ArticlePDF Available

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract

Authors:

Abstract

Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(3): 119-122, 2011
ISSN: 2044-2467
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011
Received: March 16, 2011 Received: April 30, 2011 Published: August 05, 2011
Corresponding Author: Jai S. Ghosh, Department of Microbiology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, India.
Tel: +91 9850515620 119
Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract
Maruti J. Dhanavade, Chidamber B. Jalkute, Jai S. Ghosh and Kailash D. Sonawane
Department of Microbiology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and
demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are
becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic
potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been
of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated
flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and
ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and
pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity
has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas
aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM
5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the
observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were
identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
Key words: Antimicrobial, coumarin, lemon, prophylaxis, tetrazene
INTRODUCTION
Even though pharmacological industries have
produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three
decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has
increased. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to
transmit and acquire resistance to drugs, which are
utilized as therapeutic agents (Gislene et al., 2000). For a
long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of
natural products for maintaining human health. The use of
plant extracts and phytochemicals, both with known
antimicrobial properties, can be of great significance in
therapeutic treatments (Seenivasan et al., 2006). Many
plants have been used because of their antimicrobial traits,
which are due to compounds synthesized in the secondary
metabolism of the plant. These products are known by
their active sub stances e.g. the phenolic compounds which
are part of the essential oils, as well as tannin (Tyagi and
Malik, 2010). Essential oils are more effective in
controlling biofilm cultures due to their better diffusibility
and mode of contact (Al-Shuneigat et al., 2005). Hence
the essential oils and other extracts of plants have evoked
interest as sources of natural products. They have been
screened for their potential uses as alternative remedies
for the treatment of many infectious diseases
(Tepe et al., 2004; Dorman and Deans, 2000).
Lemon is an important medicinal plant of the family
Rutaceae. It is cultivated mainly for its alkaloids, which
are having anticancer activities and the antibacterial
potential in crude extracts of different parts (viz., leaves,
stem, root and flower) of Lemon against clinically
significant bacterial strains has been reported
(Kawaii et al., 2000). Citrus flavonoids have a large
spectrum of biological activity including antibacterial,
antifungal, antidiabetic, anticancer and antiviral activities
(Burt, 2004; Ortuno et al., 2006). Flavonoids can function
as direct antioxidants and free radical scavengers, and
have the capacity to modulate enzymatic activities and
inhibit cell proliferation (Duthie and Crozier, 2000). In
plants, they appear to play a defensive role against
invading pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses
(Sohn et al., 2004). Flavonoids are generally present in
glycosylated forms in plants, and the sugar moiety is an
important factor determining their bioavailability.
Preparation from peel, flowers and leaves of bitter orange
(Citrus aurantium L.) are popularly used in order to
minimize central nervous system disorders
(Pultrini et al., 2006).The peel of Citrus fruits is a rich
source of flavonoid glycosides, coumarins, $ and
(- sitosterol, glycosides and volatile oils
(Shahnah et al., 2007). Many polymethoxylated flavones
have several important bioactivities, which are very
Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2(3): 119-122, 2011
120
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
1:20 1:40 1:60 1:80 1:100
O.D. at 530 nm
Dilution
Methanol
Ethanol
Acetone
rare in other plants (Ahmad et al., 2006). In addition
the fiber of citrus fruit also contains bioactive
compounds, such as polyphenols, the most important
being vitamin C (or ascorbic acid), and they certainly
prevent and cure vitamin C deficiency-the cause of scurvy
(Aronson, 2001). Antimicrobial ac tivity of the peel extract
is directly concerned with the components that they
contain. The studies showed that essential oils, protopine
and corydaline alkaloids, lactons, polyacetylene, acyclic
sesquiterpenes, hypericin and pseudohypericin
compounds are effective toward various bacteria.
Nevertheless, other active terpenes, as well as alcohols,
aldehydes, and esters, can contribute to the
overall antimicrobial effects of the essential oils
(Keles et al., 2001). The lemon peel extracts in different
solvents such as ethanol, methanol and acetone were
subjected to antibacterial assay. The extract in solvent
ethanol shows higher antimicrobial activity against tested
microorganisms in comparison with the extracts of lemon
peel in other solvents like methanol and acetone. The aim
of this study was to evaluate the potential of plant extracts
and phytochemicals on standard microorgan ism strains by
using routine antibacterial assay techniques.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted between June 2010 and
January 2011. The study was carried out at the
Department of Microbiology, Shivaji University,
Kolhapur, India.
