, memory, attention, relaxation, sedation, and sleep. Furthermore, the effects on mood, pain, and perception too are being influenced by the use of essential oils. It also helps in the treatment of epilepsy, stress, dementia by giving calming and soothing effects to the nerve cells and is also effective against dementia and on the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
... An increase in the beta power activity in posterior regions is highly associated with the reading speed enhancement and reorganization of language learning task (Edagawa & Kawasaki, 2017;Weiss & Mueller, 2012). Sayowan, Siripornpanich, Hongratanaworakit, Kotchabhakdi, and Ruangrungsi (2013) also found that the inhalation of jasmine oil significantly increased the beta wave activity in the anterior center and left posterior regions, and these changes may be associated with the enhancement of active and fresh feelings in human being. Further, Howells, Stein, and Russell (2010) reported that increased relative beta power in the left parietal region may reflect increased arousal states required to maintain attention during attentional tasks. ...
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Volatile organic compounds are widely used to manufacture various products in addition to research purposes. They play an important role in the air quality of outdoor and indoor with a pleasant or unpleasant odor. It is well known that the odor of chemicals with different structures can affect brain functions differently. In general, organic compounds are mainly characterized by their functional groups. Acetic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acetonitrile are widely used laboratory chemicals with the same methyl group, but different functional groups. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate whether the exposure of these four chemicals (10%) exhibits the same electroencephalographic (EEG) activity or different. For this purpose, the EEG was recorded in 20 male healthy volunteers. The EEG was recorded from 32 electrodes located on the scalp, based on the International 10-20 system with modified combinatorial nomenclature. The results indicated that tested subjects are less sensitive to acetic acid odor than other three chemicals. The absolute theta activity significantly increased at Cp5 and F8 regions, and the relative mid-beta (RMB) significantly decreased at Fc1 region during the exposure of acetic acid. On the other hand, acetaldehyde, acetone, and acetonitrile produced EEG changes in many indices such as relative theta, relative gamma, relative high beta, relative beta, relative slow beta, the ratio of alpha to high beta, and spectral edge frequencies. However, there was no significant change in the absolute wave activity. Although acetaldehyde, acetone, and acetonitrile odors affected almost similar EEG indices, they exhibited changes in different brain regions. The variations in the EEG activity of these chemicals may be due to the activation of different olfactory receptors, odor characteristics, and structural arrangements.
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The objective of this work was to study the effect of carnauba wax containing orange oil on physical qualities (weight loss, color, and firmness) and sensory perception after consumption. First, the appropriate essential oil for use with salacca fruit was investigated. Then, the best pairing of carnauba wax and orange oil was employed to study salacca preservation. Carnauba wax (2.5%) containing orange oil at a concentration of 0.04-0.16% was coated on salacca and examined for weight loss, color and firmness after storage for 9 d. Sensory perception in terms of sensory acceptance, rejection threshold and prevalent attributes related to aroma profiles was evaluated. The human brain response during salacca consumption was examined by electroencephalography (EEG). The results illustrated that salacca treated with carnauba wax containing orange oil at a concentration of 0.08% could maintain the desired qualities and provide moderate organoleptic approval of salacca. In addition, EEG demonstrated that consumption of orange oil-treated salacca could increase the alertness state of brain function in the human response. This finding can be used to apply orange oil to salacca fruit to enhance flavor, which was shown to achieve better consumer approval based on human brain activity.
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The use of essential oils to control arousal and cognitive performance has a long tradition in mankind. In our time, the demand for remedies promising fast but safe recovery from mental stress is ever-growing. Thus, today a plethora of popular aromatherapy guidebooks exists, offering advice on the use of essential oils for a multitude of health complaints. With some delay, scientists have started to substantiate the claims raised in the popular literature and verify the effects of essential oils on cognitive functioning and performance. This chapter aims to give an overview about the available scientific literature dealing with the influence of essential oils and fragrances on arousal and cognitive performance. The topics covered in this chapter will range from brain potentials related to arousal over alertness and attention to learning and memory. In addition, it will be discussed whether olfactory versus non-olfactory administration influences the effects of essential oils on cognitive functions and how psychological phenomena, such as hedonic preferences, semantic associations, and individual expectations may shape these effects.
