Article

Ali H, Donovan B, Wand H, Read TRH, Regan DG, Grulich AE, Fairley CK, Guy RJGenital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: national surveillance data. BMJ 346: f2032

The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 04/2013; 346(apr18 1):f2032. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f2032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect on genital warts of the national human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Australia, which started in mid-2007. DESIGN: Trend analysis of national surveillance data. SETTING: Data collated from eight sexual health services from 2004 to 2011; the two largest clinics also collected self reported human papillomavirus vaccination status from 2009. PARTICIPANTS: Between 2004 and 2011, 85 770 Australian born patients were seen for the first time; 7686 (9.0%) were found to have genital warts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate ratios comparing trends in proportion of new patients diagnosed as having genital warts in the pre-vaccination period (2004 to mid-2007) and vaccination period (mid-2007 to the end of 2011). RESULTS: Large declines occurred in the proportions of under 21 year old (92.6%) and 21-30 year old (72.6%) women diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 11.5% in 2007 to 0.85% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 11.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in wart diagnoses was seen in women over 30 years of age. Significant declines occurred in proportions of under 21 year old (81.8%) and 21-30 year old (51.1%) heterosexual men diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 12.1% in 2007 to 2.2% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 18.2% in 2007 to 8.9% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in genital wart diagnoses was seen in heterosexual men over 30 years of age. In 2011 no genital wart diagnoses were made among 235 women under 21 years of age who reported prior human papillomavirus vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The significant declines in the proportion of young women found to have genital warts and the absence of genital warts in vaccinated women in 2011 suggests that the human papillomavirus vaccine has a high efficacy outside of the trial setting. Large declines in diagnoses of genital warts in heterosexual men are probably due to herd immunity.

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    • "We found that, if vaccines with 100% or 50% efficacy and 20 years duration were restricted to just half of 13-year-olds, it would not matter whether they were females, males, or an even mix of the two sexes (Fig. 2). This is, again, consistent with experience with the HPV vaccine, which lowered genital warts by 82% in males, despite them being unvaccinated [35]. That the benefits of a gonorrhea vaccine would extend across sexes is an important finding, as human challenge trials maybe limited to males [38], and our results suggest that this would not substantially bias estimates of the vaccine's effectiveness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gonorrhea, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide, can lead to serious sequelae, including infertility and increased HIV transmission. Recently, untreatable, multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains have been reported. In the absence of new antibiotics, and given the speed with which resistance has emerged to all previously used antibiotics, development of a vaccine would be the ideal solution to this public health emergency. Understanding the desired characteristics, target population, and expected impact of an anti-gonococcal vaccine is essential to facilitate vaccine design, assessment and implementation. The modeling presented herein aims to fill these conceptual gaps, and inform future gonococcal vaccine development. Using an individual-based, epidemiological simulation model, gonococcal prevalence was simulated in a heterosexual population of 100,000 individuals after the introduction of vaccines with varied efficacy (10-100%) and duration of protection (2.5-20 years). Model simulations predict that gonococcal prevalence could be reduced by at least 90% after 20 years, if all 13-year-olds were given a non-waning vaccine with 50% efficacy, or a vaccine with 100% efficacy that wanes after 7.5 years. A 40% reduction in prevalence is achievable with a non-waning vaccine of only 20% efficacy. We conclude that a vaccine of moderate efficacy and duration could have a substantive impact on gonococcal prevalence, and disease sequelae, if coverage is high and protection lasts over the highest risk period (i.e., most sexual partner change) among young people. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "The short incubation period and symptomatic nature of genital warts make this a good candidate for ongoing surveillance. However, as genital warts are not notifiable in most countries, accurate estimates of incidence and prevalence are not widely available and to date come mostly from clinic, rather than population-based samples [15]. Additionally, data from modelling studies suggest that the population level impact of HPV vaccination is likely to differ by HPV type; hence monitoring trends in HPV types 6 or 11 related disease (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries now, vaccination of young adolescent girls with prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines has been rolled out as a public health programme. In countries where coverage has been high, this has led to dramatic reductions in cervical high grade precancerous lesions, as well as genital warts. A reduction in circulating vaccine-related HPV-types has also been demonstrated. With the introduction of gender-neutral approaches incorporating universal vaccination of preadolescent boys in some countries, implementation of post-vaccine monitoring will be critical to evaluate the incremental impact of male vaccination. In contrast to cervical screening programmes, population-wide screening for HPV infection or related disease in males is not recommended; thus real-time monitoring of HPV vaccine effectiveness in males will require dedicated surveillance strategies. Monitoring the prevalence of circulating genital HPV types using a sentinel surveillance model could offer a good surrogate marker of early vaccine effectiveness in males. However, such an approach requires careful consideration of the most appropriate anatomical sites from which to collect specimens, the best sampling methods and the most sensitive assays to use. Additionally, in assessing an accurate measure of the impact of HPV vaccination in the male population, the effect of herd protection will need to be assessed, as most male programmes will commence in the setting of established female programmes. This poses an interesting epidemiological challenge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    • "Substantial indications of the effect of the National HPV Vaccination Program in Australia were predicted [29] [30] and have already been observed in young cohorts offered vaccination; these include a substantial decline in the prevalence of vaccine-included HPV types in women aged 18–24 years [26], a decline in the incidence of anogenital warts in females under 30 years of age [31] and a decline in high grade cervical precancerous lesions in young women [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Australia commenced a publically-funded, National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in 2007 with a two year catch-up phase for females aged 12-26 years. To identify the factors associated with the uptake of the HPV vaccine (which has a recommended 3-dose schedule in Australia) by young adult women vaccinated by general practitioners and community-based programs within the catch-up phase. 1139 women who were eligible to receive the free HPV vaccine during the catch-up period were recruited in 2008-2009 (age 20-29 years at recruitment), in New South Wales, after having a normal (negative) cervical smear result recorded on the NSW Pap Test Register. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire providing information on vaccination status, and sociodemographic and other factors. Overall, 880 (77%) women reported receiving ≥1 dose of the vaccine and 777 women (68%) reported receiving ≥2 doses. In multivariable analysis (adjusting for the period for which each woman was eligible for free HPV vaccination), uptake of ≥1 dose of the vaccine was significantly associated with being born in Australia (p<0.01), being single (p=0.02), being nulliparous (p<0.01), living in a higher socioeconomic status area (p-trend=0.03), living in more remote areas (p=0.03), drinking alcohol (p<0.01) and using hormonal contraceptives (p<0.01). Although vaccinated women were more likely to have fewer sexual partners than unvaccinated women (p-trend=0.02), they were also more likely to report a prior sexually transmitted infection (STI) (p=0.03). Similar factors were associated with receiving ≥2 doses. In this group, women living in higher socioeconomic status areas were more likely to be vaccinated against HPV in the catch-up phase of the national program. Although vaccinated women tended to have fewer sexual partners, they also reported prior STIs, which may be a marker of increased risk of prior exposure to HPV. The findings of this study reinforce the continuing need to prioritise equitable delivery of vaccination to various population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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