Preparation of extract: The peel of lemon was
homogenized in different solvents individually and mixed
well. The solvents used were ethanol, acetone, and
methanol. The extracts were collected separately for
further study.
Cultures used for antimicrobial activity: The
microorganisms used were as follows, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa NCIM 2036, Salmonella typhimurium NCIM
5021, and Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021.
Culture medium: Nutrient agar medium and a mineral
based medium were used in all further studies. The
compositions are as shown in Table 1 and 2, respectively.
Antimicrobial effect: Sterile molten nutrient agar at
around 40ºC was taken and seeded with different
microbial cultures and plates were prepared. After
Table 1: Composition of nutrient broth
Components (%)
Peptone 1.0
Yeast extract 1.0
Sodium chloride 0.5
Agar 2.5
Table 2: Composition of mineral based medium
Components (%)
Sodium nitrate 0.20
Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.10
Potassium chloride 0.05
Glucose 1.00
Yeast extract 0.02
Fig. 1: Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Pseudomonas
aeruginosa
solidification 4 mm wells were prepared. In these wells
solvent extracts of the peel were added. The plate was
incubated overnight at 37ºC. After incubation the zones of
inhibition were measured and recorded. Respective
solvent controls were also run simultaneously. The above
procedure was repeated using mineral based medium with
added yeast extract at 0.02%.
Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration
of crude extracts: Different concentration of crude extract
as 1:20, 1:40, 1:60, 1:80 and 1:100 were added
respectively into mineral based medium containing
glucose (1%), yeast extract (0.1%). The organisms were
inoculated respectively and incubated at 37ºC, overnight
on shaker.
Detection of phytochemicals by GCMS: Peel
supernatant obtained in different solvents was analyzed by
GCMS.
RESULTS
The minimum inhibitory concentration assay
conducted in nutrient broth using solvent extract are
reported in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Salmonella typhimurium and Micrococcus aureus,
respectively.
Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2(3): 119-122, 2011
121
Methanol
Ethanol
Acetone
0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
O.D. at 500 nm
1:20 1:40 1:60 1:80 1:100
Dilution
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
01:20 1:40 1:60 1:80 1:100
O.D. at 530 nm
Dilution
Methanol
Ethanol
Acetone
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 300280 320 340 360 380 400 420 440
100
41 53 65 77 91107
121 136
149
164
178
206
NH
H
NN
H N
2
10 20 30 4
0
5
0
60 7
0
80 9
0
10
0
11
0
12
0
130 140
29
30
44
59 72
87 98 115 129
Tetrazene
Fig. 2: Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Salmonella
typhimurium
Fig. 3: Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Micrococcus
aureus
GCMS analysis of the extracts of the lemon peels: The
lemon peel extracts prepared in ethanol, methanol and
acetone when analyzed using GCMS shows the presence
of following compounds as shown in Fig. 4, 5 and 6
respectively. Figure 4, shows the presence of coumarin
and Fig. 5 shows the presence of Tetrazene. Both the
substances are good antimicrobials with broad spectrum
activity.
DISCUSSION
The study shows that the peel of lemon is not only an
astringent but also is a good antimicrobial agent. This is
an important finding as certain skin flora like
Pseudomonas and Micrococcus can grow in presence of
sebum, especially when it is secreted in excess (in certain
person), and cause purulent skin infections. Some time it
can serve as a predisposing factor for other types of skin
infections like acne. Simple use of lemon juice can
prevent such types of infections and could help in keeping
a good and healthy skin. Of course it is needless to point
out that good personal hygiene, exercise and a good diet
is equally essential too.
Fig. 4: GCMS analysis of lemon peel extracts shows presence of coumarin
Fig. 5: GCMS analysis of lemon peel extracts shows presence of Tetrazene
Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2(3): 119-122, 2011
122
REFERENCES
Ahmad, M.M., Z. Salim-ur-Rehman, F.M. Iqbal-Anjum
and J.I. Sultan, 2006. Genetic variability to essential
oil composition in four citrus fruit species. Pak. J.
Bot., 38(2): 319-324.
