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Effects of attitudinal and socio-demographic factors on pro-environmental behavior in urban China

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Abstract

China currently faces severe environmental challenges, and information regarding the predictors of pro-environmental behaviour in China is needed to manage them. This study addresses this need by modelling the sociodemographic and attitudinal factors predicting pro-environmental behaviour in urban China. Pro-environmental behaviour was modelled as a function of environmental attitude (measured using the new environmental paradigm) and various sociodemographic characteristics. Respondents who were employed, holding leadership positions, living in larger cities and single were more likely to participate in pro-environmental behaviour. These results accord with previous studies suggesting being female, younger, highly educated and having environmentally oriented attitudes increased the odds of participating in pro-environmental behaviour. The rapid urbanization and economic development in China may significantly impact pro-environmental behaviour in the future.

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... The attitudes are measured with five-point Likert type scales ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The theory of the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) developed by Dunlap and Liere in 1978 is one of the most important theories recognised by sociologists and scholars to measure pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes that influenced human response to ecological degradation and pollution (Dunlap, 1994;Dunlap, Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000;Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... Furthermore, some researchers include occupational variables such as employment status and employment rank because people's occupational status may represent the differences in social class that may influence the pro-environmental attitude. Marital status is also included because family responsibilities may influence their availability to participate in pro-environmental attitude (Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... In this study, the independent variables are the socio-demographics variables, which are gender, race, family status, age, length of residency, education level, occupation and household income. The determination for choosing these variables as independent variables are based on the suggestions made by previous research on CBC that have highly significant value in their study (Dunlap et al., 2000;Martin-Lopez et al., 2007;Mugisha, 2002;Vodouhe et al., 2010;Xiaodong et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2011). The dependent variables are categorised into four main variables, which are willingness to participate, perception, knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. ...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT The destruction of mangrove forest has become severe in the developing countries due to natural disasters and anthropogenic processes which include lack of community participation and awareness. Community-based conservation (CBC) is one of the important approaches in mangrove rehabilitation programmes. However, this approach has not been well implemented in Malaysia. Thus, this study explores the psychological and institutional factors that may have influenced the CBC establishment based on the socio-demographic characteristics. The study aims to develop a framework of CBC establishment in managing mangrove rehabilitation programmes based on the psychological and institutional factors. The psychological factors include four variables of willingness to participate (WTP), knowledge, perception and attitude. The institutional factors involve nine inter-related themes which is roles of agencies, justification, capability, management factor, risk and benefit perceived, knowledge transfer, community strength and community issues. The study employed the sequential mixed-method by combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. A survey involving 377 participants was conducted in three study areas namely Kuala Gula (KG) and Kuala Sepetang (KSP) in Perak, and Kuala Selangor (KSR) in Selangor. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the samples from the Malay and Chinese groups. Subsequently, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed in the selection of 16 key-informants for the interviews. The quantitative data were analysed using univariate and bivariate analysis, cross-tabular and internal consistency reliability analysis, while, the thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. It was found 46.3% Malay respondents and 90.4% Chinese respondents were not involved in the mangrove rehabilitation programme. The result of Pearson correlation’s (r) indicates a significant correlation between WTP and socio-demographic factors such as gender, race, age, occupation and length of residency, whereas for education level and income, the result shows insignificant relationship. The perception factors indicate that lack of rehabilitation skill is the most serious risk perceived in KSP and KSR, while lack of money for fund allocation is the most serious risk perceived in KG. Based on the findings of the in-depth interview, it was concluded that to encourage conservation activities among the community, local mangrove rehabilitation association should be established. The result found that the history, economy and capability building are the three new variables in the psychological factors, while the geographical factor is the new variable in the institutional factor that influenced the CBC establishment. The findings suggest that the establishment of local mangrove rehabilitation association through CBC approach in the study areas should take into consideration on strengthening the capability building, proposed adaptive co-management framework, increase participation and awareness and increase skills and knowledge among the young generation.
... The same study also showed that people who were of a pensionable age were comparatively less inclined towards such behaviour, whereas an Indian study concluded that males score higher on PEB, with middle-aged persons and married persons also scoring higher [17]. These results differ from a study conducted by Chen et al. [18], who stated that young, female and highly educated persons were more pro-environmentally inclined [18]. In a study of Australian employees, 84.8% of the respondents indicated that they were concerned about environmental problems. ...
... The same study also showed that people who were of a pensionable age were comparatively less inclined towards such behaviour, whereas an Indian study concluded that males score higher on PEB, with middle-aged persons and married persons also scoring higher [17]. These results differ from a study conducted by Chen et al. [18], who stated that young, female and highly educated persons were more pro-environmentally inclined [18]. In a study of Australian employees, 84.8% of the respondents indicated that they were concerned about environmental problems. ...
... Looking at the demographics, this could mean that more females who are aged 31-50 years and own their homes disagree with the negative statements that the re-use of waste can be a time consuming or unhygienic activity. This result is similar to other studies stating that women are more prone to PEB due to their awareness of causes and consequences of environmental harm [16,18]. ...
Article
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Minimising waste through re-use thereof is the third tier of the waste minimisation hierarchy. Understanding the socio-demographic profile of waste re-users can assist in developing effective waste minimisation strategies and programmes. The objective of this paper was to understand the socio-demographic profile of waste re-users and determine whether this affected their re-use activities and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three randomly selected suburbs in Gauteng, South Africa (n = 150). The data was retrieved using a questionnaire and multivariate analysis using a MAONVA test was conducted to assess which factors were associated with PEB and waste re-use. Women re-used plastic containers more than males and homeowners re-used glass jars more than tenants. The level of education had no significant bearing on specific re-use activities. Multivariate analysis results indicate that gender, age groups and type/status of homeownership played a significant role in statements that negatively influence waste re-use. Based on the results of this study, the best candidates for re-use activities and PEB in suburban communities in South Africa are women homeowners aged between 31 and 50 years.
... Previous research has found positive relationship between pro-environmental attitudes involved in the institution of natural protected areas. Surveys of attitudes show that communities benefited from the natural conservation programme were significantly more positive towards the future park management than the communities who did not (Infield & Namara, 2001) as well as local residents, who live in and around the protected areas, are more affected in terms of their ability to meet conservation objectives (Ormsby & Kaplin, 2005 sociologists and scholars to measure pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes that influenced human response to ecological degradation and pollution (Dunlap, 1994;Dunlap, Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000;Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... Furthermore, some researchers include occupational variables such as employment status and employment rank because people's occupational status may represent the differences in social class that may influence the pro-environmental attitude. Marital status is also included because family responsibilities may influence their availability to participate in pro-environmental attitude (Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... In this study, the independent variables are the socio-demographics variables, which are gender, race, family status, age, length of residency, education level, occupation and household income. The determination for choosing these variables as independent variables are based on the suggestions made by previous research on CBC that have highly significant value in their study (Dunlap et al., 2000;Martin-Lopez et al., 2007;Mugisha, 2002;Vodouhe et al., 2010;Xiaodong et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2011). The dependent variables are categorised into four main variables, which are willingness to participate, perception, knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The destruction of mangrove forest has become severe in the developing countries due to natural disasters and anthropogenic processes which include lack of community participation and awareness. Community-based conservation (CBC) is one of the important approaches in mangrove rehabilitation programmes. However, this approach has not been well implemented in Malaysia. Thus, this study explores the psychological and institutional factors that may have influenced the CBC establishment based on the socio-demographic characteristics. The study aims to develop a framework of CBC establishment in managing mangrove rehabilitation programmes based on the psychological and institutional factors. The psychological factors include four variables of willingness to participate (WTP), knowledge, perception and attitude. The institutional factors involve nine inter-related themes which is roles of agencies, justification, capability, management factor, risk and benefit perceived, knowledge transfer, community strength and community issues. The study employed the sequential mixed-method by combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. A survey involving 377 participants was conducted in three study areas namely Kuala Gula (KG) and Kuala Sepetang (KSP) in Perak, and Kuala Selangor (KSR) in Selangor. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the samples from the Malay and Chinese groups. Subsequently, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed in the selection of 16 key-informants for the interviews. The quantitative data were analysed using univariate and bivariate analysis, cross-tabular and internal consistency reliability analysis, while, the thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. It was found 46.3% Malay respondents and 90.4% Chinese respondents were not involved in the mangrove rehabilitation programme. The result of Pearson correlation’s (r) indicates a significant correlation between WTP and socio-demographic factors such as gender, race, age, occupation and length of residency, whereas for education level and income, the result shows insignificant relationship. The perception factors indicate that lack of rehabilitation skill is the most serious risk perceived in KSP and KSR, while lack of money for fund allocation is the most serious risk perceived in KG. Based on the findings of the in-depth interview, it was concluded that to encourage conservation activities among the community, local mangrove rehabilitation association should be established. The result found that the history, economy and capability building are the three new variables in the psychological factors, while the geographical factor is the new variable in the institutional factor that influenced the CBC establishment. The findings suggest that the establishment of local mangrove rehabilitation association through CBC approach in the study areas should take into consideration on strengthening the capability building, proposed adaptive co-management framework, increase participation and awareness and increase skills and knowledge among the young generation.
