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Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica and Mentha piperita Linn

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Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
[ISSN 0976-3805]
2013 pep 827, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
Published on Web 01/04/2013, www.inventi.in
RESEARCH ARTICLE
INTRODUCTION
In Indian system of medicine, a large number of drugs
herbal or mineral origin have been used for various types
of diseases and their complications in humans.[1] Ayurvedic
medicines are largely based upon herbal and mineral
preparations contains diagnostic and therapeutic
principles. [2] Inflammation is characterised by localized
increase in the number of leukocytes and complex
mediator molecules. [3] Prostaglandins indicate and
modulate cell and tissue responses involved in
inflammation. Their biosynthesis play important role in
concerned with pathophysiology of cardiovascular
diseases, cancer, colonic adenomas and Alzheimer’s
diseases. [4, 5] Medicinal plants are widely used as a
important source of new chemical substances with
potential therapeutic effects. [6] The research is mainly
focus on plants with alleged folkloric use as pain relievers,
anti-inflammatory agents; therefore there is a need to
explore research fruitful and logical strategy in the
development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory
medicines. The use of plants as medicines is used from
ancient period and out of about 2, 58, 650 species of higher
plants reported from the world; more than 10% are used to
cure ailing communities. [7] Many of the existing medicinal
system such as Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy,
Naturopathy, Siddha and other alternative medicinal
system have been utilizing plants as effective medicines to
cure many harmful diseases. [8] Adhatoda vasaca Nees
(family Acanthaceae) is a shrub widespread throughout the
tropical regions of Southeast Asia. [9] The name Adhatoda
vasica Nees and Adhatoda zeylanica Medic are used
synonymously. It is commonly known as vasaca or Malabar
nut. It contains rich source of Vitamin C and its medicinal
uses, mainly antispasmodic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory,
1Department of Pharmacology, SVKM’s, NMiMS, School of Pharmacy and
Technology Management, Shirpur, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: satishb9@gmail.com
*Corresponding author
anti-bleeding, bronchodilator, anti-diabetic, disinfectant,
anti-jaundice and oxytocic. [10] Mentha piperita, (family
Lamiaceae) found in Iran and many parts of the world. Its
economical value is due to flavoring, odour, and
therapeutic properties in foods and cosmetic industrial
products. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil is one of the
most popular and widely used essential oils, mostly
because of its main components, menthol, and menthone.
[11] Its therapeutic uses are antiviral, [12] antibacterial, [13]
antifungal, [14] analgesic, [15] and antioxidant activities. [13]
The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-
inflammatory and analgesic activity of Adhatoda vasica N.
and Mentha piperita L. leaves methanolic extracts on
carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, hot plate & tail
immersion method in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Collection
Adhatoda vasica N and Mentha piperita L leaves were
purchased locally from herbal dealer of Shirpur,
Maharashtra, India. The plant materials were authenticated
and compared with its standard in the herbarium
maintained by Aryaash Bionatural Pvt. Ltd, Aurangabad,
Maharashtra, India. (Reference:- Letter no. 12450, Dated
20/04/2011)
Chemicals
All solvent were of analytical grade, alcohol, vanillin,
sulphuric acid, ethyl acetate, ammonia, dioxane, toluene all
were obtained from Labchem Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai.
Carrageenans were obtained from SD-fine chem., Mumbai.
Diclofenac sodium used as standard drug from Wockhardt
Research Center, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.
Animals
Healthy Wistar albino rats weighing about 180-220 g of
either sex were supplied by animal house of SVKM’S
NMIMS SPTM, Shirpur. The animals were housed under the
standard conditions of temperature (22°C±2°C), humidity
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of
Methanolic Extract of
Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha
piperita
Linn.
Sateesh Belemkar1*, Sanket A Thakre1, Muslim Khurshid Pata1
Abstract: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic extract of Leaves of Adhatoda vasica
Nees.
(Acanthaceae) and Mentha piperita (Lamiaceae). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanolic extract of
Adhatoda
vasica N and Mentha piperita L were evaluated individual & in combination. The anti-
inflammatory potential of methanolic
extract has been studied by using carrageenan-
induced paw edema. The analgesic activity was tested by using hot plate and tail
immersion meth
od in albino rats. The phytochemical investigation was performed for the presence of vascicine, vasicinone in
Adhatoda vasica N. and menthol in Mentha piperita L. The administration of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees
. and
Mentha piperita at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg (p.o) significantly (P
<0.01) inhibited carrageenan induced inflammation.