Al-Shuneigat, J., S.D. Cox and J.L. Markham, 2005.
Effects of a topical essential oilcontaining
formulation on biofilm-forming coagulase-negative
staphylococci. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 41: 52-55.
Aronson, J.K., 2001. Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved
from: http://medicine.nature.com.
Burt, S.A., 2004. Essential oils: Their antibacterial
properties and potential applications in foods: A
review. Inter. J. Food Microbiol., 94: 223-253.
Dorman, H.J. and S.G. Deans, 2000. Antimicrobial agents
from plant: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile
oils. J. Appl. Microbiol., 88: 308-316.
Duthie, G. and A. Crozier, 2000. Plant-derived phenolic
antioxidants. Curr. Opin. Lipidol., 11: 43-47.
Gislene, G.F., N.J. Locatelli, C.F. Paulo and
L.S. Giuliana, 2000. Antibacterial activity of plant
extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic resistant
bacteria. Braz. J. Microbiol., 31: 247-256.
Kawaii, S., T. Yasuhiko, K. Eriko, O. Kazunori,
Y. Masamichi, K. Meisaku, ChihiroIto and
F. Hiroshi, 2000. Quantitative study of flavonoids in
leaves of Citrus plants J. Agric. Food Chem., 48:
3865-3871.
Keles, O.S., A.T. Bak2rel and K. Alp2nar, 2001. Screening
of some Turkish plants for antibacterial activity.
Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 25(4): 559-565.
Ortuno, A.A., P. Baidez, M.C. Gomez, I. Arcas,
A.G. Porras and J.A. Del Rio, 2006. Citrus paradisi
and Citrus sinensis flavonoids: Their influence in the
defence mechanism against Penicillium digitatum.
Food Chem., 98(2): 351-358.
Pultrini, A.M., L.A. Galindo and M. Costa, 2006. Effects
of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in
experimental anxiety models in mice. Life Sci.,
78(15): 1720-1725.
Seenivasan, P., J. Manickkam and I. Savarimuthu, 2006.
In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential
oils. BMC Complem. Altern. M., 6: 39.
Shahnah, S.M., S. Ali, H. Ansari and P. Bagri, 2007. New
sequiterpene derivative from fruit peel of citrus limon
(Linn) Burn. F. Sci. Pharm., 75: 165-170.
Sohn, H.Y., K.H. Son, C.S. Know and S.S. Kang, 2004.
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated
flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus
alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia
papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and
Echinosophora koreensis Nakai. Phytomedicine, 11:
666-672.
Tepe, B., D. Daferera, M. Sokmen, M. Polissiou and
A. Sokmen, 2004. In vitro antimicrobial and
antioxidant activities of the essential oils and various
extracts of Thymus eigii. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52:
1132-1137.
Tyagi, A.K. and A. Malik, 2010. Liquid and vapour-phase
antifungal activities of selected essential oils against
candida albicans. BMC Complem. Altern. M., 10: 65.
... Fruits of this family are identically venerated all over the world owing to the sense of taste, fragrant savor and medicinal possessions [1][2][3][4][5][6]. They are broadly employed to prevent flu and coldness and sustain the resistant arrangement [7]. Citrus fruits are also proved beneficial for patients suffering to health glitches for instance gastritis, fever and arterial induration. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nodal sections excised from in vitro grown saplings of three citrus species viz., Citrus aurantiafolia, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis were inoculated on diverse modifications of basal MS medium for manifold shootlet production. In vitro morphogenesis followed by plant regeneration speckled significantly among species and culture medium fortification. In this investigation, shootlets were developed directly via auxiliary bud proliferation along with from callus tissue. Culture medium MS5N.5B/MS5N.Kn (MS + 5.0 mgl-1 NAA + 0.5 mgl-1 BA/Kn) convinced callusing in higher rates. Nutrient medium MS.1Td.5N/MS.5B.5N (MS + 0.1 mgl-1 TDZ/0.5 BA + 0.5 mgl-1 NAA) boosted plantlet multiplying competence. Whereas, plantlets per explant in higher frequencies (s) of bigger length were recognized on nutrient medium MS.1Td or MS.2Td (MS + 0.1/0.2 mgl-1 TDZ). In respect to in vitro rooting, root initiating efficacy in higher frequencies was verified on medium MS.5IB (MS + 0.5 mgl-1 IBA), while roots in greater numbers were documented on rooting medium MS2IB.5Kn (MS + 2.0 mg l-1 IBA + 0.5 mg l-1 Kn), whereas nutrient medium MS.5IB.5B (MS + 0.5 mg l-1 IBA + 0. 5 mg l-1 BAP) improved mean root length. In respect to interspecific in vitro response, usually, Acid lime tracked by Mandarin and Sweet orange performed authoritatively for the almost culture stages. The in vitro developed shootlets were efficaciously adapted and shifted under field conditions.