... The study reveals that older tourists have higher probability of participating in beach clean-up than younger tourists. Generally, tourists' pro-environmental behaviours have been linked to age (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014;Chen et al., 2011). While younger tourists are mostly projected as being exuberant and driven by the desire to satisfy their travel adventures regardless of the consequences on the environment, older tourists are linked with reflective, environmentally conscious, and sustainable behaviours (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014;Chen et al., 2011). ...
... Generally, tourists' pro-environmental behaviours have been linked to age (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014;Chen et al., 2011). While younger tourists are mostly projected as being exuberant and driven by the desire to satisfy their travel adventures regardless of the consequences on the environment, older tourists are linked with reflective, environmentally conscious, and sustainable behaviours (Gifford & Nilsson, 2014;Chen et al., 2011). Younger tourists mostly exhibit carefree attitudes towards the environment as their main preoccupation is about exploring themselves and maximising their holiday experience (Li and Wu, 2020;Han et al., 2018). ...
... Meanwhile, the finding indicating that the highly educated (bachelor and post graduate degree holders) have high probability of engaging in beach clean-up than high school graduates is in consonance with the literature on pro-environmental behaviour amongst tourists (Vicente-Molina et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2011). Previous research has established that highly educated tourists are more conscious of their actions on the environment and thus exhibit sustainable environmental behaviour (Ramkissoon et al., 2013). ...
Article
While tourists contribute to and suffer the consequences of beach litter, studies on beach clean-up exercises have mostly neglected them and overly focused on resident beach goers. Based on a sample of 685 international tourists in Ghana, this paper examines the perception of international tourists on beach litter and the determinants of their willingness to participate in beach clean-up as an experiential activity during their visits to Ghanaian beaches. The findings reveal that international tourists have negative perceptions of beach litter, constructed along four domains, namely health, recreational activity participation, aesthetic, and coastal environment. Further, sex, age, educational attainment, continent of origin, travel party status, environmental value, and perception of beach litter significantly influence the willingness of the tourists to participate in beach clean-ups. The implications of these findings in the context of beach litter management at coastal resorts and destinations are discussed.
... Furthermore, substantial environmental threats have shifted the viewpoint in China. Rather than prioritizing economic growth over environmental protection [37], people recognize that pollution has damaged individuals' health and material interests [93], and the public has become aware of environmental pollution and their own grievances [15,34,65,93,100]. ...
... The New Ecological Paradigm scale [15,18,21,44,50,77,103] has been broadly applied to measure individual beliefs, values, and norms about pro-environmental actions and responsibilities, and rates the determinants of pro-environmental attitudes and/or behaviors. To measure the direct influence of individual pro-environmental behaviors and attitudes on environmental protection as an objective variable, several previous studies used variables related to situation-specific behaviors and attitudes [5, 24, 39, 59, 60, 85, 77 78, 96, 101]. ...
... Additionally, we included individual Chinese concerns for the environmental issues China is facing, which are assumed to have a direct correlation impact on proenvironmental behavior, based on the theory of planned behavior [3,5,35]. Previous literature argued that Chinese people's priorities have shifted to recognize that pollution has damaged individuals' health and material interests [93] and they have become aware of environmental pollution and their own grievances [15,34,65,93,100]. To incorporate these changes in attitudes toward environmental problems, "I think the environmental problems China is facing are profoundly serious, " "I think the energy sustainability issues China is facing are profoundly serious" (cognition of environmental problems), "I am constantly thinking about the environment," "I am interested in the environmental problems that China is facing," "I think citizens should study China's energy/environmental problems," "I think citizens should sort their garbage, " "I think the city I live in should be more hygienic," "I prioritize maintaining my/our standard of living over engaging in energy-saving and garbage-reducing actions," and "The top priority for China is not environmental problem-solving, but furthering national economic growth" were added to the list of environmentalism-measuring items. ...
Article
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Recent studies have indicated a positive association between patriotism and environmentalism; however, the correlation between them has not yet been quantitatively verified. Additionally, differences in “good” versus “blind” patriotism have been ignored in environmental behavior studies; thus, theoretical concepts related to their effects on environmentalism have not been empirically tested. The present study aims to reveal the effects of good patriotism and social consideration on pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and the mediating effect of social consideration on the relationship between patriotism and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, while removing national or political prejudice or ideology from the measurement of patriotism. Data collected using a self-report questionnaire were analyzed for Chinese university students and workers. Results of multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis of five pro-environmental attitudes/behaviors estimation models showed that patriotism was correlated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and this correlation was completely mediated by individual social consideration, which was strongly and positively correlated with both patriotism and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Our findings show that patriotism encourages people to focus on societal structures and environmental problems. The effect of good patriotism on individual pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors is clearly different from that of blind nationalism, as shown in previous literature. The present study highlights implications for future policy-making and education on patriotism and environmentalism in China.
... Behaviour is conceived as the overt and express action taken towards a referent (Chen et al., 2011). Behaviour is often a reflection of innate and covert social psychological feelings and beliefs on a referent (Chen et al., 2011). ...
... Behaviour is conceived as the overt and express action taken towards a referent (Chen et al., 2011). Behaviour is often a reflection of innate and covert social psychological feelings and beliefs on a referent (Chen et al., 2011). The social psychology literature documents the inextricable relationship between attitude and behaviour, noting that attitude towards a referent directly influences behaviour towards that referent (Kaiser et al., 1999;Thøgersen and Ölander, 2003). ...
... About the sociodemographic factors, women are projected as being sensitive to the environment than men (Mainieri et al., 1997), though, this is not consistent throughout the literature as other limited studies have also found men to be more environmentally sensitive. Income and educational attainment have both been found to be positively related to pro-environmental actions (Chen et al., 2011). For instance, Lake et al. (Lake et al., 1996) reported that respondents with higher income were willing to pay extra for recycling than those with lower incomes, while Song et al. [42] found that both income and education have positive relationships with willingness to pay for e-waste recycling. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research attention has been directed at legislative and market-based instruments with little recourse to understanding attitudinal and behavioural responses to single-use plastics (SUPs). Using the tri-component model, this study examines attitudinal and behavioural segments on SUPs amongst residents in coastal cities of Accra and Cape Coast in Ghana. A questionnaire was used to solicit data from 2,345 residents selected using the multi-stage sampling technique. Findings show that there are three attitudinal segments on SUPs amongst residents, namely avoiders, potential avoiders and patrons. Avoiders have unfavourable attitudes towards SUPs and as such avoid consumption of SUPs, while potential have unfavourable attitudes towards SUPs, but with a lower level of avoidance and thus sometimes use them. Patrons have favourable attitudes towards SUPs and equally consume them. Each of these three attitudinal segments varies across the socio-demographic characteristics of residents. The implications of these findings towards the reduction of marine SUP pollution are discussed.
... Previous research has found positive relationship between pro-environmental attitudes involved in the institution of natural protected areas. Surveys of attitudes show that communities benefited from the natural conservation programme were significantly more positive towards the future park management than the communities who did not (Infield & Namara, 2001) as well as local residents, who live in and around the protected areas, are more affected in terms of their ability to meet conservation objectives (Ormsby & Kaplin, 2005 sociologists and scholars to measure pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes that influenced human response to ecological degradation and pollution (Dunlap, 1994;Dunlap, Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000;Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... Furthermore, some researchers include occupational variables such as employment status and employment rank because people's occupational status may represent the differences in social class that may influence the pro-environmental attitude. Marital status is also included because family responsibilities may influence their availability to participate in pro-environmental attitude (Xiaodong et al., 2011). ...