Also treatment of extracts produced a significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in tail immersion-induced pain and hot
-plate-
induced pain. Similarly, anti-in
flammatory and analgesic activity were evaluated by combination of half quantity of effective
doses (200+300 mg/kg) of Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita which significantly (P<
0.05) inhibit the inhibition and pain
in experimental animals. The experimental results demonstrated that methanolic extract of
Adhatoda vasica Nees
and Mentha
piperita Linn
in individual and combination doses possess significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
1
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
[ISSN 0976-3805]
2013 pep 827, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
Published on Web 01/04/2013, www.inventi.in
RESEARCH ARTICLE
(40-60%) and 12 h light and dark cycle. Animals were
provided with a free access to a standard diet of food
pellets supplied by Nav Maharashtra chakan oil mill Ltd,
Pune and water ad libitum. The animals were divided
randomly into different groups, animals were used in
accordance with the principles and guidelines of CPCSEA.
Ethics clearance was taken from IAEC prior to
experimentation (SPTM-IAEC/Oct-10/02/011).
Processing and Extraction
1. Preparation of Adhatoda vasica Methanolic Extract
Dried, ground, course powder of Adhatoda vasica N. leaves
(1.0 kg) were subjected to hydro-alcoholic soxhlet
extraction using 95% methanol. The extracts obtained
were evaporated in rotary evaporator to get a powdery
mass. The yield of extract was calculated. The powder
extracts obtained were then subjected to phytochemical
analysis to detect the chemical constituents present in
extract. [16]
2. Preparation of Mentha piperita Methanolic Extract
Dried, ground, course powder of Mentha piperita leaves
(1.0 kg) were subjected to hydro-alcoholic soxhlet
extraction using 95% methanol. The extracts obtained
were evaporated in rotary evaporator to get a powdery
mass. The yield of extract was calculated. The powder
extracts obtained were then subjected to phytochemical
analysis to detect the chemical constituents present in
extract. [16]
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening
The crude extracts of Adhatoda vasica N. & Mentha piperita
L. were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening
for their presence and absence of active
phytoconstituents. [16]
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
1. Method of TLC for Mentha piperita Linn
The solution of extract were applied on aluminum plate
pre-coated with Silica gel 60 F254 of 0.2 mm thickness (
Merck, Germany) using capillary. The solvent systems used
were toluene: ethyl acetate in the ratio of 9:1. The mobile
phase was allowed to run for 30 minutes. After air drying
the plate, a solution of vanillin in sulphuric acid was
sprayed & Rf value were calculated. [17]
2. Method of TLC for Adhatoda vasica Nees
The solutions of extract were applied on aluminum plate
pre-coated with Silica gel 60 F254 of 0.2 mm thickness
(Merck, Germany) using capillary. The solvent systems
used were toluene: methanol: dioxane: ammonia in the
ratio of 1:1:25:0.5. The mobile phase was allowed to run
for 15 minutes. After air drying the plate, a Modified
Dragendroff’s reagent sprayed & Rf value were
calculated. [18]
Dosing and Grouping of Animals
Wistar albino rats were divided in to 9 groups, each group
contains n=6 animals total 54 were included in study.
Grouping of animals for control, test & standard treatments
were indicated in Table 1. A control group (1) were
injected normal saline. The Standard group (2) (diclofenac
sodium) given at a dose of 20 mg/kg intraperitineally. Test
group (3, 4, 5) received methanolic leaf extract of Adhatoda
vasica Nees at three different doses (200, 400, 600 mg/kg
p.o) similarly another test group (6,7,8) received Mentha
piperita at the same doses and test group (9) received
combination of both extract Adhatoda vasica Nees 200
mg/kg + 300 mg/kg of Mentha piperita.
EXPERIMENTAL WORK
Dose Determination Study
Dose determination studies were carried out on rats
according to Reed and Meunch method. [19] Adhatoda vasica
Ness & Mentha piperita Linn of both extracts
200,400,600,750 mg/kg were evaluated using carrageenan
induced rat paw oedema and hot plate method for anti-
inflammatory and analgesic activity.
