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Vegetables as Sources of Antioxidants

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Vegetables as Sources of Antioxidants

Abstract

Dietary plant antioxidants have been considered beneficial to human health. Antioxidants can eliminate free radicals and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and these reactive species contribute to most chronic diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. Vegetables provide the body, an added source of antioxidants to fight against free radicals. Without the necessary intake of healthy vegetables, free radicals can spread and eventually lead to various types of cancer. This review discusses about vegetables as sources of antioxidants.
a SciTechnol journal
Review Article
Shetty et al., J Food Nutr Disor 2013, 2:1
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000104
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Journal of Food &
Nutritional Disorders
International Publisher of Science,
Technology and Medicine
Vegetables as Sources of
Antioxidants
Anoop A Shetty1*, Santoshkumar Magadum2 and Kalmesh
Managanvi3
Abstract
Dietary plant antioxidants have been considered benecial to
human health. Antioxidants can eliminate free radicals and other
reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and these reactive species
contribute to most chronic diseases. Dietary plants contain variable
chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. Vegetables provide
the body, an added source of antioxidants to ght against free
radicals. Without the necessary intake of healthy vegetables, free
radicals can spread and eventually lead to various types of cancer.
This review discusses about vegetables as sources of antioxidants.
Keywords
Antioxidants; Vegetables; Anticancer
Introduction
e antioxidants contained in vegetables play an important role in
the maintenance of health and prevention of disease [1]. A number of
vitamins such as A, C, E, as well as carotene are excellent antioxidants,
which also contribute to good health through other mechanisms,
such as being co-factors for certain enzymes, involvement in
oxidation-reduction reactions [2,3]. It has been estimated that
every serving increase in vegetable consumption reduces the risk of
cancer by 15%, cardiovascular disease by 30% and mortality by 20%
[4,5], attributable to antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E,
carotenoids, lycopenes, polyphenols, and other phytochemicals [6].
A diet rich in fresh vegetables protects from the risk of most common
epithelial cancers, including those of the digestive tract, and several
non-digestive neoplasms. Selected antioxidants, β-carotene, vitamins
C and E showed a signicant inverse relation with the risk of oral,
pharyngeal, oesophageal and breast cancers. Against colorectal
cancer, the most consistent protective eects were provided by
carotene, riboavin and vitamin C, but inverse relations were
observed for calcium and vitamin D [7]. Potentially anticarcinogenic
agents found in vegetables also include numerous micronutrients,
such as selenium, dietary ber, glucosinolates and indoles, avonoids,
phenols, protease inhibitors and plant sterols.
e anti-cancer role of carotenoids may be related to their ability
to quench singlet oxygen [8,9]. Yellow and orange vegetables and
dark-green leafy vegetables contain carotenoids and avonoids. Of
the 22 species of vegetables investigated by Muller [10], kale, red
*Corresponding author: Anoop A Shetty, Department of Vegetable Science,
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar-263145,
Uttarakhand, India, E-mail: anoopshettyforyou@gmail.com
Received: December 10, 2012 Accepted: February 20, 2013 Published:
February 25, 2013
paprika, leaf of parsley, spinach, Lamb’s lettuce, carrot and tomato
were very rich in carotenoids (over 10 mg/100 g edible portion).
β-carotene is the most well-known carotenoid, and is found in most
orange vegetables. Sweet potatoes and carrots are especially high in
β-carotene. Green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, broccoli,
Brussels sprouts and cabbage are moderately high in β-carotene.
α- and β-carotene, and lycopene, are hydrocarbon carotenoids.
Lycopene is found in tomatoes, but is scarce in other common
vegetables. e predominant carotenoids in these vegetables are
the oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Lutein is the major
oxygenated carotenoid in kale, spinach, parsley and mustard greens.
Carotenoids are destroyed to some extent by cooking vegetables,
and among dierent carotenoids, the oxygenated carotenoids are
destroyed to a greater extent than β-carotene.
Flavonoids are a large group of natural phenolic compounds
contained at high concentrations in vegetables. Flavonoids like
catechin, quercetin, dihydroquercetin and rutin possess antioxidant
properties [11]. Many vegetables supply dierent types of avonoids
in varying quantities. Quercetin, part of a subclass of avonoids called
avonols, forms the main antioxidant component in vegetables [12].
Quercetin is supplied by vegetables like broccoli, onions, parsley and
green leafy vegetables.
Tomato
Tomatoes, one of the most produced and consumed vegetables
worldwide, are a rich source of lycopene, β-carotene, folate,
potassium, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), chlorogenic acid, avonoids,
rutin, plastoquinones, phenolics, tocopherol (vitamin E) and
xanthophylls [13-16]. e average values obtained for antioxidant
components in three fresh cultivars are ascorbic acid, 276 mg/100 g
dry matter; total phenolics, 613 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry
matter, and lycopene 38 mg/100 g dry matter [17].