... In this study, the independent variables are the socio-demographics variables, which are gender, race, family status, age, length of residency, education level, occupation and household income. The determination for choosing these variables as independent variables are based on the suggestions made by previous research on CBC that have highly significant value in their study (Dunlap et al., 2000;Martin-Lopez et al., 2007;Mugisha, 2002;Vodouhe et al., 2010;Xiaodong et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2011). The dependent variables are categorised into four main variables, which are willingness to participate, perception, knowledge and pro-environmental attitude. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The destruction of mangrove forest has become severe in the developing countries due to natural disasters and anthropogenic processes which include lack of community participation and awareness. Community-based conservation (CBC) is one of the important approaches in mangrove rehabilitation programmes. However, this approach has not been well implemented in Malaysia. Thus, this study explores the psychological and institutional factors that may have influenced the CBC establishment based on the socio-demographic characteristics. The study aims to develop a framework of CBC establishment in managing mangrove rehabilitation programmes based on the psychological and institutional factors. The psychological factors include four variables of willingness to participate (WTP), knowledge, perception and attitude. The institutional factors involve nine inter-related themes which is roles of agencies, justification, capability, management factor, risk and benefit perceived, knowledge transfer, community strength and community issues. The study employed the sequential mixed-method by combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. A survey involving 377 participants was conducted in three study areas namely Kuala Gula (KG) and Kuala Sepetang (KSP) in Perak, and Kuala Selangor (KSR) in Selangor. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the samples from the Malay and Chinese groups. Subsequently, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed in the selection of 16 key-informants for the interviews. The quantitative data were analysed using univariate and bivariate analysis, cross-tabular and internal consistency reliability analysis, while, the thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. It was found 46.3% Malay respondents and 90.4% Chinese respondents were not involved in the mangrove rehabilitation programme. The result of Pearson correlation’s (r) indicates a significant correlation between WTP and socio-demographic factors such as gender, race, age, occupation and length of residency, whereas for education level and income, the result shows insignificant relationship. The perception factors indicate that lack of rehabilitation skill is the most serious risk perceived in KSP and KSR, while lack of money for fund allocation is the most serious risk perceived in KG. Based on the findings of the in-depth interview, it was concluded that to encourage conservation activities among the community, local mangrove rehabilitation association should be established. The result found that the history, economy and capability building are the three new variables in the psychological factors, while the geographical factor is the new variable in the institutional factor that influenced the CBC establishment. The findings suggest that the establishment of local mangrove rehabilitation association through CBC approach in the study areas should take into consideration on strengthening the capability building, proposed adaptive co-management framework, increase participation and awareness and increase skills and knowledge among the young generation.
... People's environmental behaviors have been studied at the individual, organizational, and policy levels in China (Ru, 2004;Yang, 2005;Wang and Lin, 2010). At the individual level, although the specific findings vary, studies have shown that demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, and education) significantly impact people's pro-environmental behaviors, including making green purchases and donating to environmental protection organizations (Gong and Lei, 2007;Hong and Xiao, 2007;Chen et al., 2011;Zhang, 2012Zhang, , 2016. For example, several studies have revealed that women in China express less environmental concern than men ( Hong and Xiao, 2007), whereas others have shown that women display greater levels of environmentally friendly behaviors (Gong and Lei, 2007) and that women, older individuals, and people with higher levels of education have greater environmental concern than others (Li, 2003;Luo and Deng, 2008;Shen and Saijo, 2008;Zhang, 2012Zhang, , 2016. ...
... However, based on the literature, we believe that a feasible measurement for this study should also cover knowledge of ENPOs and environmental policies. Secondly, previous research has shown that environmental knowledge is usually highly related to education (Gong and Lei, 2007;Hong and Xiao, 2007;Chen et al., 2011), and demographic data like education is typically much easier to collect than environmental knowledge. Thirdly, we are afraid that it would be too ambitious for us to develop two new scales in one study. ...
Article
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To investigate the relationships between altruism, environmental concerns, and ordinary people's pro-environmental behaviors that go beyond self-interested NIMBY-ism, we examined measurements of altruism and environmental concerns in a Chinese context and developed a scale that measured people's pro-environmental behaviors at the individual, organizational, and policy level. We then conducted a tailor-made, face-to-face survey ( N = 603) and found, first, that old age, gender (being a woman), party affiliation, and education level are positively associated with pro-environmental behaviors at the individual, organizational, and policy levels. We next found that human domination worldviews are negatively associated with individual- and organizational-level pro-environmental behaviors and that eco-centric worldviews are positively associated with individual-level pro-environmental behaviors. Third, we found that altruistic behaviors (prosocial behaviors and/or donations) are positively associated with pro-environmental behaviors. In short, awareness of the ecological crisis and altruism can stimulate people's pro-environmental behaviors in China. Meanwhile, it is doubtful that people care more for the environment after their living standards have improved, because socioeconomic status indicators are not statistically significant for individual-level pro-environmental behaviors.
... However, factors influencing the differences among them can be quite uncertain. For instance, age has a statistically significant influence on sustainable behavior [59,60], but while young people are more environmentally conscious in China [61], this is not so straightforward in Europe [56]. In addition, a higher income positively correlates with eco-concerns but living in a degraded environment and having a low income seems to be even more influential. ...
... differences among them can be quite uncertain. For instance, age has a statistically significant influence on sustainable behavior [59,60], but while young people are more environmentally conscious in China [61], this is not so straightforward in Europe [56]. In addition, a higher income positively correlates with eco-concerns but living in a degraded environment and having a low income seems to be even more influential. ...
Article
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In line with the social morphogenetic approach, this article explores the role of meta-reflexivity in responsible concerns and actions oriented toward achieving a sustainable society. Based on the case study of Slovenia, this article addresses individuals’ social and environmental responsibility by considering the relationships between their attitudes, intentions and behavior. It draws on a survey questionnaire that includes the reflexivity measurement tool. The path-analysis is applied to consider the aspects of responsibility as endogenous variables, while the social/cultural conditions (age, gender, educational level, income and the survey wave) and meta-reflexivity as a specific mode of inner dialog are included as exogenous variables. A coherent index of socially and environmentally responsible behavior can be constructed and explained by social/cultural conditions and meta-reflexivity. The COVID-19 pandemic indicates negative effects on responsibility, mostly due to a decline in meta-reflexivity. The study reveals two different—although not mutually exclusive—paths towards socially and environmentally responsible behavior. The first one is based on a combination of well-established values, habits and inertia. This behavior is more typical for older generations, as indicated by the impact of age. The second one is mostly based on critical, meta-reflexive thinking and it is more typical for younger, more educated and more affluent people.
... Age may also play a role, but knowledge and pro-environmental behavior are often hard to predict based on age. In some cases, older adults have a greater connection and concern about nature [24], but in others pro-environmental behaviors were demonstrated more in younger people [25]. Research has found pro-environmental behaviors and participation in eco-tourism among students in Australia [26] and active participation of youth in environmental and social justice work [27], which suggests that young people may add an additional dimension to environmentalism. ...
... Unexpectedly, our analysis showed largely similar levels of knowledge and perception across the four different age groups. However, the differences we did find were driven by younger Blacks (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25) in comparison to all others (26 and older). Young Black adults ages 18-25 have their own set of struggles. ...
Article
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Our study elucidated knowledge and perceptions of natural resources and climate change by African Americans/Blacks in Washington, DC since they are a traditionally marginalized population and to see if we could dispel the perception that they have low knowledge and interest in environmental issues. Secondarily, we wanted to determine if knowledge and perceptions vary across age groups. We conducted a survey of 491 Blacks in the District and asked 26 questions/statements related to natural resources, climate change, economics, and health. Participants were categorized into four age groups 18–25, 26–40, 41–65, and 66 and older for analysis. We found that the level of environmental knowledge across the age groups was relatively high and largely similar. Our results suggest that Blacks care about the environment, see the environment as beneficial to their health, and are knowledgeable about natural resources. However, younger Blacks (18–25) were the least likely to think of the natural world as a community to which they belong, report feelings of connection to it, and recognize that it impacts their personal welfare. In conclusion, we find that Blacks in the District possess environmental awareness and use local environmental language, depicting the uniqueness of their community. The mainstream environmental movement may fail to recognize this local language, leading to exclusion of vulnerable populations based on a faulty premise that these populations lack knowledge or interest in environmental issues.
... Furthermore, women show more willingness to buy and pay a premium price for environmentally benign products (Laroche, Bergeron, & Barbaro-Forleo, 2001). On the other hand, Mostafa (2007) found that men possess a deeper knowledge of environmental issues, express higher levels of environmental concern and have more positive attitudes towards green purchase, while Chen at al. (2011) and Rice (2006) found no significant relationship of gender with environmental variables. ...
... There have been some attempts to link environmental attitude and behaviour to marital status (Diamantopoulos et al., 2003;Fisher et al., 2012;Chen et al., 2011). The argument behind these relationships is that spouses can act as a social referent in influencing environmental attitude and behaviour (Neuman, 1986). ...
... This theory has widely been used in disciplines such as social psychology human geography, amongst others, to model environmental behaviour (e.g. [ [6] ]). The theoretical underpinning of our approach is that environmental attitudes, perceptions, and place attachment positively predict ERB. ...
... This supports the view of early theorists on place attachment, like Tuan [43] , who indicated that experience with a place leads to more place bonding and intentions to support the environment, which is a manifestation of ERB. Chen et al. [6] and Cheng and Wu [7] found a link between environmental attitudes, place attachment, and ERB. Negative environmental attitudes may result in residents feeling less inclined to pro-environmental behaviour, either because of despondency about their environment, and feelings of transiency resulting from detached bonds towards the environment. ...
Article
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This study attempts to determine the socio-demographic determinants of environmental attitudes, perceptions, place attachment, and resultant environmental behaviour. Drawing on secondary data collected in the Gauteng province, South Africa, a model was developed to test the relationships between these constructs, using critical ratios and a structural equation model approach. Critical ratio analysis showed that employment status was a positive predictor of perceptions, while none of the other socio-demographic variables tested positively predicted environmental attitudes. Population group, education level, and migration status were positive predictors of place attachment. Results from structural equation modelling indicated that people's satisfaction with amenities like water and waste services in the province were some of the important determinants of environmental attitudes. Results also indicated that perceptions, attitudes and attachment played a positive role in determining environmentally responsible behaviour. This has implications for environmental planning in the province.