Anti-Inflammatory Activity
1. Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema in the Rat
The animals were divided into different groups of six
animals each and were fasted for a period of 24 h prior to
the study. Edema was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of a 1%
(w/v solution of carrageenan in saline into the subplantar
aponeurosis of the right hind paw of the rats. The vehicle,
extracts and the standard drugs were administered orally
60 min prior to the injection of the phlogistics agent. The
volumes of edema of the injected and the contra lateral
paws were measured at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 360 min
after the induction of inflammation using a
plethysmograph to calculate the percentage of anti-
inflammatory activity. [20]
Analgesic Activity
1. Hot Plate Test
Tail-immersion test was carried out as described by Eddy
and Leimbach with modifications. [21] In this method rats
were divided into different groups of 6 animal in each. Rats
were placed on hot plate kept at 55±0.5°C for a maximum
time of 30 sec. Reaction time was recorded as the latency to
licked fore- and hind paws or flick or jump from hot plate;
at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 min after oral
administration of methanolic extracts of Adhatoda vasica
and Mentha piperita (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) to different
groups of six animals each. Diclofenac sodium 20 mg/kg
was used as the reference drugs. After determination of
effective dose in case of both extract for pain inhibition in
hot plate method, combination dose was prepared and
given to separate group of rats (200 mg/kg of Adhatoda
vasica Nees and 300 mg/kg of Mentha piperita). The
percentage analgesic activity was calculated.
2. Tail Immersion Test
Tail-immersion test was carried out as described by Sewell
and Spencer and Luttinger with modifications. [22, 23] The
tail of the rat was immersed in a water bath containing
water at a temperature of 48±0.5°C. The rat reacts by
2
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
[ISSN 0976-3805]
2013 pep 827, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
Published on Web 01/04/2013, www.inventi.in
RESEARCH ARTICLE
withdrawing the tail. [24] Six rats per group were
administered orally with distilled water (vehical 1 ml),
diclofenac sodium (20 mg/kg), and methanolic extracts of
Adhatoda vasica Nees and mentha piperita (200, 400 and
600 mg/kg). The distal part of the tails (3-5 cm) of the
animals was immersed in hot water maintained at
55.0±1.0°C. The time taken to withdraw the tail was noted
as reaction time.10 A cut-off time of 12-15 sec was consider
to prevent tissue damage. The reaction time was measured
at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min after treatment for
both extracts, respectively. After determination of effective
dose in case of both extract for pain inhibition in tail
immersion method, combination dose was prepared and
given to separate group of rats (200 mg/kg of Adhatoda
vasica Nees and 300 mg/kg of Mentha piperita). The
percentage analgesic activity was calculated.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
The statistical significance was assessed using one way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test.
The values are expressed as Mean±SEM & P<0.05, P<0.01,
P<0.001 was considered significant.
RESULTS
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening
Phytochemical test of Mentha piperita revealed the
presence of alkaloids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and
essential oils. Whereas the phytochemical test of Adhatoda
vasica nees revealed the presence of steroids and
carbohydrates (Table 2).
Physicochemical Test
Extract were procured authenticated from Aryaash Bionatural
Pvt. Ltd, Aurangabad, different physicochemical test like
physical appearance, total ash value, extractive value, loss on
drying, heavy metal detection & pH determination were done
as per limits & procedure given in herbal monographs &
herbal pharmacopoeia of India (Table 3).
Figure 1: TLC of
Mentha piperita L
.
Figure 2: TLC of
Adhatoda Vasaca N.
Table 1: Animal Grouping
Groups
Group Name
Number of Animals Used
I
Vehicle control
6
II
Standard (Diclofenac sodium)
6
III
MEAV (200 mg/kg)
6
IV
MEAV (400 mg/kg)
6
V
MEAV (600 mg/kg)
6
VI
MEMP (200 mg/kg)
6
VII
MEMP (400 mg/kg)
6
VIII
MEMP (600 mg/kg)
6
IX
Combination MEAV (200 mg/kg) +MEMP (300 mg/kg)
6
Table 2: Phytochemical Test of Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita Linn
Chemical Constituents
Adhatoda vasica N.
Mentha piperita L.