Vitamin C is considered an excellent antioxidant because it
donates electrons for enzymes, or other compounds that are oxidants.
Tomatoes are relatively low in beta-carotene, but high in lycopene, an
active antioxidant agent with no vitamin A activity [18]. Lycopene
is an interesting antioxidant because it is fairly stable to storage
and cooking, and thus, is present in the cooked tomatoes that are
consumed frequently, and account in part for the lower heart disease
and cancer risk [12]. In addition, many epidemiological studies have
suggested that the regular consumption of tomatoes may lead to a
decreased incidence cardiovascular disease incidence [19,20], and
reduced risk of breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancers [14,21].
Oleoresins obtained from non-commercial red tomato have high
lycopene content with high antioxidant capacity and anti mutagenic
activity, demonstrating that it is feasible to use this to obtain oleoresin
rich in lycopene with high nutraceutical potential [22].
It has been reported that thermal treatment can decrease the
antioxidant capacity of vegetables, as in tomatoes [23], while high
hydrostatic pressure treatments can maintain the water-soluble
antioxidant capacity of tomato puree [24]. In tomato, forced air-
drying at 42°C for 48 hrs decreases ascorbic acid, total phenolics and
total antioxidant activity, but increases extractable lycopene contents
Citation: Shetty AA, Magadum S, Managanvi K (2013) Vegetables as Sources of Antioxidants. J Food Nutr Disor 2:1.
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doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000104
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 1000104
[17]. Typical home processing of tomatoes leads to loss of some
antioxidant properties and change of colour. It has been reported
that boiling and baking have a relatively small eect on ascorbic acid,
total phenolics, lycopene and total antioxidant activity, while frying
significantly reduces these important nutrients [14].
Chilli and Sweet Pepper
Pepper is an important source of nutrients in the human diet, and
an excellent source of vitamins A, C and E, as well as neutral and
acidic phenolic antioxidants important in plant defense responses
[25-28]. Two fractions of phenolics, avonoids (with phenolic acids)
and capsaicinoids isolated from the pericarp of pepper fruit showed
antioxidant activity [29].
Levels of these compounds can vary by genotype and maturity,
and are influenced by growing conditions and losses aer processing.
Generally, the concentration of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, flavonoids,
phenolic acids, and other chemical constituent increases as the
peppers reach maturity, whereas the level of lutein declines [28].
Provitamin A increases as colour develops in most cultivars, except
for yellow varieties, and brown peppers have the highest provitamin
A activity compared to other coloured peppers [30]. Coloured pepper
varieties seem to be good sources of antioxidant, with the high
carotenoid content found in mature stages [31].
Ripening and harvest period inuences the antioxidants and
the development of oxidative processes in sweet pepper. Each sweet
pepper cultivar studied showed dierences in antioxidant compounds,
depending on the harvest period, but May was the optimal time, if all
cultivars have to be harvested at the same time [32].
e nutritive value of chilli is largely determined by ascorbic
acid content. A study revealed that ascorbic acid content gradually
increased from green to red, and subsequently declined in the later
stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits). e variability
of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected
genotypes may be useful as parents in hybridization programmes,
to produce fruits with good nutritional values [33]. Ascorbic acid
content of sweet pepper also increases with fruit ripening, while
decreases during post harvest handling [34].
Potato
Ascorbic acid contained in potato tubers attracts attention,
as a signicant source of vitamin C in human nutrition. Marabel
variety of potato has the highest ascorbic content (207.2 mg/kg),
and exceeded other seven varieties by 15-49% [35]. Ascorbic acid
concentrations varied between 11 and 30 mg per 100 g fresh weight in
North American varieties and breeding lines of potato [36].
A negative eect on ascorbic acid content in potato tubers was
observed in case of an increased intensity of nitrogen fertilization (at
180 kg N/ha ascorbic acid decrease was lower by 6.1% compared to
dose 100 kg N/ha). On the contrary, a favourable eect was determined
at increased levels of potassium and magnesium fertilization (at 166
kg K/ha and 60 kg Mg/ha ascorbic acid increase was 6.2% higher
compared to the levels of 108 kg K/ha and 30 kg Mg/ha) [35]. Aer
the harvest, ascorbic acid concentration decreases during storage, and
is further degraded by cooking, and by potato processing into food
products [37].
Bulb and Root Crops
Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of radish (Raphanus sativus),
which are usually discarded, possesses potent antioxidant and
radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant
assays. HPLC identication of polyphenolics indicated the presence
of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic
acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin and quercetin in leaves
and stem. Leaves and stem of radish had total polyphenolic content
of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, respectively. Oen under-
utilized part of this vegetable thus possesses considerable amount
of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be regarded as a potential source
of natural antioxidants, and could be eectively employed as an
ingredient in health, or in functional food [38].