... Although previous studies have demonstrated the influence of past experience and socio-demographic factors on environmental management (Chen et al. 2011;Rajapaksa, Islam, and Managi 2018), no study has been conducted to explain the mechanism to connect residents' perception of their living environment and social factors to environmentally related behavior, especially in the post-disaster context. This study, therefore, analyzed the impact of coastal residents' living environment and their perception of social factors on environment-related behavior. ...
Article
Though coastal environments are recognized as important community resources, the post-disaster reconstruction phase, an artificial-oriented strategy for human security and coastal development, may degrade coastal landscapes and avert pro-environmental behaviors. However, the impact of these outcomes has been studied to a limited extent only. This study aimed to explore residents’ pro-environmental behavior, green performance, and motivation for coastal green infrastructure (CGI) through the difference in high-low green self-efficacy (GSE). Survey data was used for a small rural community in Japan, where residents started the Camellia Forest Project as CGI after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET) under coastal artificial development. To examine the difference in high-low-GSE by participants’ characteristics, environmental behaviors, and awareness, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. The results showed that residents’ characteristics – men, retirement age, second-generation household type, and mowing experience – were positively associated with high-GSE. People having high-GSE showed more effects on their coastal green management, Eco-DRR (OR: 6.04, 95% CI, 2.02–18.04), and social cohesion (OR: 6.27; 95% CI, 0.97–14.38) than those with low GSE in the post-disaster recovery process. This study suggests that GSE offers a base to nurture residents’ commitment to a coastal green environmental restoration under CGI development.
... Some early papers framed environmental concern as postmaterialistic and thus assumed that high-income groups, or highincome societies, can be expected to have higher environmental concern (Inglehart, 1995). The assumption that income is a relevant positive predictor of pro-environmental behaviour was also confirmed in several early studies on recycling behaviour (Berger, 1997), in newer studies in China (Chen et al., 2011), in studies on the purchasing of organic food (Gracia & Magistris, 2007;Yin, Wu, Du, & Chen, 2010), and in a study on the purchasing of energy-efficient appliances (Ramos, Labandeira, & Löschel, 2016). On the other hand, income has been shown to be positively correlated with energy consumption and with larger carbon footprints in several newer studies Gatersleben et al., 2002;Moser & Kleinhückelkotten, 2018). ...
Article
Private households play a relevant role in reducing CO2 emissions, but it remains unclear whether and which psychological factors are related to emissions. Given the relevance of income as a general driver of consumption and CO2 emissions, it seems particularly important to investigate how income and psychological variables interact. In two studies (a convenience sample from a city in Saxony Anhalt with N = 642 participants and a representative sample from Saxony Anhalt with N = 300 participants), we investigated the moderating role of household income in correlations between motivational variables (biospheric value orientation, personal norm to protect the climate, and sufficiency orientation) and intentions to engage in three types of environmentally relevant behaviours (curtailment behaviours, efficiency behaviours, and political behaviours). Results showed that motivational factors were correlated with all three behavioural domains. High- and low-income households differed significantly in correlations between motivational factors and efficiency intentions. As expected, correlations between motivational factors and intentions to engage in political behaviours did not seem to be affected by income.
... Negative satisfaction levels and positive levels for an inclination to emigrate may mean detached bonds to the province, either because of despondency about their environment or because of other externally related factors (Murphya et al. 2018;Nientied et al. 2019). Despondent people are not expected to express satisfaction with place, or to have strong views of staying on in an area (Chen et al. 2013). This has implications for place attachment, as satisfaction has been linked to levels of attachment to place (Craffert and Willers 1994;Williers 1996). ...
... Negative satisfaction levels and positive levels for an inclination to emigrate may mean detached bonds to the province, either because of despondency about their environment or because of other externally related factors (Murphya et al. 2018;Nientied et al. 2019). Despondent people are not expected to express satisfaction with place, or to have strong views of staying on in an area (Chen et al. 2013). This has implications for place attachment, as satisfaction has been linked to levels of attachment to place (Craffert and Willers 1994;Williers 1996). ...
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Determinants of place attachment have been extensively explored in the world now charac-terised by increased globalisation and mobility. Apart from some studies analysing attachment to place especially in ecotourism and for specific homogenous environments like botanical gardens, there is a gap regarding the analysis of place attachment and its determinants in spatially heterogeneous and emerging societies. In this paper, we aimed at determining factors predicting place attachment for a socioeconomically and demographically diverse area, namely Gauteng province, South Africa, using partial proportional odds models. Socio-demographic variables were selected from existing data, and respon-dents' satisfaction with the province, preference to stay and resultant sentiments on whether they would rather emigrate from the province were used as outcome variables. Results attest to the intricacy of socio-demographic factors affecting place attachment. For example, population group was a strong predictor of 'preference to stay'. Other variables like age groups, gender, electricity availability, employment status, and education level had no influence on 'preference to stay' in Gauteng. Using the same interpretation, results also indicate that population group, gender, dwelling type, electricity availability, employment status and education levels were strong predictors of 'satisfaction with area'. Only the elderly age group (65?) was a strong predictor of 'satisfaction with area'. Dwelling type, born in Gauteng or emigrated, employment status and age (40?) were all strong predictors of whether respondents could emigrate or not, if given the chance. The findings from this paper present some of the socioeconomic and demographic factors such as dwelling type, socioeconomic status and ethnicity that governments need to take into consideration in policy, spatial planning and service delivery issues within their localities.
... Similarly, in China, Fan et al. [36] examined environmentally friendly tourist behaviors in the Dongjiang Lake and found that prior environmental knowledge had a significant positive impact on environmental attitudes. This was also found to be the case for urban residents in China [37]. Based on this, hypothesis H1a states that environmental knowledge has a significant positive impact on environmental attitudes. ...
Article
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The rapid development of ecotourism provides a win–win path for ecological and environmental protection and sustainable economic development. However, environmental problems are increasingly prominent in ecotourism destinations, which seriously hinders their sustainable development. This study explored how environmental knowledge, environmental perceived value, perceived consumption effectiveness, and environmental attitudes stimulate and shape environmentally friendly tourist behaviors. A sample survey of 406 tourists at Taibai Mountain National Nature Reserve in China was conducted, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships in the formation of environmentally friendly behaviors. The results show that environmental knowledge has a significant positive impact on environmental attitudes, environmental perceived value, and perceived consumption effectiveness. Further, environmental perceived value has a significant positive impact on environmental attitudes and environmentally friendly behavior; environmental attitudes and environmental behavior have a significant positive impact; environmental awareness has a significant positive impact on environmental behaviors; and perceived consumption effectiveness has a significant positive impact on environmentally friendly behaviors and is the most important direct predictor. Overall, the results reveal the formation mechanism of environmental friendly behavior, and provide a scientific basis and theoretical support for the stimulation and shaping of environmentally friendly tourist behaviors in ecotourism destinations.
... China son más propensos a participar en la clasificación de basura, reciclaje y voluntariados medioambientales (Chen et al., 2011); por otra parte, en población residente la mayor parte de sus vidas en zonas rurales se encontraron intenciones más positivas hacia su entorno con relación a habitantes de la urbe (Chileshe & Moonga, 2019;Hinds & Sparks 2008). ...
Article
Los avances científicos, tecnológicos y los modelos de desarrollo social y económico actuales ponen de manifiesto la influencia negativa del ser humano sobre el medio ambiente. La educación universitaria resulta indispensable para la difusión de conocimientos y promoción de comportamientos más solidarios y menos perjudiciales con el medio ambiente. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la relación del conocimiento ambiental (CA) y el comportamiento proambiental (CPA) de estudiantes universitarios y su manifestación según las áreas de conocimiento, en una institución de educación superior en Colombia. Se realizó un estudio comparativo con diseño transversal, utilizando un muestreo dirigido, conformado por 991 estudiantes de diferentes carreras universitarias. Se aplicó el Índice de Comportamiento Proambiental (ICP) que evalúa creencias, normas subjetivas e intención de comportamiento proambiental y la Escala Diagnóstica de Conocimiento Ambiental para Latinoamérica (ECLA) que evalúa conocimiento del sistema, de las acciones, de la efectividad, y de problemas ambientales. Se evidenciaron asociaciones positivas y significativas entre el CA y las escalas del ICP; y se encontraron diferencias significativas según las diferentes áreas de conocimiento (p< .05). Los estudiantes de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas presentaron mayores puntajes en CA y CPA respecto a los de otras áreas. Se concluye que los estudiantes poseen creencias, actitudes y acciones positivas hacia el medioambiente, no obstante, su nivel de CA es bajo. Las universidades cuentan con el reto de promover una formación que impacte en el bienestar humano-ambiente.
