Article

Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Entropy (Impact Factor: 1.5). 04/2013; 15(4):1416-1463. DOI: 10.3390/e15041416

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ® , is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the "textbook example" of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.

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    • "Also, there were studies that showed that a reduction in the population of specific gut bacteria in humans causes increased fecal excretion of conjugated estrogens and decreases in urinary estrogens. Human fecal extracts metabolize plasma estrone (E1), 17β-estradiolRajilić-Stojanović, Biagi et al. 2011)[70]Crohn's disease Increased Clostridium species, Ruminococcus torques, and E. coli (Martinez‐Medina, Aldeguer et al. 2006)[53]Gastric cancer H. pylori induces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tsuji, Kawai et al. 2003)[88]Colorectal cancer Abundance of Fusobacteria and Coriobacteria (Castellarin,Warren et al. 2012)[9]Obesity Reduced ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (Ley,Bäckhed et al. 2005)[44]Type 1 diabetes Altered gut permeability to mannitol and lactulose (Kuitunen,Saukkonen et al. 2002)[41]Atherosclerosis Metabolism of phospholipids by gut microbiota to trimethylamine-N-oxide (Loscalzo 2011)[48]Rheumatoid arthritis Less Bifidobacteria and bacteria of the Bacteroides- Porphyromonas-Prevotella (Vaahtovuo, Munukka et al. 2008)[90]Autism Higher number of Clostridium species known to produce tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) (Parracho, Bingham et al. 2005)[64](Bolte 1998)[4]Chronic fatigue syndrome Lower levels of Bifidobacteria and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (Logan, Venket Rao et al. 2003)[47]Alzheimer's disease Excess ammonia production by gut microbiota (Samsel and Seneff 2013)[76](E2), and 16α-hydroxyestrone in vitro and lead to the inter-conversion of E1 and E2 and the reduction of 16α- hydroxyestrone to estriol (E3), 16-oxoestradiol to 16- epiestriol, and 15α-hydroxyestrone 15α-hydroxyestradiol. The human gut microbiome can influence the estrabolome . "
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    • "Very low, 700 ppb (maximum contaminant level) (Greene and Pohanish 2005b). Recently, Samsel and Seneff (2013) reported glyphosate mediated inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human along with the negative effect on the amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome. Above authors are of the view that continuous and long-term exposure to glyphosate is responsible for some of the modern human diseases "
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