Alkaloid
Positive
Negative
Glycoside
Negative
Negative
Essential Oil
Negative
Positive
Saponins
Negative
Negative
Steroids
Positive
Negative
Triterpenoids
Negative
Positive
Flavonoids
Negative
Positive
Carbohydrates
Positive
Negative
Amino acids
Negative
Negative
h
i
it L
tod
a Vasa
ca N
3
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
[ISSN 0976-3805]
2013 pep 827, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Thin layer Chromatography
Further to confirm the particular constituents after
preliminary evaluation, TLC was performed. With the help
of TLC of Mentha piperita the presence of menthol
(Rf=0.24) was confirmed. Similarly with the help of TLC of
Adhatoda vasaca the presence of vasicine (Rf=0.67) and
vasicinone (Rf=0.83) were confirmed (Table 4, Figure 1, 2).
Dose Determination Study
The study comprises of evaluation of different doses of
Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita linn for anti-
inflammatory, analgesic activity. In this presented study
200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg doses of
both extract were evaluated using carrageenan induce paw
edema and hot plate method. In study it was found that 400
mg/kg of Adhatoda vasica Nees and 600 mg of Mentha
piperita was more significant than other dose.
Anti-inflammatory Activity
In acute inflammatory model all test samples of extract
showed inhibition at 3 hrs. The edema development in
carrageenan induce paw edema model is generally
represented by a biphasic curve. The first phase occurs
within an hour of injection and prostaglandin plays a major
role in the development of the second phase of reactions
which is measured at 3 hrs. The methanolic extract of
Adhatoda vasica Nees, Mentha piperita (200, 400, 600
mg/kg, combination dose) and diclofenac sodium (20
mg/kg) produced dose dependent inhibition of
carrageenan induced inflammation as compared to the
control (P<0.05). Amongst the test extracts of both extracts
400 mg/kg was more effective than 200 and 600 mg/kg in
case of Adhatoda vasica nees and 600 mg/kg were more
effective in Mentha piperita. The combination dose shows
significant inhibition in inflammation as compare to control
(P < 0.01-0.001) & comparable inhibition of inflammation
as that of standard drug diclofenac sodium (Table 5).
Analgesic Activity
Oral administration of the methanolic extract of Adhatoda
vasica and Mentha piperita (200, 400, 600 mg/kg and
combination dose) significantly (P<0.05) inhibit the pain in
rat. The activity was comparable to that of control.
Moreover, the extract induced protection in rat in tail
immersion test that is comparable with the control (Table
6). The results of hot plate test presented in (Table 7)
showed that the oral administration of methanolic extract
of Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita Linn at the
doses of 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, combination dose (200+300
mg/kg) and diclofenac sodium (20 mg/kg) a reference drug
significantly raised the pain threshold at observation time
of 360 min in comparison with control (P < 0.01-0.001).
Table 3: Physicochemical Constants of Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita Linn.
Test
Adhatoda vasaca N.
Mentha piperita L.
Test (%)
Test (%)
Description
Brown colour powder with peculiar odour and bitter taste
Brown colour powder with bitter taste
Total ash value
8.85
8.85
Extractive value
In water-96.66
In alcohol- 60
In water-88.30
In alcohol-83.45
Loss on drying
2.95
4.31
Heavy metals
Less than 20 ppm
Less than 20 ppm
pH
6.55
4.90
Table 4: Thin Layer chromatography of Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita Linn.
Retention
Factor
Rf
Adhatoda vasaca N
Mentha piperita L
Vasicine
Vasicinone
Menthol
Test
Standard
Test
Standard
Test
Standard
0.67
0.70
0.83
0.89
0.24
0.29
Table 5: Effects of Methanolic Extract of Adhatoda Vasica Nees. and Mentha Piperita Linn on Carrageenan-
Induced Rat Paw
Edema at 3 hr
Group
Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema
Increase in Paw Volume in ml
% Inhibition in Paw Volume
Control
3.74±0.08
---
Diclofenac sodium (20 mg/kg)
1.58±0.06*
57.75
MEAV (200 mg/kg)
2.68±0.01***
28.34
MEAV (400 mg/kg)
2.22±0.03**
40.64
MEAV (600 mg/kg)
2.26±0.02***
39.57
MEMP (200 mg/kg)
2.45±0.04***
34.49
MEMP (400 mg/kg)
2.54±0.03***
32.08
MEMP (600 mg/kg)
2.31±0.04**
38.23
Combination MEAV (200 mg/kg) +
MEMP (300 mg/kg)
1.77±0.03*
52.67
Values are expressed as Mean±SEM from n=6 animals in each group. Where **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 as compare to control ( ANOVA followed by
Dunnett’s test).