... Terrier et al. (2016) reported that age is significantly related to eco-initiatives. Chen et al. (2011) found that older people are more likely to engage in pro-environmental behavior than their younger counterparts. Scott and Willits (1994) found that older individuals reported more pro-environmental behavior because of their investments in the environment. ...
Purpose In researching into workplace pro-environmental behaviors, there is sparse evidence on self-construals with dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE), particularly among university employees. To fill this gap, the purpose of the study is to investigate the associations of self-construals with eco-civic engagement, eco-helping and eco-initiatives among 256 (men = 139 and women = 117) employees of a University. Design/methodology/approach Through the use of cross-sectional survey method, data were collected to investigate theoretically deduced hypotheses. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings Results showed that independent self-construal was positively associated with eco-civic engagement, β = 0.25, t = 2.55, p < 0.01, eco-helping, β = 0.42, t = 4.51, p < 0.01 and eco-initiatives, β = 0.36, t = 3.73, p < 0.01, whereas interdependent self-construal had significant positive relationship with eco-civic engagement only, β = 0.27, t = 2.73, p < 0.01. Research limitations/implications Future research can manipulate self-construal and collect observational data on eco-civic engagement, eco-helping and eco-initiatives. The findings should be further developed using larger samples among other higher education institutions (HEIs). Practical implications This study provides a basis that self-construction can influence OCBE, particularly, focusing on independence can drive engagement in eco-civic engagement, eco-helping and eco-initiatives while focusing on interdependence can motivate engagement in eco-civic engagement. The findings may guide future development of workplace environmental sustainability programs and policies to aid university managers, practitioners, organizers and promoters of environmental sustainability on the university campuses. Originality/value The findings contribute to environmental sustainability literature in HEIs by providing information on the usefulness of self-construal types in motivating employee participation in OCBE.
... The average aggregated NEP score of sampled farmers is 3.60, which is in line with the average NEP scale score of farmers in New Zealand (3.6) (Durpoix, 2010), slightly below the score in Denis and Pereira (2014) for urban households in Romania, and slightly above the score calculated by the same authors for urban households in Portugal. Olli et al. (2001) and Chen et al. (2011) state that higher NEP scale values encourage environmentally responsible behavior as the ultimate goal of EA; however, Whitmarsh and O'Neill (2010) disagree and state that the high NEP values do not affect environmentally responsible behavior. Durpoix (2010) showed that farmers accept the new environmental paradigm more than the dominant social paradigm (Durpoix, 2010). ...
Article
This paper aims to contribute to the empirical measurement of farmers’ environmental awareness, and improve the understanding of the role of environmental awareness in farmers’ adoption of cleaner agricultural practices. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for measuring environmental awareness as a multi-dimensional concept. The data obtained from a survey of 382 farmers in northern Serbia are used as an empirical basis to test the developed latent environmental awareness construct. This construct includes several domains: environmental knowledge, biospheric concern, connectedness to nature, environmental attitudes, and environmental behavior. The results show that environmental knowledge contributes the most to explaining the environmental awareness construct (factor loading=0.83), whereas biospheric concern contributes the least (factor loading=0.23). Regarding agricultural practices, environmental awareness is higher among farmers who use biological pest control (+23%), mulching (+17%), and green manure (+9%). Thus, our results uncover the role of farmers’ environmental awareness in the adoption of more sustainable agricultural practices. These results document the operational validity of the construct and its potential use in research activities and management programs geared toward promoting environmentally friendly food production.
... Respecto de la edad, la mayoría de las investigaciones señalan que los jóvenes poseen en mayor medida creencias y actitudes proambientales que los adultos y los adultos mayores (Chen et al., 2011;Franzen y Meyer, 2010;Moyano Díaz, Palomo Vélez y Moyano Costa, 2015). Si bien estos últimos han encontrado que la población de mediana edad (30 a 40 años) presenta mayores puntajes en las escalas de creencias y actitudes proambientales en comparación con otros grupos etarios (menores y mayores a dicho rango); resultado congruente con la idea de que los jóvenes y los ancianos se mantendrían al margen de temas públicos (tales como la preocupación por el medioambiente), mientras que la participación en dichos temas alcanzaría su máximo hacia la mediana edad (Franzen y Meyer, 2010). ...
Article
El propósito de este trabajo es evaluar cómo los adultos jerarquizan los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sustentable (ODS) y la importancia que ellos otorgan a los ODS relacionados con el cuidado del ambiente, como también su interés en participar en actividades proambientales y su opinión sobre la educación ambiental. La muestra comprendió a 170 adultos (85 mujeres y 85 varones) de la ciudad de Paraná y Oro Verde, Provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Abarca dos submuestras por edad: 75 adultos jóvenes (44,1%) y 95 adultos medios y tardíos (55,9%). Lo ambiental no es algo prioritario para los adultos de esta muestra, quienes jerarquizaron en mayor medida las metas de desarrollo de la lucha contra la pobreza, promoción de la salud y educación.
... However, urban fishers indicated a greater statistically significant difference of ecocentrism for 12 of the 15 NEP items and the aggregate score. This is consistent with other studies of urban versus rural residents ( Berenguer et al., 2005 ;Chen et al., 2011 ;Chung and Poon, 2001 ;Hampel et al. 1995 ;Tuncer et al. 2004 ;Yu, 2014 ), but see ( Hinds and Sparks, 2008 ) and Huddart-Kennedy et al. (2009) so this is not always the case. Rural fishers in this study were also more likely to feel that humans can manipulate the environment without consequence (e.g. ...
Article
Artisanal fishing is a very important activity for the subsistence of coastal inhabitants in Latin American countries. Increasingly, what has traditionally been a rural activity is being enveloped by urban expansion, resulting in urban-based artisanal fishers. We administered 98 questionnaires to artisanal fishers along the Jalisco coast of the Bahia de Banderas, on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Approximately half of the participants belonged to each of urban (Puerto Vallarta) or rural collectives. The aim of the study was to understand the differences and similarities between urban and rural fishers with respect to demographics, fishing behaviors, assessments of past, current, and future fishing resources, attitudes towards fisheries management, and perceptions of human-environment relationships. The respondents represented an aging demographic with a low level of education. They reported catching 27 different species of fish, primarily of the Family Lutjanidae, although rural fishers reported a greater variety of species captured. Half of the respondents supplement fishing with a second form of income, a trend that is more prevalent in rural fishers. Fishers indicated that fishing was better in the past and predicted it will be poorer in the future; rural fishers were more negative about fishing conditions. Almost all fishers were concerned about the health of fish populations and three-quarters of them felt that fish populations are disappearing. Specific fishing practices were the highest cited problems facing fishing and making changes to these problems was identified to improve fishing. Half the respondents felt that there is conflict between artisanal and commercial sport fishers, but this is more prevalent in urban fishers. Respondents indicated that fishery managers need to do their job (e.g. resource monitoring, enforcement) and apply fisheries laws in order to help improve regional fisheries. Overall, concerns for a future sustainable fishery are reflected in an ecocentric view of humanity and nature by both groups, although it is often statistically greater in urban fishers. These results provide an insight into differences between urban and rural fishers that can be useful for local fisheries collectives, regional and federal fisheries management agencies, as well as global approaches to small-scale fisheries.
... Shao et al. (2018) found that middle-income earners exhibit the strongest WTP for environmental protection. Chen et al. (2011) indicated that female, younger, and highly educated survey respondents in urban China were more prone to pro-environment behaviors. ...
Article
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The deteriorating environment has become an urgent global problem. As developing country, China is no exception. Demand for clean air is increasing in response to health and social problems. We use China's micro household survey data to explore individual residents' willingness to pay for environmental protection (WTP). Results show that air pollution improves WTP. A 100 μg/m³ increase in PM2.5 leads to approximately 84.1% WTP on a given day, but local residents are habituated to local pollution. We further study air pollution affects individual perceptions. We discuss the belief that local governments take pollution seriously can promote WTP. In addition, respondents who own smartphones, demonstrate environmental awareness, are happier, and enjoy higher household assets and income are willing to pay more.
... Similarly, a Canadian study found that people in rural areas were more anthropocentric (protective of the environment for satisfaction of human needs) than their urban counterparts (Huddart-Kennedy, Beckley, McFarlane, & Nadeau, 2009). In contrast, a Chinese study found that people who live in metropolises were more likely to commit to pro-environmental behaviors than people living in small cities (Chen et al., 2011). ...
Article
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There is a growing need for increased civic engagement in developing countries. We argue that civic education has not met this need in Nigeria because it is uncritical, but it can be reformed through critical consciousness theory emphasizing knowledge and critical thinking. However, for civic education reforms, we need to understand the relationship between sociodemographic factors and civic engagement. Therefore, we investigated the influence of six sociodemographic factors (gender, location, age, income, education, and ethnicity) on two civic engagement constructs-environmental civility and community volunteering-using the responses of 372 respondents on the Civic Engagement Scale. Results revealed that community volunteerism is mainly influenced by age, gender, and location, while environmental civility is mainly influenced by location and education, and there is a generally low level of civic engagement. The implications of these findings for a critical civic education aimed at increasing critical consciousness and civic action are discussed.