Carrots are high in bers, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and
phenolics such as coumaric, chlorogenic and caeic acids [39].
Water-soluble anthocyanin obtained from the carrot also possesses
antioxidant properties. Drinking carrot juice may protect the
cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status, and
by decreasing lipid peroxidation [40]. Water soluble antioxidant
capacities of carrot juices can be increased by thermal treatment and
maintained by high pressure treatment [41].
In addition, bulb crops such as onion and garlic contain
antioxidants that provide additional nutritional elements in areas
where such foods are consumed frequently, such as Eastern Europe,
the Mediterranean region, and in parts of the western world [2].
Among the frequently consumed raw vegetables, the highest level
of the antioxidant activity were found in the red onion, followed by
white onion=yellow onion>garlic, in that order [42].
Cruciferous Vegetables
Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) family
are rich in polyphenols, avonoids and glucosinolates, and their
hydrolysis products, which have antibacterial, antioxidant and
anticancer properties [43]. Brassica vegetables provide a large group
of glucosinolates, which according to Plumb et al. [44] possess rather
low antioxidant activity, but the products of their hydrolysis can
protect against cancer.
Generally, among Brassica vegetables, white cabbage is the poorest
source of vitamin C. Red pigmentation of red cabbage is caused by
anthocyanins, which belong to flavonoids. Total carotenoid contents
of Brussels sprouts, broccoli, red cabbage and white cabbage are
6.1, 1.6, 0.43 and 0.26 mg/100 g, respectively. Lutein and β-carotene
are the dominant carotenoids in cruciferous vegetables. Brassica
vegetables also contain cryptoxanthin, neoxanthin and violaxanthin,
but cryptoxanthin is present only in broccoli (0.024 mg/100 g) [45].
e descending order of total tocopherols and tocotrienols in Brassica
vegetables is as follows: broccoli (0.82 mg/100 g)>Brussels sprouts
(0.40 mg/100 g)>cauliflower (0.35 mg/100 g)>chinese cabbage (0.24
mg/100 g)>red cabbage (0.05 mg/100 g)>white cabbage (0.04 mg/100
g) [46].
A study on the variation in the antioxidant potential of green
cabbage grown under nutritional soil supplements derived from
agricultural and food processing sources found that the application
of nutritional soil supplements results in increase in the antioxidant
activity [47].
Citation: Shetty AA, Magadum S, Managanvi K (2013) Vegetables as Sources of Antioxidants. J Food Nutr Disor 2:1.
Page 3 of 5
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2324-9323.1000104
Volume 2 • Issue 1 • 1000104
Broccoli is distinguished by the presence of numerous bioactive
substances with health-promoting properties. Among these bioactive
compounds, glucosinolates, phenolics, vitamins C, B1, E, carotenoids
and selenium deserve special attention. An additional advantage of
broccoli is its tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Broccoli orets
were characterized by particularly high glucoraphanin content
(17.95 µmol/g of dry weight), which comprised about 50% of total
glucosinolates [48]. Among dierent vegetable species, broccoli
distinguishes itself by its high concentration of polyphenols, more
than threefold higher than potatoes or lettuce [49,50]. e high level
of ascorbic acid in fresh broccoli [51], as well as the composition of
phenolic compounds, is favourable for neutralisation of free radicals.
Development of broccoli heads is accompanied by losses of chlorophyll
and ascorbic acid. At pre-orescence stage accumulation of soluble
phenolics is observed [52]. Purple-sprouting broccoli contains
higher amounts of antioxidant compounds compared with green
broccoli, but tends to show higher sensitivity to cooking treatments.
Cooking methods should be carefully considered in current dietary
recommendations. Antioxidant components of cooked broccoli are
quite dierent from uncooked broccoli. e antioxidant content of
broccoli is retained or enhanced more aer microwaving, than aer
boiling. Cooking in water causes a leaching eect of antioxidants, and
this increases with the duration of cooking [53].
Green Leafy Vegetables
Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of antioxidant vitamins
[54]. e ascorbic acid, total carotene, β-carotene and total phenolic
content of the green leafy vegetables, viz. Amaranthus sp., Centella
asiatica, Murraya koenigii and Trigonella foenum graecum, ranges
from 15.18-101.36, 34.78-64.51, 4.23-8.84 and 150.0-387.50 mg/100
g, respectively, with antioxidant activity highest in Murraya koenigii,
and least in Centella asiatica [55].
Lettuce has an eective antioxidant and other health-promoting
properties. Among various types of lettuce commonly grown, leaf-
type is most abundant in health-promoting phytochemicals [56].
Lettuce cultivar ‘Red Sails’, which has loose red foliage, is generally
higher in total phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity. ‘Red
Sails’ also contains higher amount of major phenolic compound,
chlorogenic acid [57].
