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EM and VAM Technology in Pakistan V: Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to co-inoculation of effective microorganisms (EM) and VA mycorrhiza under allelopathic stress

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... Several researchers have conducted studies on EM treatments. Bajwa et al. (1999) reported that EM treatments improved efficiency of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Kafkas and Ortaş (2009) indicated that VAM fungi treatments promoted phosphorus uptakes from the soils. ...
... In various studies to date, Bajwa et al. (1999) found that EM applications increased root growth and promoted growth and development under stress conditions, and in another study, Setiawan et al. (2016) determined that it increased the number of branches and fruit yield in pepper cultivation. However, no study has been found in the literature on the effects of EM applications on seed yield and quality in pepper cultivation. ...
... Based on previous literatures (Bajwa et al. 1999;Setiawan et al. 2016), effective microorganism (EM) treatments containing Pseudomanas spp, Rhizobium spp, Azotobacter spp, Bacillus spp, Serratia spp, Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp were selected as 0, 2 and 3 L da -1 EM and EM + N (with and without N fertilizer). EM fertilizer treatments were applied in 3 periods starting from the initiation of flowering in 20-day intervals as to cover the entire plant. ...
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As in Turkey, pepper is among the most widely produced and consumed plant species worldwide. Plant nutrients and fertilization programs have significant effects on seed yield and quality of peppers. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of effective microorganism (EM) treatments and nitrogen fertilization on seed yield and quality parameters of peppers. Kandil Dolma and Yalova Çorbacı pepper cultivars commonly grown in Turkey were used as the plant material of the experiments. Three different EM treatments (0, 2 and 3 L da−1 EM) with and without N fertilizer were used. The greatest seed yield of both cultivars (68.57 kg da−1 in Kandil Dolma and 94.90 kg da−1 in Yalova Çorbacı) were obtained from 3 L EM + 2.60 kg da −1 N treatments. EM treatments increased germination ratio of Yalova Çorbacı, but the differences in mean germination times were not found to be significant. Germination index, an indicator of seed performance, increased with EM treatments in both cultivars.
... Research about EM has demonstrated their effectiveness in improving soil characteristics and promoting organic matter degradation in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, literature has reported advantageous results of EM culture use, such as biological control for diseases (BEEVI & QUADRI, 2010), better nutrient absorption by plants (HU & QI, 2013), enhanced association between plants and mycorrhizae (BAJAWA et al., 1999), higher crop production (KHALIQ et al., 2006), and efficient domestic sewage treatment (NAMSIVAYAM et al., 2011;SHALABY, 2011). Brazilian agriculturists who have used EM culture have noticed an increase of organic matter degradation in the soil (ANDRADE, 2011). ...
... Research about EM has demonstrated their effectiveness in improving soil characteristics and promoting organic matter degradation in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, literature has reported advantageous results of EM culture use, such as biological control for diseases (BEEVI & QUADRI, 2010), better nutrient absorption by plants (HU & QI, 2013), enhanced association between plants and mycorrhizae (BAJAWA et al., 1999), higher crop production (KHALIQ et al., 2006), and efficient domestic sewage treatment (NAMSIVAYAM et al., 2011;SHALABY, 2011). Brazilian agriculturists who have used EM culture have noticed an increase of organic matter degradation in the soil (ANDRADE, 2011). ...
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Soil micro-organisms called Effective Microorganisms (EM) were first cultivated and used in the 1970s. Researches about these cultures have since then demonstrated their effectiveness in improving soil characteristics and as an alternative for accelerating organic matter decomposition in waste treatment systems. The objective of this study was to test whether the addition of EM to substrates incubated in anaerobic digesters would increase the efficiency of waste treatment and biogas production. EM cultures were obtained from bacterial colonies captured within the A-horizon of a Brazilian forest soil. They were left to grow during 15 days on cooked rice contact with the soil; afterwards, the established colonies were separated according to their colors, discarding all shades of black, gray and white, according to recommendations from related literature. Remaining colonies were further grown in sugarcane broth medium for 18 days, being this the final EM culture. Twelve bench digesters were used, each with a total capacity for three liters. The experiment was composed by four treatments consisting of different concentrations of EM inoculum [15% (T1), 10% (T2), 1% (T3) and 0% (T4)] applied to dairy cattle manure, with three replications per treatment. Anaerobic digestion was carried out under controlled temperature (35oC) over 99 days. Data collected included concentrations of total, fixed and volatile solids (TS, FS and VS), pH and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The pH of the EM inoculum was 3.34 and COD was 24.25 mg L-1. The best reduction efficiencies for COD and TS removal were 79.44% and 42.50%, respectively, in T4. Among the treatments with EM addition, 1% (T3) resulted in better COD reduction. The maximum accumulated biogas production was 20.60 L biogas L substrate-1, also for T3. In conclusion, EM as an inoculum in low concentrations may be advantageous to anaerobic digestion.