... The findings in the literature show that socio-demographic factors can influence citizens' awareness of climate change and their pro-environmental behavior [70][71][72][73]. However, there is no clear picture of the relationship between support for RES and different socio-demographic variables. ...
Article
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Renewable energy sources (RES) play a key role in achieving the European Union’s energy and climate objectives. As a member of the European Union, Croatia has committed to adopting European Directive 2009/28/EC, a directive on promoting the use of RES. Croatia shows good potential for the use of different types of RES. In the period 2009–2019, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption increased from 23.6 to 28.5 percent. The Croatian energy strategy aims to increase the national share of renewable energy to at least 32 percent by 2030. Acceptance and public support are essential for renewable energy to be introduced into energy policy and particularly to encourage renewable energy implementation in the residential sector. The purpose of the paper is to explore the public perception of renewable energy and citizens’ willingness to pay for the use of RES. Data were collected through a 2021 survey of citizens 18 years and older. The survey results show a low level of implementation of RES technology in the residential sector; more than 80 percent of respondents did not use any sources of renewable energy in their households. Results related to respondents’ knowledge of different sources of renewable energy suggest they have the most knowledge of solar, wind, and hydropower energy. Respondents believe that combating climate change, reducing dependency on energy imports, reducing environmental impacts, and improving health are the most important benefits of RES implementation. The survey reveals general support for RES among respondents; almost 89 percent of them would purchase renewable energy from local suppliers. In addition, 79 percent of survey participants were willing to pay for the introduction of RES technology into their households. The research shows that environmental concerns are the primary reason for citizens’ higher willingness to pay for RES.
... The study of Islam et al. [51] found that the level of education and knowledge on e-waste are not related. Several studies confirmed that education and pro-environmental behaviour are related [55,61,62]. This hypothesis is proposed with the expectation that the respondents from the natural and health sciences and engineering fields of study would tend to have more knowledge on e-waste than the respondents from the arts and humanities fields of study. ...
Article
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The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of the high-income countries in the Middle Eastern region and is vying for sustainable development in every sector. One of the UAE sustainable development goals is to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns; hence, the emphasis is on circular economy. UAE is one of largest consumers of e-devices, and their proper disposal is of paramount importance. E-waste disposal awareness leads to better disposal behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to understand the e-device purchase and disposal behaviour among university communities in the UAE. A survey was conducted among the students and staff members of a federally funded university in the UAE, namely Zayed University, and quantitative methodology was adopted to analyze the collected data. The study found that 47.95% of respondents purchased mobile phones, and 65% of the respondents purchased 1–3 electronic devices every year. Through chi-square test, gender of the respondents was found to be related with e-device ownership. Through the analysis of variance (ANOVA), age and field of specialization were found to affect the knowledge about e-waste. Older and the respondents with science specialization were more aware about e-waste. Most of the respondents disposed e-devices, such as batteries, earphones/headphones, and electronic toys, along with the household trash. A very small percentage of respondents disposed e-devices such as laptops, phones, and tablets with the household trash. Mostly, these were either repaired, donated, or sold to second-hand users. Many respondents were neither aware of the government initiatives on e-waste collection nor participated in government-sponsored e-waste recycling. The study further identified that 67% of the respondents were aware of the toxicity of e-waste, and 61% of the respondents were keen to join e-waste recycling drives at university. The findings of the study imply that the policy makers need to incentivize e-waste-disposal systems and develop targeted awareness approaches to enhance e-waste disposal in the UAE.
... Further, prior research has identified that attitude towards the environment (Thomas & Sharp, 2013), age and gender (Chen et al., 2011;D'Souza, Taghian, Lamb, & Peretiatko, 2007), and emotions like anger (Carrus, Passafaro, & Bonnes, 2008) and guilt (Bamberg, Hunecke, & Blöbaum, 2007) may also have an impact on proenvironmental behaviors. We therefore measured these variables to rule them out as alternative plausible explanations for our prediction. ...
Article
Food waste is a major global issue. Annually, more than 40% of all food produced for human consumption is sent to landfill, resulting in significant environmental, financial, and social consequences. Importantly, most of this waste happens at the household level. Hence, effective ways to influence intentions and behaviors to reduce household food waste must be identified. This paper investigates the impact of hope elicited by message framing on intentions and behavior relating to food waste reduction, and conditions under which such emotion is more effective. Results show hope elicited by gain (vs. loss) messages mediates the relationship between messages and behavior and intentions, and participants feeling hope show greater intention not to waste food when reading how (vs. why) messages. This research builds on current theory involving hope theory and message framing, presents avenues for future research and discusses managerial implications of message framing relating to behavior change campaigns.
... Conversely, women are 18% more inclined than men to use cloth grocery bags and purchase organic food. These results are in line with previous research where male and female display differential PEBs (Chen et al., 2011;Xiao and Hong, 2010). ...
Chapter
This book contains 11 chapters demonstrating the incredible complexity characterizing the relationship between peer-to-peer (P2P) loding and commmunity resilience, by considering multiple stakeholder perspectives and examining a diverse array of destination communities. The research within this book clearly shows how P2P lodging can foster resilience by helping to make communities more economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. However, the research also clearly shows how P2P lodging can itself be the external force of undesirable change against which communities may struggle to be resilient, and how P2P lodging can destabilize communities in ways that leave the communities vulnerable and less resilient to future disrupting forces. This conflicting duality highlights the complexity of the P2P lodging phenomenon, and the nuance with which one therefore must understand it. This volume will prove to be so valuable for students, academics, policy makers and community leaders looking to better understand the intersection between P2P lodging and community resilience.
... Similarly, to other countries, the vast majority of people involved in citizen science projects in China are those already interested in environmental protection (Turrini et al., 2018). Typically, these individuals are disproportionately middle-class, highly educated, in leadership positions and based in larger cities (Chen et al., 2011). However, for citizen science to have a significant impact on environmental protection, a broader section of society needs to be engaged. ...
Article
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Citizen science (CS) is the practice in which amateurs without formal scientific training collect data to contribute to the scientific observations available to scientists and decision makers (Bonney et al., 2009). Citizen science is increasingly utilized for environmental protection and conservation as well as related purposes such as education, access to nature, access to justice, inclusion, civics and equality or other ‘social goods’ (Mor Barak, 2020; Makuch & Aczel, 2020). Several eco-citizen science projects are developing in China (Chen et al., 2020; Hsu, Yeo, & Weinfurter, 2020), though little research has evaluated their effectiveness in facilitating environmental protection or advancing social goods. This paper aims to identify the role and potential benefits of environmental citizen science in China to promote environmental and social objectives within the context of what has been called “authoritarian environmentalism” (Beeson, 2018). Through semi-structured interviews and a review of the limited available literature, we identify three key areas in which citizen science could potentially benefit environmental protection and promote social good in China: (1) fostering education to inform society and encourage environmental advocacy; (2) facilitating effective environmental governance through monitoring and litigation; and (3) improving data collection for biodiversity and conservation research.
... A study by Musitu-Feret et al. (2019) showed that within 12-to 16-year-old children, girls demonstrate overall greater cognitive and emotional empathy with the natural environment than boys. Also, socioeconomic status (SES) has been shown to influence the level of proenvironmental actions in adults (Chen et al., 2011;Giusti, Svane, Raymond, & Beery, 2018). However, it has not been studied if sex or family SES associates with nature connectedness in children. ...
... In Israel and Britain, the NR score was higher in dog owners than that in others (Colléony, White & Shwartz, 2019). Besides, meta-analyses confirmed that connection to nature had a positive and moderate correlation with pro-environmental behaviors (Mackay & Schmitt, 2019;Whitburn, Linklater, & Abrahamse, 2019), such as eco-friendly consumption, energy conservation, transportation, recycling, etc. (Chen et al., 2011;Geng, Xu, Ye, Zhou, & Zhou, 2015;Martin et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This study explored how nature relatedness (NR) was linked with human eye movements in outdoor space. We created a 360-degree virtual reality scene that contained half urban setting of buildings and half nature area of trees, and recorded 112 participants' eye movements (total visit duration and total fixation duration ratio) during 1 min of free viewing. It was found that individuals’ NR score correlated with their eye movements on the area of interests (AOIs), i.e., total fixation duration ratio on buildings (r (110) = −0.341, p < .001). Further analyses of the correlations between three subscales of NR scale and eye-tracking data revealed that NR-Self was significantly related to eye movements, but not for NR-Perception and NR-Experience. The paired t-tests result showed that people with Low NR score spent more time looking at buildings than trees, while the High NR group did the opposite. For the medium NR group, no distinct eye movements difference between trees and buildings was detected. The outcomes shed light on the divergence of individual visual attention in a mix of natural and built environments. Our finding also determined the efficacy of NR scale with physical measurements of behavior.