Genotype along with growing and management conditions, can
aect the content and the composition of antioxidants in plants.
Growing conditions signicantly aect the content of many phenolic
compounds in lettuce. Growing lettuce under open eld has a positive
impact on its health-promoting qualities, compared to its cultivation
in high tunnels [57].
Spinach and kale are also rich sources of carotenoids and
polyphenols. Spinach has an exceptionally high total polyphenol and
avonoid content. e high level of polyphenol acids and avonoids
in spinach leaves inuences the high antioxidant activity. Spinach and
kale also contain lutein, which is known for its antioxidant activity.
e concentrations of lutein measured 0.43 to 0.88 mg/g for frozen
spinach, and 0.83 mg/g for fresh spinach [58].
Drumstick
Drumstick (Moringa oleifera) is used in Indian traditional
medicine for a wide range of ailments. Both mature and tender leaves
of Moringa oleifera have potent antioxidant activity against free
radicals, to prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules, and
aord signicant protection against oxidative damage [59].
Leguminous Vegetables
e antioxidant properties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and
African yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) were assessed with
regard to their Vitamin C, total phenol and phytate content, as well
as antioxidant activity, as typified by their reducing power and free
radical scavenging ability. e results (Table 1) indicated that Cowpea
and African yam bean could be considered as a functional food due
to their relatively higher antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging
ability and redox potential), attributable to total phenol content [60].
In a study involving winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus),
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), string bean (Vigna sinensis)
and snow pea (Pisum sativum), string beans showed the highest
antioxidant capacity compared to the other vegetables. However, the
total phenolic, ascorbic acid and ß-carotene contents of snow peas
were signicantly higher than the other vegetables [61]. e HPLC
analysis of pea crude extract shows the presence of such phenolic
compounds as vanillic, caeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids,
quercetin and kaempherol, which are responsible for the antioxidant
and antiradical properties of pea seeds [62].
Vegetables like daikon sprout, spinach and onion show high
antioxidant activity against dierent reactive oxygen species and
reactive nitrogen species, while broccoli, cabbage and Chinese
cabbage show high antioxidant activity against hypochlorite ion [63].
Raw and fresh vegetables exhibit most consistent protection against
cancer, with over 85% of studies nding an inverse association.
Findings are consistent for lettuce, leafy green and cruciferous
vegetables, allium, tomatoes and carrots, with about 70% of studies
reporting a protective role against cancer. More than 60% of studies
on other vegetables and fruits found a protective eect against total
cancer risk. Only about 40% of studies found some protection by
legumes and potatoes [64,65]. β-carotene, vitamin E and calcium
shows a signicant inverse relation with breast cancer risk [66].
Conclusion
Apparently, vegetables contain signicant antioxidants to oer
great potential as protective food. ey are gaining importance in
human diet as anticarcinogenic agents. Consumption of vegetables
and their products should be promoted among common people to
improve nutrition and derive health benets.
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Author Afliations Top
1Department of Vegetable Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand-263145, India
2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B. Pant University of
Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand-263145, India
3Department of Entomology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and
Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand-263145, India
... However, this requires continuous monitoring and quality control to maintain the certification. Further, the 2 + 3 or 3 + 2 daily servings of fruits or vegetables discussed in ( Ashfield-Watt et al., 2004 ), does not stop innovative ideas of introducing servings of a mix of dried fruits and vegetables benefitting from their combined nutritional contents, dietary fibers ( Siriwattananon, 2016 ) and antioxidants ( Shetty et al., 2013 ) to build and maintain a healthy body. ...
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Nayarit state on the Mexican Pacific Coast has a land area of 27,850 km² and a coastline of 290 km. The state represents 1.4% of the national territory, of which 438,400 hectares are currently dedicated for agricultural use. Nayarit is home to 1.23 million people, and produces tropical fruits such as mango, 316,750 metric tons and soursop 15,400 tons (May-July); pineapple, 34,250 tons (March-April); bananas 27,800 and jackfruit, 23,250 tons. Presently these add up to a total of 500,000 tons of yearly tropical fruit harvest amidst an increasing public awareness that these hold essential nutritional ingredients to help the population maintain its health and well-being. However, the water content in the produce of typically above 80% w/w, leads to bacterial and fungal activity. Consequently, a notable fraction of the produce perishes in a short period of time before they reach the consumer. Globally, such loss is 1.3 billion tons every year, as defined by the food loss index (FLI) and the food waste index (FWI). According to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-12 of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), both FLI and FWI should be reduced to one-half its current levels by the year 2030. To meet this goal, a significant fraction of the farm produce may be set apart for drying in solar powered dryers at the farm-site. With an aperture of 36 m² each, letting in UV filtered solar radiation and with an electric grid-integrated PV system, we estimate that 3500 of such dryers can produce nearly 480,000 kg of dried farm produce per day. This production represents 25% of the harvest, recovering also a significant amount of potable water released from the produce while drying. Thus, rural areas would produce dried farm products utilizing renewable energy; supply these worldwide, and benefit themselves from sustainable development.