... a natural repository of secondary metabolites like tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides reported for associated antimicrobial activities (Bhalodia and Shukla, 2011). Increasing antibiotic resistance against existing compounds and rising demand for natural products has increased the importance of plants for the medication (Dhanavade et al., 2011). To analyze the significance, the current study was designed. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Cholistani plants are used as a vital source of medicines by local nomads since long time. Recently, many pharmacological studies like antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antidiabetic aredone, but very few chemistry-based approaches are available. The current study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial potentials of extracts of Cholistani plants. Aqueous, ethanol, and n-hexane extracts were prepared. Extracts are made on the basis of solvent polarity. All the extracts were tested for antibacterial activities through disc diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of each positive extract was measured. The results indicated that the aqueous extract of these plants was more effective than others. The overall trend of antibacterial activity was as follows aqueous >n-hexane >ethanol extracts in terms of solvent. In terms of bacteria, almost all extracts were effective against Klebsiella pneumonia. The overall antibacterial trend was Klebsiella pneumonia>Proteus vulgaris>Staphylococcus aureus>Escherichia coli>Pseudomonas aeuriginosa. The results indicate that Cholistani plants are a rich source of antibacterial agent(s) and can be used in crude or purified form.
... About 70 g of the fresh peels were added in 300 mL of the double distilled water and boiled for 10-20 min in a water bath 9,17 . After boiling the peel extract was filtered through a series of Whatman filter papers with different pore sizes and the resultant filtrate was stored at 4℃ in labelled sterilized glass media bottles [18][19][20] . ...
Article
Nanotechnology deals with the synthesis of materials and particles at nanoscale with dimensions of 1-100 nm. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles, using microbes and plants, is the most proficient method in terms of ease of handling and reliability. Core objectives of this study were to synthesize metallic nanoparticles using selenium metal salt from citrus fruit extracts, their characterization and evaluation for antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microbes. In methodology, simple green method was implicated using sodium selenite salt solution and citrus fruit extracts of Grapefruit and Lemon as precursors for synthesizing nanoparticles. Brick red color of the solution indicated towards the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Nanoparticle's initial characterization was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and later FTIR analysis and DLS graphs via Zetasizer were obtained for the confirmation of different physical and chemical parameters of the nanoparticles. Different concentrations of SeNPs were used for antimicrobial testing against E. coli, M. luteus, B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae comparative with the standard antibiotic Ciprofloxacin. SeNPs possessed significant antimicrobial activities against all the bacterial pathogens used. Conclusively, SeNPs made from citrus fruits can act as potent antibacterial candidates. From last few decades, Nanotechnology has become the most promising and advancing field because of its wide applications in applied sciences and technology 1. In order to synthesize nanoscale materials, by using any biological source, nanotechnology is considered as emerging technical tool for their ecofriendly synthesis 2. Nanoparticles display distinctive characteristics because of their high surface energy and large surface to volume ratio 3. Metallic nanoparticles are very popular for their wide range of applications in different areas of science including physics, chemistry, material and biomedical sciences. They have numerous applications in optoelec-tronics, catalysis and diagnostic biological devices 2. The size and properties of every nanoparticle vary depending upon the synthesis methods of nanoparticles and their source. Synthesizing nanoparticles with different chemical composition, size and controlled mono-dispersity has become areas of research in nanotechnology 4. Synthesis of nanoparticles can be carried out by various means for example physical, chemical and biological methods. Biological based synthesis using plants and their extracts, enzymes and microbes is considered as the most ecofriendly alternative to physical and chemical methods. Using plant-based synthesis methods are beneficial over other biological procedures as they eliminate the complex process of cell culture maintenance 5. Selenium is well known for its semiconductor and photoelectric properties. It also has great potential in the field different fields of science including medicine, biology, physics and chemistry. Selenium nanoparticles possess good adsorptive and biological activity because of interaction between nanoparticles and different functional groups (C-O, C-N. NH and COO-) of proteins 6. These nanoparticles also exhibit antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities but preparation of stable selenium nanoparticles is bit tricky 7. Number of different plant extracts, microorganisms and enzymes has been utilized as a source for production of Selenium nanoparticles of variable size and morphology. Nano-sized Selenium particles are used for huge number of applications because of their advantageous features over bulk form for example low dosage, low toxicity and better reactivity 3 .
