Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Entropy (Impact Factor: 1.5). 04/2013; 15(4):1416-1463. DOI: 10.3390/e15041416


Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ® , is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the "textbook example" of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.

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    • "This decreased supply of serotonin in the brain is a major feature of autism (Samsel and Seneff, 2013a). However , it should be noted that Seneff's hypothesis does not explain the gender bias in ASD (Noriega and Savelkoul, 2014; Samsel and Seneff, 2013a;Samsel and Seneff, 2013b;Samsel and Seneff, 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%–1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.
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    • "Also, there were studies that showed that a reduction in the population of specific gut bacteria in humans causes increased fecal excretion of conjugated estrogens and decreases in urinary estrogens. Human fecal extracts metabolize plasma estrone (E1), 17β-estradiolRajilić-Stojanović, Biagi et al. 2011)[70]Crohn's disease Increased Clostridium species, Ruminococcus torques, and E. coli (Martinez‐Medina, Aldeguer et al. 2006)[53]Gastric cancer H. pylori induces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tsuji, Kawai et al. 2003)[88]Colorectal cancer Abundance of Fusobacteria and Coriobacteria (Castellarin,Warren et al. 2012)[9]Obesity Reduced ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes (Ley,Bäckhed et al. 2005)[44]Type 1 diabetes Altered gut permeability to mannitol and lactulose (Kuitunen,Saukkonen et al. 2002)[41]Atherosclerosis Metabolism of phospholipids by gut microbiota to trimethylamine-N-oxide (Loscalzo 2011)[48]Rheumatoid arthritis Less Bifidobacteria and bacteria of the Bacteroides- Porphyromonas-Prevotella (Vaahtovuo, Munukka et al. 2008)[90]Autism Higher number of Clostridium species known to produce tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) (Parracho, Bingham et al. 2005)[64](Bolte 1998)[4]Chronic fatigue syndrome Lower levels of Bifidobacteria and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (Logan, Venket Rao et al. 2003)[47]Alzheimer's disease Excess ammonia production by gut microbiota (Samsel and Seneff 2013)[76](E2), and 16α-hydroxyestrone in vitro and lead to the inter-conversion of E1 and E2 and the reduction of 16α- hydroxyestrone to estriol (E3), 16-oxoestradiol to 16- epiestriol, and 15α-hydroxyestrone 15α-hydroxyestradiol. The human gut microbiome can influence the estrabolome . "
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    • "Very low, 700 ppb (maximum contaminant level) (Greene and Pohanish 2005b). Recently, Samsel and Seneff (2013) reported glyphosate mediated inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human along with the negative effect on the amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome. Above authors are of the view that continuous and long-term exposure to glyphosate is responsible for some of the modern human diseases "
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    ABSTRACT: Storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers at 8–12 °C (depending on the countries either 8–10 or 10–12 °C) with 85–90 % RH in cold stores is common practice because at this storage temperature the accumulation of sugars is minimum and potatoes remain suitable for processing. This temperature is however, also suitable for sprout growth and therefore, use of a sprout suppressant becomes essential. Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (CIPC) is the most commonly used sprout suppressant used in potatoes. It is applied in the form of aerosol on the stored potatoes as a Post-harvest application. The possibility of using glyphosate as a pre-harvest foliar application on the potato crop to check the sprout growth of potatoes during subsequent storage has been reviewed in this article. Relative comparison between CIPC and glyphosate showed that glyphosate is safer in terms of lower mammalian toxicity with respect to oral LD50, contaminant level for human toxicity (long-term), acceptable daily intake limit (for human body) and acceptable residue limit (for human consumption). Comparatively, CIPC is more harmful to birds, fishes and other aquatic animals, worms and the environment. There are growing concerns regarding degradation products/metabolites of CIPC as they are more toxic and cytolytic in nature. Practical aspects such as cost of the chemical, application cost and ease of application also favor the glyphosate. Higher water solubility of glyphosate over the CIPC and its metabolites is also a point, as this can assist in minimizing the residue levels of glyphosate either in processed or cooked potato tubers. It is proposed that outcome of the further research work, especially on the suggested lines, may help in developing glyphosate as an alternative/supplementary to CIPC for its use as sprout suppressant on potatoes stored at 8–12 °C.
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