... Cowpea is an important food for many people, particularly in developing countries in the tropical zones, since it is their fundamental source of protein and carbohydrates (Baptista et al., 2017;Shetty et al., 2013;Trinidad et al., 2010;Phillips et al., 2003). Water-soluble vitamins and elements like calcium, iron, zinc, and potassium are also abundant in them. ...
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Cowpea is a widely consumed food crop produced in the Savanna zone of Ghana. Anti-nutrients/bio-active compounds in it limit the biological availability of important nutrients/minerals (proteins, carbohydrates, fat, sodium, zinc, calcium, iron e.t.c). Thisstudy employed soaking to investigate the nutritional value of three cowpea varieties (Wang Kae, Kirkhouse Benga and Padi-Tuya). The soaking was in two forms; soaking in water and soaking with 1% each of NaHCO3and NaClsolutions. Standard chemical analytical procedures were carried out to measure proximate parameters (Fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture and crude fibre), anti-nutrients/bioactive compounds (Tannins, phytates, oxalate and flavonoids), and minerals (Sodium, iron, calcium and zinc) contents of the cowpea varieties. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in proximate composition, anti-nutrients/bioactive compounds and minerals among the cowpea varieties were obtained. Moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates and crude fibre varied among the soaking regimes for the samples in the ranges of 7.47-19.90%, 2.35-6.11%, 23.35-26.33%, 29.23-35.33%, 21.70-31.36% and 2.24-4.78%, respectively. Values for iron, zinc, calcium and sodium ranged between 24.86-214.46mg/kg, 45.02-216.93mg/kg, 31.12-56.59mg/kg and 34.82-136.13mg/kg, respectively. Tannins, phytate, flavonoids and oxalate values also ranged between 1.35-6.74mg/g, 4.18-10.70mg/g,15.50-91.39mg/100g and 13.64-24.63mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that, soaking with water and (NaHCO3 + NaCl) solution have potentialities for enhancing nutritional value in the cowpea varieties, which could be a means of combating nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity in Ghana and other countriesin West Africa
... Capsicum fruits have double the amount of vitamin C found in citrus fruits. In contrast, dried red chilies are high in vitamin A and β-carotene, making them a healthy snack option [1]. According to photochemical studies, it also has cancer-prevention due to the presence of higher antioxidant properties [2]. ...
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Chipotle peppers were grown in America before being carried to Europe by Columbus. Capsicum breeding began with choosing wild species for desired characteristics , with additional development based on precision selection. To improve capsicum yields, traditional methods such as mass selection, pedigree, single-seed descent, backcrossing, and hybridization are being used. Capsicum has a high level of genetic diversity due to multiple new gene rearrangements. Capsicum fruits are high in nutrients that are beneficial to human health. As a result, the world market for and consumption of capsicum has lately grown. Capsicum breeding programmes aim to improve yield, biotic, abiotic resistance, and nutritional quality. Recent breakthroughs in capsicum breeding have included introgression, mutation breeding, polyploidy, haploidy, embryo rescue, and the use of genetic markers. Molecular technology has grown into an important tool that, when coupled with classic selection and hybridization procedures, has the potential to result in great success in an established capsicum genetic breeding programme.
... The leaves contain 22-30% crude protein and haulms contain 13-17% protein. The leaves are rich in several antioxidants as well, it includes tocopherols, flavonoids, anti-cancer agents and lycopene (Shetty et al., 2013). ...
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The objective of the present investigation was to estimate genetic variation and type of gene action controlling quality traits of two cowpea crosses viz., C 74 × C 88 and C 74 × CL 400 by six parameter generation mean analysis. The quality traits studied were green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein (%), acid detergent fibre (%) and neutral detergent fibre (%). The results indicated that the mean effects were highly significant and the traits were quantitatively inherited. Additive and dominant gene effects are highly significant for all traits. The high magnitude of additive x additive gene effect suggests the pedigree method is best suitable breeding method for development of high yielding fodder cultivars with better quality traits.
... The moringa foliage contains antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds (Rockwood et al., 2013;Jung, 2014). The cowpea leaves also reported to contains some antioxidants like flavonoids, alpha tocopherols and lycopene (Shetty et al., 2013;Jayathilake et al., 2018). The apparently increased TAC in MOT and COT groups may be accredited to the presence of natural antioxidants, phenolic compounds and other phytonutrients, which lead to improved antioxidant status in goat kids. ...