... Lemon (Citrus limon) is one of the most widely grown citrus fruits worldwide with high medicinal value (Dhanavade et al., 2011). Lemon contains vitamin C, citric acid, phenolic compounds, and other biologically active compounds that can be beneficial to humans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is a characteristic of obesity. The rich compounds in lemon peel have anti‐inflammatory effects. This study examined whether fermented lemon peel can have an anti‐obesity effect on obese mice induced by a high‐fat diet (HFD) by regulating inflammation. The lemon peel fermentation supernatant (LPFS) could inhibit the weight gain of mice and improve the lesions of the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, LPFS regulates blood lipids, liver function, and inflammation‐related indicators in the serum of obese mice. LPFS plays a positive role in regulating the inflammation and obesity‐related genes in liver tissue and adipose tissue of obese mice. High‐performance liquid chromatography showed an increase in the contents of compounds with antioxidant or/and anti‐inflammatory effects and compounds with anti‐obesity effects. These results suggest that the LPFS could help reduce obesity in obese mice induced by an HFD by adjusting the balance of the inflammatory response. Practical applications Obesity often increases the risk of chronic diseases, and mild inflammation is a feature of obesity. Therefore, timely suppression of inflammation in the body can help control the occurrence of obesity. This study clarified the anti‐obesity effect of fermented lemon peel on a high‐fat diet (HFD)‐induced obese mice by regulating the body's inflammatory response and confirmed that fermentation improves the anti‐inflammatory activity of lemon peel. This study provides important references for future investigation, prophylaxis, and treatment of inflammation and obesity‐related diseases, as well as the advances in functional foods and fermented foods with anti‐inflammatory and anti‐obesity activities.
... The most important compounds in LO are limonene, terpinene, and pinene. The volatile oils from citrus, including LO, exhibited the antimicrobial activities against Grampositive/Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and mold [24]. The volatile oil-added pectin-based films could decrease the mechanical qualities and enhance antimicrobial properties [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Localized intra-periodontal pocket drug delivery using an injectable in situ forming gel is an effective periodontitis treatment. The aqueous insoluble property of rosin is suitable for preparing a solvent exchange-induced in situ forming gel. This study aims to investigate the role of incorporating lime peel oil (LO) on the physicochemical properties of injectable in situ forming gels based on rosin loaded with 5% w/w doxycycline hyclate (DH) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). Their gel formation, viscosity, injectability, mechanical properties, wettability, drug release, and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The presence of LO slowed gel formation due to the loose precipitate formation of gel with a high LO content. The viscosity and injectability were slightly increased with higher LO content for the DH-loaded rosin-based in situ forming gel. The addition of 10% LO lowered gel hardness with higher adhesion. LO incorporation promoted a higher drug release pattern than the no oil-added formulation over 10 days and the gel formation rate related to burst drug release. The drug release kinetics followed the non-Fickian diffusion mechanism for oil-added formulations. LO exhibited high antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The DH-loaded rosin in situ forming gel with an addition of LO (0, 2.5, 5, and 10% w/w) inhibited all tested microorganisms. Adding 10% LO to rosin-based in situ forming gel improved the antimicrobial activities, especially for the P. gingivalis and S. aureus. As a result, the study demonstrates the possibility of using an LO amount of less than 10% loading into a rosin-based in situ forming gel for efficient periodontitis treatment.