... Social scientists have a decent understanding of the association between individuals' current socioeconomic status (SES) and PEB, concluding that the typical environmentalists are middle-classed or the upper-classed [14,[18][19][20][21]. Furthermore, a recent study has elaborated on the relationship between SES and green consumption and revealed that the middle classes are more inclined to green consumption than both the lower and upper classes [22]. ...
Article
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Based on the life history theory, this study is aimed at examining the associations among childhood subjective socioeconomic status, adulthood pro-environmental behavior, and commercial insurance purchase. We used the data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS2013) and obtained a sample of 11,172 respondents, with ages ranging from 18 to 97 years old. The respondents were selected using multistage stratified sampling. Correlational, mediational and moderational analyses were conducted using SPSS. The results show that the childhood subjective socioeconomic status is positively associated with adulthood pro-environmental behavior, independent of the current subjective socioeconomic status. In addition, commercial insurance purchase acts as a mediator of the association between childhood subjective socioeconomic status and adulthood pro-environmental behavior. Using conditional process analysis, we demonstrated that age moderated both the path where childhood subjective socioeconomic status influenced adulthood pro-environmental behavior and the path where childhood subjective socioeconomic status influenced commercial insurance purchase. Theoretically, the results provide empirical support for evolutionary perspective on sustainable behavior and demonstrate that childhood environment can constrain individual consumer choices and lifestyle. Practically, positioning target customers to commercial insurance clients may be an effective marketing strategy to increase consumers’ actual purchase of ethical products. Moreover, to realize environmental goals, social policy makers can make efforts to publicize the importance of insurance and expand the coverage of insurance by increasing the corresponding financial subsidies for low socioeconomic status families.
... Milbrath (1989) emphasized the transition of perception toward the NEP, which positively impacts the natural environment and formation of nature-friendly values, from the previous human-centered DSP for sustainable development [51]. Because such a paradigm shift results in daily environmentally friendly practices, it has been suggested as the ultimate solution for sustainable development [42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59]. ...
Article
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This is international comparative research on the perception of local residents toward the natural environment in South Korea, Taiwan, and Indonesia. Through the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) investigation, perceptions of natural environmental conservation and utilization of 664 urban forest visitors were analyzed, and the relationship between recreational behavior, NEP scores, and demographic characteristics was investigated. The three countries, with different histories, cultures, and economic development, showed statistically significant differences in all items. In terms of the NEP response score, Taiwan showed the most positive results with an average of 4.08. Frequent visits by the elderly and family were common significant factors of high NEP score for all survey locations. In the confirmatory factor analysis of latent variables for NEP, ‘limits to growth’ were significant in South Korea while ‘ecological crisis’ was more significant in Taiwan and Indonesia. Forest experience frequency was a common factor affecting NEP, indicating that frequent forest visits during leisure time are a major factor in improving the ecological paradigm.
... Over the past few decades, studies examining humanenvironment interactions have increased substantially in both size and scope. This has largely been due to the increased pressure placed on the environment as a result of rapid urbanization as well as rising globalization (Scotts and Willits 1994;Thogersen 2006;Chen et al. 2011). Examining the ways in which individuals perceive their environment as well as ascribe value to their place of residence is important as these factors are known to greatly impact environmental behavior (Kollmuss and Agyeman 2002), as well as influence environmental planning and management (Zube 1987;Shaoa and Liu 2017;Dominiques and Gonçalves 2018). ...
Article
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In this study, we employed a number of geospatial techniques to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and changes of environmental attitudes and place attachment values in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The data were obtained from the Gauteng City Region Observatory's Quality of Life Survey collected at three separate points in time, namely 2013, 2015, and 2017. Results indicated that wards (smallest administrative and analysis units) located on the urban periphery of Gauteng, which are generally less affluent, largely held more negative environmental attitudes and place attachment values during the three time periods. In contrast, centrally located wards, which are generally more affluent, expressed more positive environmental attitudes but less place attachment values, especially in 2017. The findings of this research not only highlight the complex spatio-temporal distribution of environmental attitudes and place attachment values throughout Gauteng but also emphasize the need for spatially targeted state interventions for future environmental planning within the province. ARTICLE HISTORY
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The rationale for this study lies in the assumption that people transact with the perceived environment through co-construction of environmental perceptions, attitudes and attachment to place in a spatially heterogeneous manner. Environmental perceptions, attitudes and place attachment arise through processes of symbolic interaction with the environment. The relationship between these variables in shaping how people relate to their environment has not been adequately addressed for heterogeneous and socio-economically diverse, developing regions. Moreover, studies have not explicitly characterised and mapped these variables to afford their understanding on a spatio-temporal basis.
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Serious environmental problems occur as a result of the unconscious production and use of energy. Hence, there is a strong need to develop an effective energy culture to provide sustainability for the energy investments. This study aims to identify the influence directions of dimensions and criteria for energy culture in emerging economies for sustainable energy investments. For this purpose, a multi-criteria decision-making model is proposed based on 2-tuple linguistic values and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The weighting results of energy culture are also evaluated for E7 economies. The findings demonstrate that energy companies should consider investing in technologies, assets, and objects which enable to reproduce energy usage. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that there is a misalignment of practices with material culture and norms what creates the potential for behavior change of consumers. Finally, the potential of bigger countries for investment opportunities in sustainable energies has been disclosed by ranking emerging economies. The results let us provide insights into development of energy investments by considering strategic priorities of energy culture in emerging economies. The novelty of this paper is to define a set of criteria and dimensions for the strategic priorities of energy culture in emerging economies and construct a novel decision-making technique with DEMATEL and TOPSIS based on 2-tuple and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets.
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In this study, we define the choice of recharging mobile credit with an environmentally friendly platform such as mobile money as a novel pro-environmental behavior. Using a survey approach, we collect household-level data from eco-friendly communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, and empirically model and test the nexus between this novel pro-environmental behavior and objective knowledge. The study finds that there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between international environmental objective knowledge and pro-environmental behavior. In contrast, there is no such evidence for households with local environmental objective knowledge. Toward achieving sustainable environmental development, this study draws inferences to serve as a wake-up call for institutions that are responsible for disseminating local environmental knowledge regarding the effects and consequences of poor environmental behavior.
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Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article develops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several respects: ( 1 ) It taps a wider range of facets of an ecological worldview, ( 2 ) It offers a balanced set of pro- and anti-NEP items, and ( 3 ) It avoids outmoded terminology. The new scale, termed the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, consists of 15 items. Results of a 1990 Washington State survey suggest that the items can be treated as an internally consistent summated rating scale and also indicate a modest growth in pro-NEP responses among Washington residents over the 14 years since the original study.
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Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability.
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Drawing on a recent multinational survey of environmental attitudes and behaviors, we examined the relation between religious beliefs and environmental concern. Measures included the revised New Environmental Paradigm (NEP), Thompson and Barton’s ecocentrism and anthropocentrism scales, a 12-item proenvironmental behavior scale, a measure of biblical literalism, and a measure of religious importance. Data are reported from 2,160 university students from Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, the United States, and Venezuela. The data revealed a consistent pattern across countries. Respondents who expressed more literal beliefs in the Bible scored significantly lower on the NEP, lower on ecocentric environmental concerns, and higher on anthropocentric environmental concerns. No significant relation was found between biblical literalism and self-reported proenvironmental behavior.
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Conventional wisdom has long held that widespread citizen concern for environmental quality is limited to wealthy nations. Both academics and policymakers assume that residents of poor nations are too preoccupied with satisfying their “material” needs to support the “postmaterialist” value of environmental protection. This view was challenged by results of Gallup's 24-nation “Health of the Planet” (HOP) survey conducted in 1992, as the HOP found highly inconsistent and often negative correlations between national affluence and environmental concern. The current article compares results from three waves of the “World Values Survey” (WVS) to those of the HOP. When appropriate measures of environmental concern are employed, the WVS results generally replicate those of the HOP, as in all three waves such concern correlates inconsistently with national affluence. The overall results suggest that citizen concern for the environment is not dependent on national affluence, nor on affluence-based postmaterialist values.
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Various authors suggest that environmentalism differs by gender, but systematic empirical evidence for this assertion is limited. We compare women's and men's environmental activism and environmentally friendly behavior (EFB) using survey data from probability samples of three British Columbia forest conservation orga-nizations (n ¼ 381). The data were primarily analyzed using OLS multiple regression analysis. Findings show no substantial gender differences in level of activism, but reveal that women engage in significantly higher rates of EFB. Further, while level of activism is not a significant predictor of EFB among men, it is the strongest predictor among women. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Specifically, we argue that women may be more concerned about envir-onmental issues and committed to environmentalism, but their limited biographical availability (e.g., personal constraints that present barriers to participation—as entailed in the demands of the ''double day'' of paid and domestic work) constrains their activism (McAdam 1986). However, because many environmentally friendly behaviors can be undertaken in the context of domestic labor and everyday routines, biographical availability does not constrain their EFB.