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The objective of present study was to ascertain the effect of dietary inclusion of moringa foliage on the performance of kids. Eighteen male kids were divided randomly into 3 groups and allocated to control (CON), COT and MOT groups. The kids in CON group fed with total mixed ration (TMR) consisting wheat straw and concentrate, however, kids in COT and MOT groups were offered TMRs replacing 25% wheat straw with cowpea and moringa foliage, respectively. The responses of various parameters were studied during 120 days of feeding. Intake of dry-matter (DM) and organic-matter (OM) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT relative to CON and COT groups; however, digestibility of various nutrients was comparable among treatment groups. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) was higher (p < 0.05) in MOT than CON. The intake and retention (gd⁻¹) of nitrogen (N) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT than COT and CON groups. The average daily gain (ADG, gd⁻¹) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT followed by COT and CON groups. Similarly, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (p < 0.05) in MOT and COT groups than CON. Haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analogous amongst treatments. Serum glucose, total protein and globulin were found to be significantly higher in MOT and COT groups. The cholesterol and serum urea were decreased in MOT in comparison to CON. Serum growth hormone (GH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cell mediated and humoral immune responses were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in MOT followed by COT and CON groups. Total antioxidant capacity was also found to be higher (p <0.05) in MOT and COT groups. Dietary inclusion of moringa foliage as TMR substantially increased nutrient intake, metabolic profile, immunity and growth performance in goat kids.
... It plays a critical role in the lives of millions of people in Africa and other parts of the developing world where it is a major source of dietary protein that nutritionally complements staple low protein cereal and tuber crops (Langyintuo et al., 2003). It is not only rich in nutrients, but also nutraceuticals such as dietary fiber, antioxidants, and polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols (Shetty et al., 2013). As a nitrogen-fixing legume cowpea improves soil fertility, and consequently helps to increase the yields of cereal crops when grown in rotation . ...
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Ethiopia is believed to be the possible center of genetic diversity for cowpea but little is known about its production and utilization across diverse agro-ecologies and cultures. This paper is aimed at documenting cowpea production, utilization, variety preference criteria and production challenges. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire from 240 farm households in two major cowpea growing regions of Ethiopia, namely South Nations Nationalities and Peoples and Gambella regional states. The results showed that cowpea landraces are predominantly produced for food, market and feed. Preferences for cultivars grown were based on leaf texture, short cooking time, grain texture, early maturity, seed color, high yield and seed availability. Grain, leaves and green pods of cowpea are used as human food and the straw as animal feed. Despite multiple constraints faced by cowpea farmers, the level of technological intervention was minimal. Only 3% of the interviewed farmers responded to receive any information and training about improved cowpea production. Pests, drought, shortage of improved technologies, and limited extension services were among the major production bottlenecks that deserve research and development focus. Besides, to boost the production and productivity of cowpea for achieving household food and nutritional security, research and development endeavors need to capitalize on farmers' indigenous production and utilization experience.
... Green leaves of cowpea plants are used for the preparation of meals. Leaves of cowpeas have antioxidants such as alpha tocopherols, flavonoids, lycopene, and anticancer agents [32]. Preserved and fresh cowpea leaves are rich in beta-carotene and Iron [25]. ...
Research
The coastal sand dune (CSD) ecosystem exhibits various stresses where organisms are exposed to dry, nutrient-deficient, intense UV rays, tidal effects, fluctuating pH, temperature and salinity conditions. Hence, it is considered unsuitable for agricultural practices. Despite this, microorganisms inhabiting CSD not only survive these but also support plant growth. From 13 different sand samples of CSD of Goa-India, 250 isolates were obtained on 7 distinct media. These isolates were screened for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes in vitro. Five bacterial isolates exhibiting maximum PGP factors were selected for further screening for ACC deaminase production, antifungal activity and hydrolytic enzyme production. These isolates were subjected to the production of Indole acetic acid and exopolysaccharide in submerged cultivation. These 5 isolates were identified as Pantoea sp. K8AcR2AY004, Chitinophaga eiseniae K4NRBAY001, Pantoea dispersa K4NRR2AY011, Bacillus marisflavi K7SpZMAO002 and Bacillus wiedmannii K3AsBAP008 using biochemical and molecular characterization. These strains were studied for their abilities to promote cowpea growth in vitro and using sand-filled pots. Cowpea seeds treated with C. eiseniae K4NRBAY001, P. dispersa K4NRR2AY011 and B. marisflavi K7SpZMAO002 in sand exhibited higher germination rate, vigor index and growth parameters than uninoculated seeds. The present study demonstrates that bacterial strains from CSD have the potential to stimulate cowpea growth and could be exploited as bio-fertilizers in arid sandy soils.