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Although essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life as well as for the relief of various symptoms in patients, scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in healthy volunteers is rather scarce. Up to now, no experiments about the effects of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis) on human physiological parameters and on behavioral measures after inhalation have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on physiological parameters as well as selfevaluation in healthy human subjects following inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were blood pressure, breathing rate, skin temperature, and heart rate. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation, and vigour. Additionally, the fragrance was rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity, and effect. Sweet orange oil caused significant increases in heart rate as well as in subjective alertness, which are likely to represent a stimulating effect of the oil. These findings furnish scientific proof for the use of sweet orange oil in aromatherapy for the relief of mild forms of depression and stress in humans.
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Massage of essential oils is increasing being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in humans is rather scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Labiatae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. Thirty five healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rosemary oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure which indicate an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects feel more attentive, more alert, more vigorous, and more cheerful than before the administration of the oil. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the stimulating effect of rosemary oil and provides evidence for its use in medicines for the relief of depression and stress in humans.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage with jasmine oil (Jasminum sambac L., Oleaceae) on humans. Human autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate, blood oxygen saturation, breathing rate, and skin temperature, were recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, subjects had to rate their emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral arousal. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Jasmine oil was applied topically to the skin of the abdomen of each subject. Compared with placebo, jasmine oil caused significant increases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which indicated an increase of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the jasmine oil group rated themselves as more alert, more vigorous and less relaxed than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests an increase of subjective behavioral arousal. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the stimulating/activating effect of jasmine oil and provide evidence for its use in aromatherapy for the relief of depression and uplifting mood in humans.
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The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation), and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects
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To evaluate the effect of the odor of incense on brain activity, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a push/wait paradigm were recorded in 10 healthy adults (aged 23-39 years) with normal olfactory function. EEG was recorded from 21 electrodes on the scalp, according to the International 10-20 system, and EEG power spectra were calculated by fast Fourier transform for 3 min before and during odor presentation. ERPs were recorded from 15 electrodes on the scalp before, during and after exposure to incense with intervals of 10 min. In a push/wait paradigm, two Japanese words, 'push' as the go stimulus and 'wait' as the no-go stimulus, appeared randomly on a CRT screen with equal probability. The subjects were instructed to push a button whenever the 'push' signal appeared. Fast alpha activity (10-13 Hz) increased significantly in bilateral posterior regions during incense exposure compared to that during rose oil exposure. The peak amplitudes of no-go P3 at Fz and Cz were significantly greater during incense inhalation. The latencies of go P3 and no-go P3, and the amplitude and latencies of no-go N2 did not change by exposure to the odors of both incense, rose and odorless air. These results suggest that the odor of incense may enhance cortical activities and the function of inhibitory processing of motor response.
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Established in 1982 as the leading reference on electroencephalography, Drs. Niedermeyer's and Lopes da Silva's text is now in its thoroughly updated Fifth Edition. An international group of experts provides comprehensive coverage of the neurophysiologic and technical aspects of EEG, evoked potentials, and magnetoencephalography, as well as the clinical applications of these studies in neonates, infants, children, adults, and older adults. This edition includes digital EEG and advances in areas such as neurocognition. Three new chapters cover the topics of Ultra-Fast EEG Frequencies, Ultra-Slow Activity, and Cortico-Muscular Coherence. Hundreds of EEG tracings and other illustrations complement the text.
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Amplitude of the contingent negative variation component of the EEG was assessed in 18 subjects exposed to several odor conditions. Three primary odors were used as well as a mixture of the primary odors. Subjects were led to believe that the odor mixture was actually three different odors which were low concentrations of each of the primary odors. CNV amplitude changed as a function of subjects' expectations about this mixed odor rather than the direct physiological effects of the odor stimulus. These results suggest that EEG changes to odors may be the result of cognitive mediation rather than direct CNS changes induced by the odors.