Article
Full-text available
The present study is an attempt to achieve twin objectives of effective recycling of household waste, and reduction in the cost of natural dyes through use of vegetable wastes. Four household wastes - rinds of the pomegranate fruit, papery skin of the onion bulb, peel of the lemon fruit and banana skins that are generated in most kitchens on a daily basis and are known sources of natural colourants, have been used to dye cotton pre-mordanted with selected metal mordants. The extraction and dyeing conditions for each of these natural dyes have been optimized on the basis of highest optical densities of the extracted solution. Conditions of dyeing in terms of pH and dye concentration were optimized on the basis of surface colour strength and colour fastness to light and wash. Shades ranging from beige to light yellow and dark chocolate brown with good fastness, and excellent UPF were obtained on cotton. In general, ferrous sulphate as a mordant gave darker shades with better fastness.
Article
Full-text available
The principal components detected in lemon peel aqueous extract are γ-terpinene, terpinolene, d-limonene, and citral. In this study characterization is carried out by UV visible spectroscopy and FT-IR analysis gives functional groups present (=C ̶ H) 3022.25cm-1 , (C ̶ H) 2918.10cm-1 , (C=C)780.90cm-1 ,(>C=C<) 3195.19 cm-1 which is sp 2 carbons, (̶ CHO) 2357.23 cm-1 and 2935.37 cm-1 was observed. Ascorbic acid estimated is 210.4mg /g dw by DNPH method. Presence of Phenol, flavanoids, steroids got to know by phytochemical analysis. 78.26% of Radical scavenging activity reported at 1000 µg /ml. Index Terms-lemon peel , DNPH ,DPPH ,ascorbic acid ,functional groups. INTRODUCTION Lemon (Citrus limon L.) is used in a variety of cuisines, including soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, and jams. Citric acid, ascorbic acid, minerals, and flavonoids are among the nutrients found in lemons. Flavonoid chemicals are found in all vascular plants and are a significant group of naturally occurring compounds in the plant world. Citrus, as well as other fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, grains, tea, and wine, contain flavonoids, and the normal Western diet contains about 1 gram of mixed flavonoids (Miyake et.al., 1997). Lemon is a valuable medicinal plant of the Rutaceae family. It is grown primarily for its alkaloids, which have anticancer and antibacterial properties in crude extracts from various sections. Flavonoids have the ability to alter enzyme activity and act as direct antioxidants and free radical scavengers, stop cells from multiplying. (Dhanavade et.al., 2011). Antioxidants are compounds that may neutralise free radicals by absorbing or giving an electron to remove the free radical species' unpaired state. They protect other molecules in the body from destructive oxidation processes by interacting with free radicals, primarily reactive oxygen species (ROS), the most toxic result of the aerobic environment, at low concentrations relative to the oxidisable substrate. As the beneficial antioxidant molecule is oxidised, there is a continuing need to replace antioxidant supplies, either endogenously or by supplementation, during these processes (Akhila et.al.,2009). D-limonene is utilised as an insect-killing ingredient in insecticides and as a "green" biodegradable and non-toxic solvent in the oleo chemical, wax, resin, paint, and glue industries, in addition to these food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and d pharmacological applications. As a result, D-limonene is gaining popularity as a green solvent in analytical chemistry and in the extraction of lipids from microalgae or plant matrices (Lopresto et.al., 2014). Both the pharmaceutical and food sectors have shown a growing interest in the valorization of phenolic substances such as flavonoids and phenolic acids in recent decades. Lemon (Citrus limon) peels, which account for 50-65 percent of the total weight of the fruit, are a good source of phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric, and sinapic acids) and flavonoids (flavanones, flavonols, flavones), which have been linked to antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. High temperatures or oxidation can cause phenolic compounds to deteriorate. As a result, a significant proportion of polyphenols may be lost during the drying process. The majority of studies on Citrus waste have looked at the impact of freeze-drying and hot air-drying on polyphenol concentration (Papoutsis et.al., 2017). However, the majority of these extraction procedures have drawbacks, such as chemical degradation caused by high temperatures or ultrasonic power, mass transfer resistance, extended extraction durations, huge volumes of solvents, or health risks. In other circumstances, the extraction methods' equipment is also difficult to use and/or expensive. Despite their efficiency, their usage at industrial scale raises questions about cost, toxicity, and safety, with water being the preferred solvent for high volume extraction. As a result, scientific efforts should be focused on ways to improve aqueous extraction efficiency, as well as the development of safer, more efficient, energy-efficient, and sustainable extraction processes for citrus waste reuse, which can also benefit the food industry in terms of effectiveness, profitability, time, and solvent consumption. These extraction technologies have the potential to bring value to the citrus processing sector while also setting a precedent for cleaner production of high-demand phenolic compounds (Gómez et.al.,2019). The aims of this study are to know photochemical analysis, evaluate the antioxidant property, characterization and ascorbic acid estimation from the extract sample.