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BACKGROUND: West Java is ranked 4th as the province with the highest number of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia up to December 1, 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact on human health, lifestyle changes, and economic life. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle changes among the community of West Java. METHODS: The study was conducted in September 2020 using a cross-sectional study design. A total of 2502 people aged ≥12 years living in West Java were involved in this study as a sample, willing to fill out a questionnaire in the form of a Google form that was distributed online through social media (WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram). RESULTS: The results showed that the COVID-19 pandemic had an effect on lifestyle changes in the people of West Java. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the people of West Java became more frequent to wash their hands, do regular exercise, sunbathe in the morning, consume more vegetables and fruits, and consume vitamins or supplements to increase endurance (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the result, the community should continue to improve the COVID-19 prevention practices in breaking the chain of transmission.
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The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing untreated cowpea (CWP; Aura 26 variety) seeds as a protein source on quality parameters of chickens’ breast (PM; Pectoralis major) and thigh muscles (BF; Biceps femoris). A total of 240 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly allotted to two groups: a control group fed with soybean meal (SBM) and an experimental group fed with CWP included at 200 g/kg as a replacement of SBM. Each group consisted of six pens as replicates, with 20 chicks per pen. At 6 weeks of age, twelve birds/group were slaughtered. Compared to SBM group, the group fed CWP had higher (P < 0.0001) lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values of PM and BF muscles, the latter had also higher yellowness (b*, P < 0.0001). The collagen and protein contents were significantly higher in CWP group in both PM and BF muscles, while fat was lower (P < 0.001) only in BF muscle. The use of CWP into broilers’ diets did not negatively impact the textural properties, i.e., hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of PM and BF, showing similar values in both groups. Also, PM and BF muscles of birds fed CWP had significantly higher (P < 0.05) levels of C:18:3n-3 and C:20:5n-3 compared with birds fed SBM. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower in CWP group (11.72 and 7.00) compared to SBM (13.47 and 12.63) for both PM and BF muscles. These results indicate that CWP can be considered a promising protein source for broiler chickens’ feed.
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Objectives Cnidoscolus aconitifolius have been investigated to have abundant phytochemicals. However, study on the effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on neurobehavioral performance when supplemented with diet is lacking. The study is aimed at investigating the memory-enhancing effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius -supplemented diet (CAD) using Morris water maze and Novel object recognition test. Methods Ninety male Wistar rats (80–100 g) were fed with CAD (1, 2.5, 5 and 10%) continuously for a period of 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. Six animals per group were used for assessment of memory performance (Morris water maze [MWM] and Novel object recognition test [NORT]); afterwards the brain tissues were harvested for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) estimation. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) concentration was also determined. Hippocampal architectural change in the neuron was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and cresyl fast violet (Nissl) stain. Results Higher percentage of CAD significantly (p<0.05) improve memory performance with time-dependent effects in rats fed with CAD on MMW and NORT. MDA significantly (p<0.05) reduce in 1 and 2.5% CAD groups at 4th weeks and in 2.5 and 5% CAD groups at 8th weeks while GSH concentration significantly (p<0.05) increase at 12th weeks in 2.5 and 10% CAD groups. However, CAT concentration significantly (p<0.05) increase in 2.5, and 5%, CAD groups, 1, 5, and 10% CAD groups and in 5, and 10% CAD groups at 4th, 8th and 12th weeks. AChE significantly (p<0.05) reduce at 4th and 12th weeks. Histological assessment reveals no neuronal and pyramidal degeneration (chromatolysis) at the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) region. Conclusions The results suggest that CAD boost memory performance in rats through positive modulation of oxidative stress, cholinergic system and degeneration of hippocampal neurons.
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Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient in the human diet and potatoes are a valuable source. As a first step in breeding for potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.) with higher levels of ascorbic acid, 75 clones from 12 North American potato-breeding programs were evaluated for concentration, and 10 of those for stability of expression. Trials were grown in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in 1999 and 2000, tubers sampled, and ascorbic acid quantified. There were significant differences among clones and clone by environment interaction was also significant. Concentration of ascorbic acid of the clones was continuously distributed over a range of 11.5 to 29.8 mg/100 g. A subgroup of 10 clones was analyzed using an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model, to diagnose interaction patterns and measure clone stability. The first two principal component axes accounted for over 80% of the variability. Bi-plot analysis showed `Ranger Russet' to be highly unstable across the environments tested. A plot of Tai's stability statistics found six of the 10 clones to be stable for ascorbic acid expression. Appropriate evaluation methods for ascorbic acid concentration must involve multi-year testing.