4
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
DISCUSSION
The most widely used primary test for screening of anti-
inflammatory agents is carrageenan induced rat paw
edema. [20] Carrageenan-induced edema is a biphasic
response in which the involvement of the cyclooxygenase
products of arachidonic acid metabolism and the
production of reactive oxygen species are well
established. The first phase is mediated through the
release of histamine, serotonin, and kinins, whereas the
second phase is related to the release of prostaglandin
oxygen-derived free radicals and production of inducible
cyclooxygenase which peak at 3 h. Phyto-chemical
analysis of the leaves extracts of Mentha piperita revealed
the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids,
tannins, cardiac glycosides and diterpenes. Also has found
alkaloids, glycosides, steroids and sugars in the leaf of
Mentha piperita which substantiates our results. As the
alkaloids constitute one of the largest groups of phyto-
chemicals in plants and medicinally highly effective, thus
has led to the development of powerful painkiller
medicines. [25] Tannins are also phenolics compounds and
effective for the treatment of inflamed tissues. [25, 26]
Among all phytoconstituents, flavonoids content was
found high in all methanolic extract of Mentha piperita.
Flavonoids have been referred to as nature’s biological
response modifier. The methanolic extract of Adhatoda
vasica Nees and Mentha piperita Linn in all doses
produced dose-dependent and significant (P<0.01)
inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema
comparable in magnitude with the inhibitory action of
diclofenac in both phases. Combination dose of both
extract shows comparable significantly (P<0.05)
inhibition with standard drug. The methanolic extract of
Adhatoda vasica Nees and Mentha piperita at the doses of
200, 400, 600 mg/kg protected rat against both chemical
induced noxious stimuli, which were evidenced from, tail
immersion, and hot plate tests. All the doses shows
significant (P <0.01) inhibition in inflammation and pain
as compare to control. Combination dose shows the
significant effect in both the model as comparable to
diclofenac (P<0.05).
REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. Brekhman I I, Dardymov I V. New substances of plant origin
which increase nonspecific resistance. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol, 9,
419-430, 1969.
Table 6: Effect of Mentha piperita Linn and Adhatoda vasica Ness on the Latency Time of Rats Using Hot Plate
Treatment
Group
Dose
(mg/kg)
Reaction Time in sec.
0 min
15 min
30 min
60 min
120 min
180 min
360 min
Control
-
4.18±0.57
4.26±0.18
4.65±0.53
4.68±0.26
4.22±0.18
3.75±0.37
3.17±0.23
Diclofenac
sodium
20
4.78±0.54
7.84±0.79
8.57±0.74**
8.84±0.68**
8.95±0.70**
4.78±0.09
3.93±0.56
MEMP
200
6.95±0.18
7.96±0.17
8.20±0.17
8.54±0.16
8.99±0.06
8.01±0.10
5.55±0.20
MEMP
400
5.15±0.21
6.46±0.49
7.08±0.44
7.36±0.39
8.40±0.36
6.90±0.16
4.90±0.28
MEMP
600
4.99±0.32
5.28±0.30
6.10±0.18
9.00±0.07
12.22±0.22**
8.14±0.30
5.16±0.45
MEAV
200
6.13±0.03
6.75±0.27
7.09±0.24
7.43±0.35
8.27±0.3
6.67±0.16
6.25±0.25
MEAV
400
5.57±0.26
6.05±0.20*
8.99±0.17*
9.41±0.09*
11.76±0.20*
9.02±0.24
5.77±0.33
MEAV
600
5.89±0.34
8.18±0.40
8.64±0.39
9.06±0.29
9.35±0.23
5.82±0.23
5.05±0.65
Combination
MEAV+
MEMP
200+300
3.77±0.35
6.13±0.24**
8.09±0.44**
9.41±0.27*
9.65±0.38**
5.69±0.24
3.48±0.36
Values are expressed as Mean±SEM from n=6 animals in each group. Where **P<0.01, ***
P<0.001 as compare to control (
ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s
test).