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It is widely assumed that public concern for environmental quality is dependent on affluence, and is therefore stronger in wealthy nations than in poor nations. This assumption is tested via results from a 1992 international survey conducted by the George H. Gallup International Institute that obtained data on a wide range of environmental perceptions and opinions from citizens in 24 economically and geographically diverse nations. Aggregate, national-level scores for a variety of measures of public concern for environmental quality were created and correlated with per capita gross national product. Although the results vary considerably depending upon the measure, overall national affluence is more often negatively rather than positively related to citizen concern for environmental quality—contradicting conventional wisdom.
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Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article develops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several respects: (1) It taps a wider range of facets of an ecological worldview, (2) It offers a balanced set of pro- and anti-NEP items, and (3) It avoids outmoded terminology. The new scale, termed the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, consists of 15 items. Results of a 1990 Washington State survey suggest that the items can be treated as an internally consistent summated ratingscale and also indicate a modest growth in pro-NEP responses among Washington residents over the 14 years since the original study.
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In our article entitled “The Social Bases of Environmental Concern: A Review of Hypotheses, Explanations and Empirical Evidence” (POQ 44:181–97), two rows of correlations were reversed in Table 1. Under the study by Van Liere and Dunlap, 1978, figures for the environmental funding scale appear where figures for the environmental regulations scale should be, and vice versa. We regret the error and hope it has not caused undue confusion for anyone using these data.
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Using data from nationwide representative samples from Sweden and from Sweden's largest environmental organization, proenvironmental behavior is interpreted in the light of Schwartz's norm activation theory. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is used as an indicator of awareness of consequences, while inclination to guilt feelings, if harming the environment, is used as an indicator of a personal norm. Regression analysis of proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay higher prices for environmentally friendly food showed that the indicator of a personal norm was far more strongly correlated to proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay, respectively, than the NEP scale. Education and income showed hardly any influence on proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay, whereas gender and age fell somewhere in between. An attempt is made to explain the generally weak correlations between NEP and environmentally relevant variables by pointing out the generally high level of agreement with the NEP items among Swedes.
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It is proposed that attitudes are stronger predictors of behavior when the amount of effort required for the behavior is high than when little effort is required. The first study found support for the effort hypothesis among undergraduates who participated in a high-effort recycling program. A second study of undergraduates found a strong positive relationship between attitudes of environmental concern and the amount of effort they were willing to exert to recycle. The third study, a meta-analysis of studies on the relationship between environmental concern and recycling, showed that studies conducted in (high-effort) dropoff recycling programs typically found a stronger relationship than studies conducted in (low-effort) curbside recycling programs. Across all three studies the results consistently support recent theoretical findings: Effort is a strong moderator of the attitude-behavior relationship.
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Formal analyses of long-term global marine fisheries prospects have yet to be performed, because fisheries research focuses on local, species-specific management issues. Extrapolation of present trends implies expansion of bottom fisheries into deeper waters, serious impact on biodiversity, and declining global catches, the last possibly aggravated by fuel cost increases. Examination of four scenarios, covering various societal development choices, suggests that the negative trends now besetting fisheries can be turned around, and their supporting ecosystems rebuilt, at least partly.
Technical Report
Available online at: https://population.un.org/wup/Download/
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Some of the world's most profound environmental changes are under way in China. Studying the underlying forces of environment-related behaviors at all levels in China is therefore extraordinarily important. This essay helps people outside China increase their understanding of these variables by summarizing findings of Chinese-language surveys conducted in China to measure environmental awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. People in different parts of China have differences in perceptions and behaviors. The article takes a macroscopic snapshot of how the Chinese view their environment as a prelude to analyses of more particularistic perceptions and actions. This snapshot depicts environmental destruction and rampant resource exploitation that is likely to continue for decades to come. However, by understanding this trend it may be possible to findways of eventually slowing it and thereby mitigating long-term environmental damage. The article includes an annotated bibliography of Chinese-language reports on environmental attitudes and behaviors.
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This research examines changes in the environmental coalition over the 1980s. During these years, concern over environmental problems has increased. How has the coalition favoring greater environmental protection changed? We use logistic regression to examine changing determinants of support for increased environmental spending. In brief, ideology, party identification, and age become less important as determinants, and education and urban residence become more important. The implications are discussed.
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Using data from nationwide representative samples from Sweden and from Sweden's largest environmental organization, proenvironmental behavior is interpreted in the light of Schwartz's norm activation theory. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is used as an indicator of awareness of consequences, while inclination to guilt feelings, if harming the environment, is used as an indicator of a personal norm. Regression analysis of proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay higher prices for environmentally friendly food showed that the indicator of a personal norm was far more strongly correlated to proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay, respectively, than the NEP scale. Education and income showed hardly any influence on proenvironmental behavior and willingness to pay, whereas gender and age fell somewhere in between. An attempt is made to explain the generally weak correlations between NEP and environmentally relevant variables by pointing out the generally high level of agreement with the NEP items among Swedes.
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This study examines the influence of a major environmental problem, the 1988 drought, on environmental worldview. Its aims are to both examine the stability of environmental worldview and to further the development of theoretically based environmental social research. Guided by the New Environmental Paradigm, data are analyzed from statewide telephone surveys of Kentucky conducted in 1984 and 1988. In addition to the effects of other sociodemographic factors in both years, the analysis examines the influence of residing in a county which experienced water restrictions in 1988 on environmental worldview. There was an increase in the level of environmentalist worldview for the entire state population between 1984 and 1988. The only group for which the increase in environmentalist worldview was statistically significant for this interval was that which lived in a county which had water restrictions in 1988.
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A social-psychological model is developed to examine the proposition that environmentalism represents a new way of thinking. It presumes that action in support of environmental quality may derive from any of three value orientations: egoistic, social-altruistic, or biospheric, and that gender may be implicated in the relation between these orientations and behavior. Behavioral intentions are modeled as the sum across values of the strength of a value times the strength of beliefs about the consequences of environmental conditions for valued objects. Evidence from a survey of 349 college students shows that beliefs about consequences for each type of valued object independently predict willingness to take political action, but only beliefs about consequences for self reliably predict willingness to pay through taxes. This result is consistent with other recent findings from contingent valuation surveys. Women have stronger beliefs than men about consequences for self, others, and the biosphere, but there is no gender difference in the strength of value orientations.
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The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale is the most frequently used measure of environmental concern, but it has not been placed in the context of a social-psychological theory of attitude formation or attitude-behavior relationships. Using data from a northern Virginia sample, this study examines NEP in relation to the variables in a theoretical model of environmental concern. We found that the NEP is indistinguishable from a scale of awareness of consequences (AC) of general environmental conditions, both psychometrically and in terms of its relations to behavioral intentions, but somewhat different in its relations to basic value orientations and sociodemographic variables. We conclude that both NEP and AC measure generalized beliefs about the nature of human-environment interactions-or "folk ecology"—a set of beliefs that may be influenced by social structure and values and that influence attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding specific environmental conditions.
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With the end of top-down recycling campaigns and rising living standards in post-Mao China, public participation in recycling can no longer be taken for granted. This article examines the differences in recycling behaviors between social groups differentiated by age, gender, education, employment, and level of household incomes in Wuhan—China’s fifth largest city. Based on the analysis of empirical data, gender, age, and household income were identified as three important factors affecting individual recycling behavior in the city. For economic incentives, households with different incomes did take different actions, and individuals in lower income households were more active in recycling. Females, especially older women, play a crucial role in recycling household waste. Given the gender processes in China’s households, the domestic division of labor is expected to drive housewives to not only shoulder most of the routine housework duties but also to bear the responsibility for recycling. However, the conservation tradition for recycling from the factor of age will likely disappear in the near future with the passing of the current older generation.
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The present research examined the relations between people’s self-reported recycling and waste reduction behaviors, their reasons or justifications for engaging in these behaviors, and their future orientation. The most engaging results of the project pertained to the observed relations between the consideration of future consequences and respondents’ self-reported recycling and waste-reduction behavior. The findings indicate that respondents’ concern for the future and their ratings of the importance of various justifications were related to recycling behaviors in a consistent manner. The relations between the same predictors and waste-reduction behaviors, however, were more complex. The findings also revealed that respondents’ tendencies to engage in waste-reduction behaviors were unrelated to their tendencies to recycle; that is, persons who perform one set of behaviors are not necessarily likely to perform the other. Some practical implications of these findings are also presented for developers of programs designed to increase public awareness of the need to reduce waste.
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The diagnosis of dynamic linear systems has been studied in a previous paper by using the polynomial representation of each variable. Data validation and gross error detection were investigated. This paper uses fault signature analysis to detect errors in the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) of a wind turbine. The major contribution of this paper is that the wind turbine is operating at variable speed.