Article
Full-text available
A strong immune system is essential to keep a person healthy. Every person should incorporate specific food items into their diet that can strengthen their immune system. Mother Nature has a bag full of plants and trees whose different parts contain different ingredients that can act as immune boosters. Tulsi is a small herb, found in many parts of India and can be grown in our homes too. The leaves of Tulsi have different properties like antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and many more. 5-6 leaves of Tulsi daily help to build our immune system. Giloy is an herbaceous vine found in the tropical regions of different Indian subcontinents. The heart-shaped leaves and reddish fruit of Giloy have many active ingredients like alkaloids, glycosides, phytosterols, etc. which help to attain anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antioxidant properties. 2-3 tablespoons of Giloy juice daily helps to boost our immune system and increase the ability of our body to fight various infectious diseases. Garlic is used in a variety of dishes we cook garlic bulb is a great supplement known to boost the immune system functioning. Active compound present in garlic helps to reduce blood pressure improve cholesterol levels and can also lower the risk of heart diseases. Garlic bulbs can also reduce cold and flu symptoms. The various vitamins present in garlic also add more effect to its immunity-boosting property. Citrus lemon is found primarily in the north-eastern part of India, China or Myanmar, Italy, Spain. It has various phytochemicals such as terpenes, tannins, polyphenols, etc. is considered a rich of all essential vitamins to enrich our immune system and also provide therapeutic benefits
Article
The tangerine fruit peels of Citrus reticulata contain significant amounts of three flavanones: hesperidin, naringin, and narirutin. Citrus is a rue group species of blooming trees and shrubs. In contrast to flavonol and quercetinRutaceae, citrus peel complex compounds quantities of flavonol and quercetinRutaceae. DM is one of most chronic diseases in the world. Citrus reticulata is a kind of citrus fruit with a various degrees of Hesperidin, a glycosylated flavanone of hesperetin, suppresses gluconeogenic pathways and diminishes intestinal glucose absorption in diabetes patients, leading in anti-hyperglycemic properties. Recent research looks into the efficacy of naringin to improve cholesterol levels by reducing HMGCoA reductase. Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combination have antihyperlipidemic and antiatherosclerosis properties. Hyperlipidemia is a collection of disorders characterized by elevated blood levels of lipids and lipoproteins, such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which can lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) are the leading causes of death and sickness around the world.
Article
Full-text available
A novel alternative to synthetic preservatives is the use of natural products such as essential oil (EO) as a natural food-grade preservative. EOs are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), so they could be considered an alternative way to increase the shelf-life of highly perishable food products by impeding the proliferation of food-borne pathogens. The mounting interest within the food industry and consumer preference for “natural” and “safe” products means that scientific evidence on plant-derived essential oils (EOs) needs to be examined in-depth, including the underlying mechanisms of action. Understanding the mechanism of action that individual components of EO exert on the cell is imperative to design strategies to eradicate food-borne pathogens. Results from published works showed that most EOs are more active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria due to the difference in the cell wall structure. In addition, the application of EOs at a commercial scale has been minimal, as their flavour and odour could be imparted to food. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the research carried out on EOs, emphasizing the antibacterial activity of fruit peel EOs, and the antibacterial mechanism of action of the individual components of EOs. A brief outline of recent contributions of EOs in the food matrix is highlighted. The findings from the literature have been encouraging, and further research is recommended to develop strategies for the application of EO at an industrial scale.