Table 7: Effect of Mentha piperita Linn and Adhatoda vasica Ness on the Time of Withdrawal of Tail
Treatment
Group
Dose
(mg/kg)
Time of Withdrawal of Tail in sec.
0 min
15 min
30 min
60 min
120 min
180 min
360 min
Control
-
4.01±0.25
4.05±0.26
4.46±0.22
4.88±0.37
4.33±0.12
4.25±0.12
4.06±0.18
Diclofenac
sodium
20
4.76±0.6
9.43±0.31**
9.80±0.16**
8.39±0.27**
6.15±0.43
6.00±0.43
5.29±0.34
MEMP
200
3.48±0.12
5.69±0.16
6.03±0.14
5.30±0.12
4.83±0.07
4.46±0.14
4.08±0.07
MEMP
400
3.35±0.12
5.88±0.2
7.06±0.29*
5.16±0.07
4.84±0.03
4.49±0.08
3.89±0.09
MEMP
600
4.55±0.11
8.35±0.34
9.77±0.33*
6.89±0.17
6.27±0.19
5.61±0.21
5.12±0.16
MEAV
200
4.18±0.07
6.86±0.05
6.43±0.14
5.60±0.1
5.17±0.08
4.86±0.04
4.43±0.12
MEAV
400
4.65±0.16
7.82±0.32
9.76±0.27**
6.73±0.35
6.18±0.41*
5.50±0.27
5.03±0.2
MEAV
600
3.67±0.2
6.32±0.22
7.39±0.18**
5.61±0.26
5.27±0.19*
4.50±0.1
4.02±0.18
Combination
MEAV+
MEMP
200+300
4.76±0.11
9.15±0.2
9.74±0.3**
7.01±0.08**
6.20±0.17
5.62±0.22
5.12±0.16
Values are expressed as Mean±SEM from n=6 animals in each group. Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM from n=6 animals in each group. Where
*P<0.05,**P<0.01 as compare to control ( ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test).
5
Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology Vol. 2013, Issue 2
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2013 pep 827, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
2. Patwardhan B and Hopper B. Ayurvedic and future drug
development. J. Alter. Complement. Med., 19, 9-10, 1992.
3. Mantri P, Witiak D T. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-
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Acknowledgments
The authors are thankful to Dr. Meena Chintamaneni,
Associate Dean SPTM, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be)
University, Shirpur and Dr. R S Gaud, Dean, SPP SPTM, SVKM’s
NMIMS (Deemed-to-be) University, Mumbai for providing
necessary facilities to conduct the experiment.
Abbreviations
MEAV- Methanolic Extract of Adhatoda vasica,
MEMP- Methanolic Extract of Mentha piperita.
Cite this article as: Sateesh Belemkar, Sanket A Thakre,
Muslim Khurshid Pata. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory
and Analgesic Activities of Methanolic Extract of
Adhatoda vasica
Nees and
Mentha piperita
Linn. Inventi
Rapid: Ethnopharmacology, 2013(2): 1-6, 2013.
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... Using acetic acid-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests, Kehili et al. have proved the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of peppermint essential oil in rats [8]. Also, Belemkar and colleagues have shown analgesic effects of Mentha piperita methanolic extract by both the hot-plate and tail immersion tests in rats [9]. A study showed that topical application of a cream containing Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum camphora, and Pinus roxburghii essential oil reduces pain and swelling in patients with osteoarthritis [10]. ...
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... In Siddha treatment these three ingredients have been used extensively for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as cold, cough, whooping cough, chronic bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Aadathodai has its own Anti-viral property (9), Antiasthmatic, Bronchodilator activity, Anti-tubercular activity, Anti-bacterial activity (10 -11), Antipyretic Activity (12). Seenthil has its own Antiviral property (13), Immunomodulatory activity (14), Anti-malarial, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Immunomodulatory properties (15). ...
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... Different plants are rich source of chemical substance that is helpful for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments. The AdhatodaVesica and many others species contain high quantity of secondary metabolites, especially Vitamin C, used against for the treatment of various biological activity includes anti-pyretic, anti-diabetic and oxytoxic 13 . About 40% of medicines that are use for the curing of dangerous diseases have plant origins. ...
Chapter
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