... Research about EM has demonstrated their effectiveness in improving soil characteristics and promoting organic matter degradation in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, literature has reported advantageous results of EM culture use, such as biological control for diseases (BEEVI & QUADRI, 2010), better nutrient absorption by plants (HU & QI, 2013), enhanced association between plants and mycorrhizae (BAJAWA et al., 1999), higher crop production (KHALIQ et al., 2006), and efficient domestic sewage treatment (NAMSIVAYAM et al., 2011;SHALABY, 2011). Brazilian agriculturists who have used EM culture have noticed an increase of organic matter degradation in the soil (ANDRADE, 2011). ...
... Research about EM has demonstrated their effectiveness in improving soil characteristics and promoting organic matter degradation in wastewater treatment systems. In addition, literature has reported advantageous results of EM culture use, such as biological control for diseases (BEEVI & QUADRI, 2010), better nutrient absorption by plants (HU & QI, 2013), enhanced association between plants and mycorrhizae (BAJAWA et al., 1999), higher crop production (KHALIQ et al., 2006), and efficient domestic sewage treatment (NAMSIVAYAM et al., 2011;SHALABY, 2011). Brazilian agriculturists who have used EM culture have noticed an increase of organic matter degradation in the soil (ANDRADE, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
In the 1970's the Japanese horticulturist and researcher Dr. Teruo Higa, initiated the use of a culture of microorganisms beneficial to soil, which he named "Effective Microorganisms" (EM). Currently, research about this culture have not only demonstrated its effectiveness in improving soil characteristics, but also as an alternative way to accelerate the degradation of organic matter in waste treatment systems. That is, it can be inferred that the use of an established culture of microorganisms must accelerate and/or improve the process of digestion of an organic material. Starting from the principle proven in several scientific surveys, that the addition of inoculum to substrate in anaerobic digestion in digesters, increases the process efficiency, the main objective of this study was to test the EM culture, as inoculum, influencing the efficiency of waste treatment and the biogas production. The culture of EM, prepared for this work, was obtained from the colonies captured on the "A horizon" of a forest soil (secondary forest, the Atlantic Forest biome, Brazil) where it was placed cooked rice in contact with the ground, during 15 days. After that, the established colonies were separated according their colors; being discarded all shades of black, gray and white. The selected ones were reproduced in a sugarcane broth medium for 15 days in order to compose the EM. Twelve bench digesters were used, with a total capacity of three liters of substrate, each one. The treatments consisted of different additions of EM (concentrations of 15 %(T1)-, 10 % (T2), 1%(T3) and 0 %(T4), as inoculum, to the substrates composed of dairy cattle waste, with three replications each one, being digested under controlled temperature (35°C). The collected data refer to the characteristics of the effluent, inoculum and influent, such as concentrations of total, fixed and volatile solids (TS, VS and FS), pH and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The pH of the EM was 3.34 and its COD was 24, 250 mg. L-1. The accumulated biogas production was 20.601 L biogas per L substrate for 73. The efficiency removing COD and TS were 79.44% and 42.50%, respectively for T4. It was concluded that, aiming energetic improvement, small concentration of EM in the substrate, may be advantageous to the anaerobic digestion.
... Незважаючи на наявність великої кількості відомостей про фітотоксичні властивості фенольних алелопатично активних сполук, можливості подолання їх негативного ефекту дослідники приділяють незначну увагу. Вімомо, що інокуляція коренів рослин деякими мікроорганізмами й мікоризоутворювальними грибами може підвищувати їх толерантність до фітотоксичних алелохімікатів [6]. ...