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils from the peels of Malta (C. sinensis), Mousami (C. sinensis), Grapefruit (C. paradisi) and Eureka lemon (C. limon) were extracted through cold pressing method. Highest oil yield (1.21%) was obtained from Malta peel followed by Eureka lemon (1.12%), Mousami (0.98%) and Grapefruit (0.73%). The extracted oils so obtained were investigated for composition by GC/FID on Carbowax 20 M packed glass column. Main constituents separated in Malta peel oil were limonene (61.08%), α-thujene (0.11%), α-pinene (0.84%), camphene (0.32%), citronellol (4.18%), citral (7.74%), capraldehyde (5.62%), caprinaldehyde (2.10%), borneol (7.63%), α-terpinolene (2.06%), linalool (1.28%) and citranelyl acetate (0.22%). In Mousami, the principal compounds were limonene (76.28%), α-pinene (1.26%), β-pinene (5.45%), α-terpinolene (1.56%), citral (1.74%), capraldehyde (0.35%), 2-hexene 1-ol (1.26%), decanol (0.35%) and linalool (2.32%). In Grapefruit peel oil, limonene (86.27%), α-thujene (0.15%), myrcene (6.28%), α-terpinene (2.11%), α-pinene (1.26%), citronellol (0.50%) and caprinaldehyde (0.31%) were among the principal components. Major constituents present in Eureka lemon oil were limonene (53.61%), α-thujene (0.45%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), camphene (0.13%), β-pinene (11.80%), sabinene (0.63%), α-terpinolene (0.25%), myrcene (11.16%), α-pinene (2.63%), citral (0.27%), citronellol (0.15%), caprinaldehyde (0.26%), borneol (0.16%), ∇ 3 -carene (0.45%) and p-cymene (0.12%). Chemical composition of essential oils of these species varied significantly, which may be due to the difference in their genetic make up.
Article
Full-text available
Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological changes in cellular structures and cell surface alterations.
Article
Full-text available
The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme). The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%). Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.
Article
Citrus peel is rich in flavanone glycosides and polymethoxyflavones. In view of their importance for industrial application as well as for their pharmacological properties, their content was analyzed in the mature fruits of several Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus sinensis (orange) varieties, with a view to select the most interesting for isolation. The results shows that the Star Ruby grapefruit and the Sanguinelli orange stand out for their high contents of naringin and hesperidin, respectively. The presence of the polymethoxyflavones nobiletin, heptamethoxyflavone and tangeretin, could be ascertained in all the grapefruit varieties analysed. Higher polymethoxyflavone levels were recorded in orange, with Valencia Late showing the greatest nobiletin, sinensetin and tangeretin contents and Navelate the highest heptamethoxyflavone levels. An in vitro study revealed that these compounds acted as antifungal agents against Penicillium digitatum, the polymethoxyflavones being more active than the flavanones in this respect. The possible participation of these phenolic compounds in the defence mechanism of Citrus against P. digitatum is discussed.
Article
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.
Article
Leaf flavonoids were quantitatively determined in 68 representative or economically important Citrus species, cultivars, and near-Citrus relatives. Contents of 23 flavonoids including 6 polymethoxylated flavones were analyzed by means of reversed phase HPLC analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the 7 associations according to Tanaka's classification were observed, but some do overlap each other. Group VII species could be divided into two different subgroups, namely, the first-10-species class and the last-19-species class according to Tanaka's classification numbers.
Article
Antioxidant nutrients are important for limiting damaging oxidative reactions in cells, which may predispose to the development of major clinical conditions such as heart disease and cancer. There is great interest in the possibility that the antioxidant potential of plant-derived phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, may reduce the risk of developing these conditions. Antioxidant effectiveness in vivo depends on the bioavailability of these compounds, which was assumed to be low. However, recent studies with improved methodology indicate that some plant phenolics appear in plasma and body tissues and, thus, may be important nutritional antioxidants. However, this cannot be established with certainty until their effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress are established.
Article
This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts obtained from aerial parts of Thymus eigii. The essential oil was particularly found to possess stronger antimicrobial activity, whereas other nonpolar extracts and subfractions showed moderate activity and polar extracts remained almost inactive. GC-MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 39 compounds, representing 93.7% of the oil; thymol (30.6%), carvacrol (26.1%), and p-cymene (13.0%) were the main components. The samples were also subjected to a screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the former case, the polar subfraction of the methanol extract was found to be superior to all extracts tested, only 16.8 microg/mL of which provided 50% inhibition, whereas all extracts, particularly the polar ones, seem to inhibit the oxidation of linoleic acid in the latter case. These data were further supported by total phenolics analysis, indicating that the antioxidative potential of the extracts was closely related to their phenolic constituents.
Article
In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.