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Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an essential nutrient in the human diet and potatoes are a valuable source. As a first step in breeding for potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) with higher levels of ascorbic acid, 75 clones from 12 North American potato-breeding programs were evaluated for concentration, and 10 of those for stability of expression. Trials were grown in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in 1999 and 2000, tubers sampled, and ascorbic acid quantified. There were significant differences among clones and clone by environment interaction was also significant Concentration of ascorbic acid of the clones was continuously distributed over a range of 11.5 to 29.8 mg/100 g. A subgroup of 10 clones was analyzed using an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model, to diagnose interaction patterns and measure clone stability. The first two principal component axes accounted for over 80% of the variability. Bi-plot analysis showed 'Ranger Russet' to be highly unstable across the environments tested. A plot of Tai's stability statistics found six of the 10 clones to be stable for ascorbic acid expression. Appropriate evaluation methods for ascorbic acid concentration must involve multi-year testing.
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To investigate the relation between selected micronutrients and breast cancer risk, we conducted a case‐control study of breast cancer between June 1991 and April 1994 in 6 Italian areas. The study included 2569 women admitted to the major teaching and general hospitals of the study areas with histologically confirmed incident breast cancer and 2588 control women with no history of cancer, who were admitted to hospitals in the same catchment areas for acute, non‐neoplastic, nongynecological conditions unrelated to hormonal or digestive tract diseases or to long‐term modifications of the diet. Dietary habits, including alcoholic beverage consumption, were investigated using a validated food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods or food groups, several types of alcoholic beverages, some “fat intake pattern” questions and some open sections for foods consumed frequently by the subject and not reported in the questionnaire. To control for potential confounding factors, several multiple logistic regression models were used. When major correlates, energy intake and the mutual confounding effect of the various micronutrients were taken into account, beta‐carotene, vitamin E and calcium showed a significant inverse association with breast cancer risk. The estimated odds ratios of the 5th quintile compared to the lowest one were 0.84 for beta‐carotene, 0.75 for vitamin E and 0.81 for calcium. No significant association emerged for retinol, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and potassium. Our results suggest that a diet rich in several micronutrients, particularly beta‐carotene, vitamin E and calcium, may be protective against breast cancer. © 1996 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Article
Background: Some data, including our findings from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986 through January 31, 1992, suggest that frequent intake of tomato products or lycopene, a carotenoid from tomatoes, is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, however, the data are inconclusive. We evaluated additional data from the HPFS to determine if the association would persist. Methods: We ascertained prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 1998, among 47 365 HPFS participants who completed dietary questionnaires in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We used pooled logistic regression to compute multivariate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: From 1986 through January 31, 1998, 2481 men in the study developed prostate cancer. Results for the period from 1992 through 1998 confirmed our previous findings—that frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, for the entire period of 1986 through 1998, using the cumulative average of the three dietary questionnaires, lycopene intake was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR for high versus low quintiles = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.96; Ptrend = .003); intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of bioavailable lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk (RR for 2+ servings/week versus <1 serving/month = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.90; Ptrend<.001), especially for extraprostatic cancers (RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.99). These associations persisted in analyses controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption and for olive oil use (a marker for Mediterranean diet) and were observed separately in men of Southern European or other Caucasian ancestry. Conclusion: Frequent consumption of tomato products is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. The magnitude of the association was moderate enough that it could be missed in a small study or one with substantial errors in measurement or based on a single dietary assessment.
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Diets rich in fruit and vegetables have long been associated with reduced risk of chronic disease. Antioxidant components of fruit and vegetables have recently generated great interest in scientific research. However, few studies have explored antioxidants in food after cooking. Cooking may alter antioxidant properties by initiating destruction, release or transformation of antioxidant food components. This study has investigated the effects of boiling and microwaving on the antioxidant properties of green broccoli and purple-sprouting broccoli. Antioxidant activities of the broccoli extracts were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, vitamin C and phenols were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids were evaluated using colorimetric methods and anthocyanins were determined by a pH differential method. Results showed antioxidant components of cooked broccoli to be quite different from uncooked broccoli. The antioxidant content of broccoli was retained and/or enhanced more after microwaving than after boiling. Cooking in water caused a leaching effect of antioxidants, and this increased with cooking time. Purple-sprouting broccoli was found to contain higher contents of antioxidant compounds compared with green broccoli, but tended to show higher sensitivity to cooking treatments. Cooking methods should be carefully considered in current dietary recommendations.
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Flavonoids are a large group of natural phenolic compounds contained in high concentrations in vegetables, fruits, etc. Antioxidant and redox properties of some flavonoids such as catechin, quercetin, dihydroquercetin, and rutin were investigated in this work. Optimal concentration and time of action of flavonoids were obtained. To determine the more effective range of antioxidant activity, mathematical models and the response surfaces of investigated flavonoids were determined using methods of experiment design. Oxidation potentials of the compounds were also obtained, E = 0.3 ÷ 0.4 V. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on the redox properties and the structure of the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is correlated to reversible potentials for this compound is good. Finally, the use of these substances as antioxidants with therapeutic effects has been recommended in human diet.