... When effective micro-organisms cultures are applied to the soil they stimulate the decomposition of organic wastes and residues thereby releasing inorganic nutrients for plant uptake. Majority of the scientists who are engaged in promoting this technology have no doubt that plant growth is just as good or batter and quality of plant products is superior to conventional farming (Bajwa et al., 1999a;Iwaishi, 2000;Xu et al., 2000;Javaid, 2006). However, experiences of some workers revealed that the effect of effective microorganisms on crop yield was usually not evident or even negative particularly in the first test crop (Javaid et al., 2008). ...
Article
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EM (effective microorganisms) is a commercial biofertilizer mainly consists of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of EM application and two strains of nitrogen fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (TAL- 102 and MN-S) on plant growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] in different soil amendment systems including unamended soil, farmyard manure (FYM) @ 5 g 100 g -1 , Trifolium alexandrinum green manure (GM) @ 4 g 100 g -1 and recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. Nodule number was significantly enhanced by inoculation of either of the two B. japonicum strains in NPK and un-amended soils. A marked increase in nodule biomass was also recorded due to B. japonicum inoculation in these 2 types of soils. Grain yield was significantly increased by 46% due to either of the two B. japonicum strains in NPK amended soil. EM application markedly enhanced nodule number in FYM amended soil. Conversely, EM application in combination with either of the two B. japonicum strains resulted in pronounced reduction both in number and biomass of nodules in NPK fertilizers amendment. EM application significantly enhanced grain yield by 48% in NPK amendment without B. japonicum inoculation.
... The impacts of Rhizo vital 42 and EM treatments on root development were also investigated in this study and the effects of EM treatments were found to be significant. Bajwa et al. (1999) reported that EM treatments increased the effects of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) colonization in chick pea (Cicer arietinum). Increased phosphorus and other nutrient uptakes through VAM colonization were also reported by other researchers (Graham and Menge, 1982;Smith et al., 1992). ...
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Abstract In this study, the effects of organic fertilizers on internal quality and rooting of snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) were investigated. Seedlings of ‘White Rocket’, ‘Rocket Gold’, ‘Orchid’, ‘Red Stone’ and ‘Red Rocket’ species were transplanted into 12 L pots filled with 1:1 sand: soil mixture at the beginning of March 2011. Two different liquid biological fertilizers were used. The first one is the Effective Microorganisms (EM®) consisting of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum), photosynthesis bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris) and fermentation bacteria (Saccharomyces cervisiae); the second one is Rhizo Vital 42® consisting of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens bacteria. The physiological quality of the petals was investigated. With regard to petal P-dissipation values, while EM treatments yielded almost identical results with the control treatment, Rhizo Vital 42 treatments had lower yield values than the control treatment. Both organic fertilizer treatments improved rooting and effects of EM treatments on rooting were found to be significant. Biophoton measurements were also performed over the petals and photoluminescence values of fertilizer treatments of all species were found to be lower than the control plants. In other words, organic fertilizer treatments improved the quality by decreasing the stress levels in petals. © 2016 Friends Science Publishers Keywords: Dissipation value; Biophoton emission; Effective microorganisms; Rhizo Vital 42
... Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are a unique example of symbiosis between two eukaryotes, soil fungi and plants. This association induces important physiological changes in each partner that lead to reciprocal benefits, mainly in nutrient supply (Bajwa et al., 1999;Balestrini & Lanfranco 2006;Jalaluddin et al., 2008). These fungi have been reported of much wider occurrence than had been considered earlier . ...
Article
The burning of crop straw or vegetable remains is a traditional agricultural practice in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Present study reveals that the crop straw /veg remain burning practices in urban Pakistan is a growing threat to the biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in the region. The study reports that some of the species of AM fungi use these plant portions as their ecological niches and categorically sporulate in decaying sheathing leaf bases/non root portions like scale-leaves of cereal crops and vegetables. This includes species of Glomus, Sclerosystis and Acaulospora. Setting the left over plant materials into fire has lead to complete burning of the biomass into ashes and sterilization of upper 10-15cm of surface soil (Fig. 1). This practice if continues may totally eliminate the threatened species like Glomus monosporum, Acaulospora bireticulta and Sclerocystis pakistanica. Fig. 1. Wheat fields around university campus set on post harvest fires.
... Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) is mutualistic symbiont that is ubiquitous in roots of vascular plants in nature (Bajwa et al., 1999). There are various benefits of VAM in combination with phosphate solubilizing bacteria to plants since they impart nutrient absorption, stimulation of growth regulatory substances, osmotic adjustments under drought stress, enhancement of nitrogen fixation by symbiotic bacteria, increase resistance to soil pathogens and tolerance to environmental stresses (Bethlenfalvay and Linderman, 1992). ...
Article
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Phosphorous (P) is an essential macronutrient required by the plants for their vital functions such as photosynthesis, proteins and nucleic acid production, nitrogen fixation, formation of oil, sugars, starches etc. It is also the part of all biogeochemical cycles in plants. It is least mobile element which is available to plants as phosphate anion. P in precipitated form i.e. Orthophosphate (H 2 PO 4 -1 or HPO 4 2-), is absorbed by Fe 3+ , Ca 2+ or Al 3+ oxides in soil through legend exchange. A large amount of P applied as a fertilizer becomes immobile through precipitation reaction with highly reactive and Fe 3+ in the acidic, and + in calcareous or normal soils. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as inoculants in soil increases the phosphorous uptake by the plants and also the crop yield. The ability of phosphate solubilizing bacteria to convert insoluble form of phosphorous into soluble one is an important trait in sustainable farming for increasing crops yield. PSB play an important role in enhancing phosphorous availability to plants by lowering soil pH and by microbial production of organic acids and mineralization of organic P by acid phosphatases. These organisms besides providing P also facilitate the growth of plants by improving the uptake of nutrients and stimulating the production of some phytohormones. PSB have high potential as bio-fertilizers especially in P-deficient soils to enhance the growth and yield performance of crops. The present article describes the progress of research on this area and future insights about use of PSB in agriculture.
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Experiment is about the inhibitory and Cicer arietinum stimulatory allelopathic effect of seedling and germination of wheat Triticum aestivum (L) and chickpea (L) with 8 treatments In which the root length of chickpea 2% solution of Euclyptus water Extract (T 4) shows stimulatory effect and the remaining treatments shows inhibitory effect as shown " in tables. By applying treatments, the shoot fresh weight of chickpea in 2% solution of Euclyptus water extract (T 4) also performs well as compared to others, as shown in tables. But in shoot dry weight of chickpea, the treatment under control (T 1) , 2% solution of euclyptus water extract (T 4), 2.5% solution of euclyptus water extract (T 5) and 5ppm of BAP solution (T 7) performed satisfactory results as compared to other treatments, as shown in tables. In the root fresh weight of chickpea, 1.5% solution of Euclyptus water Extract (T 3) performs healthy as compared to other treatments, as shown in tables and in root dry weight of chickpea, 5ppm of BAP solution (T 7) shown acceptable results as compared to other treatments, as shown in tables. However, In case of final leaves of chickpea the 5PPM of BAP solution (8 th) treatment performed superior then others, as shown in tables. Allelopathy shows the effect like inhibition of seed germination, seedling growth and alternation in physiology of seed germination. However in root length of wheat 1% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract (T 2) performed better as compared to other applied treatments, as shown in tables. Similarly, in shoot fresh weight 1% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract (T 2) also gives good results as compared to remaining treatments, as shown in tables. But in case of shoot dry weight the treatment 2.5% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract (T 5) performed superior as compared to other treatments as shown in tables. In root fresh weight the treatment 1% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract (T 2) performe healthy as compared to control treatment (T o) and other remaining treatments, as shown in tables. In root dry weight treatment 3% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract T 6 performed very well as compared to other treatments, as shown in table. According to the performed experimental results treatment1.5% solution of Euclyptus Water Extract and 5ppm of BAP solution T 3 , T 7 shows satisfactory results as compared to other treatments, as shown in table.
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations have now been recognized having a cosmopolitan and ubiquitous occurrence forming with the roots and underground portions of plants. AM associations have been reported to enhance plant vigor by enabling them to absorb more nutrients. The thread like hyphae of the fungi work as conduits for pumping essential nutrients into the plant body, thereby imparting plant ample amount of resistance to combat with the soil born and other diseases. Due to these promising features of AM, they are being widely used as biological fertilizer at commercial level in many countries of the world and it has considerable practical significance in sustainable agricultural practices. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. All rights reserved.
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