Article

Comparison of the two fully automated anti-HCMV IgG assays: abbott Architect CMV IgG assay and Biotest anti-HCMV recombinant IgG ELISA

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Abstract

To assess the performance characteristics of two fully automated human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antibody tests. Samples from negatively or not pre-screened blood donors were tested by the Biotest anti-HCMV recombinant IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in comparison to the Abbott Architect CMV IgG assay [chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA)]. For clarification, samples with discordant results between both assays were subjected to supplemental testing for anti-HCMV IgG, IgM and HCMV DNA in plasma. From 4938 samples tested, 362 delivered positive results in both assays (7·3%). 91 (1·8%) samples were discordant. Of 43 (two not further tested) samples positive only by ELISA, 41 were false positive, one true positive and one indeterminate. Of 45 (one not further tested) samples positive only by CMIA, 20 were false positive, 9 indeterminate and 16 true positive. Anti-HCMV IgM and HCMV DNA testing from the plasma were negative in indeterminate samples. Considering the results of supplemental testing, the CMIA achieved altogether better results concerning resolved sensitivity, resolved specificity as well as negative predictive value. Both assays had an inferior positive predictive value, with a better result for CMIA. Overall, the performance characteristics of the CMIA were better than those of the ELISA. Owing to the inferior positive predictive value, positive test results require confirmation if blood products from donors with remote HCMV infection should be administered.

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... Estudios han observado que el seguimiento con títulos de IgG frecuentemente no logran determinar el momento de la infección ya que en la mayoría de los casos ya se ha alcanzado el plateau en la primera determinación 36 . Es importante considerar que si bien, la sensibilidad y especificidad de la IgG es alta (97-100%), tiene baja concordancia entre los diferentes tipos de test comerciales por lo que no se deben comparar determinaciones realizadas con diferentes técnicas de laboratorio 37 Test de avidez: Se recomienda realizar si tanto la IgG como IgM están positivas ya que es útil para diferenciar la primoinfección de la infección no primaria. Los anticuerpos con baja avidez son más fácilmente disociados del complejo que aquellos con alta avidez; un test de baja avidez indica infección reciente (últimos 3-4 meses) y uno con alta avidez indica infección antigua (> 5 meses). ...
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The Chilean Society of Infectology, through its Neonatal Infections Committee in conjunction with the Chilean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, propose a document for the Diagnosis and Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnant Woman and Newborn Infant. This guideline suggests the management of mother and child infection, its diagnostic and therapeutic options. Considers the global and Latin American epidemiology, with recommendations for clinical and laboratory evaluation; diagnostic criteria, therapeutic approaches according to the clinical situation, analyzes prevention measures and establishes a national proposal for monitoring this disease.
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As cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is frequently detectable in the plasma of recently infected sero-positive blood donors, information concerning primary CMV infection is important for the identification of possibly infectious donors. Monitoring of 17 982 donors for CMV antibodies and DNA in plasma identified 14 subjects with ongoing primary CMV infection. Thirteen donors were interrogated for possible sources of infection and CMV-related symptoms, and monitored for CMV antigens, CMV DNA in plasma, leucocytes and urine, course of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as markers of systemic infection and parameters of organ function. CMV antigens and DNA were detectable in peripheral blood for up to 54 and 269 days respectively. Clearance of CMV DNA from blood correlated with clearance of IgM antibodies, development of IgG antibodies against the membrane glycoprotein gB and development of high avidity IgG antibodies. Eighty-five percent of subjects with primary CMV infection, but even 69% of matched controls reported possibly CMV-related symptoms. Sixty-two and 23%, respectively, had contact with possible sources of infection. One donor developed a febrile illness accompanied by increased levels of CMV DNA in peripheral blood 2 to 3 weeks after seroconversion. In other donors, neither markers of systemic infection nor parameters of organ function correlated with the course of CMV DNA and antigens. Potentially infectious donors can be identified by measuring CMV DNA, IgM antibodies or avidity of IgG antibodies. Alternatively, blood products donated during the first year after seroconversion should not be used for immunocompromised patients.
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) transfusion-transmitted disease (TTD) remains a clinical concern. Universal leukoreduction has become one of the main strategies for the prevention of CMV-TTD. Through prospective clinical follow-up and testing of transfusion recipients (TRs), the risk for CMV-TTD was studied. Transfused units were all leukoreduced and not prospectively screened for CMV. For TRs with negative baseline CMV testing results (CMV total antibody and DNA), all follow-up TR samples were tested for CMV total antibody and DNA, and retained linked donor serum samples were tested for CMV total antibody. In cases when CMV-TTD was suspected, donor sera were also tested for CMV DNA and selected TR samples were tested for CMV immunoglobulin M antibody. Evaluable transfusion was defined as a transfusion with TR sample(s) collected 14 to 180 days posttransfusion. Forty-six TRs were negative for CMV at baseline. There were 1316 evaluable cellular blood transfusions to these TRs. Of 1316 evaluable cellular products, 460 (35%) were positive for CMV total antibody tested using linked donor samples. Three cases of probable CMV-TTD were found; however, there was no definitive proof from donor follow-up that they were transfusion associated. Among all 46 baseline seronegative recipients and 1316 evaluable transfusions, the calculated overall CMV-TTD risk was up to 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-18.0%) in terms of TRs and up to 0.23% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.62%) in terms of non-CMV-screened leukoreduced cellular products. In summary, after universal leukoreduction, CMV-TTD, while uncommon, may still occur.
Article
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody donor screening assays have predominantly included both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection. However, since in the majority of cases both CMV IgG and IgM are detected concomitantly during early seroconversion, CMV assays based only on IgG are now widely applied for donor screening. The performance of an automated microparticle CMV IgG assay (Abbott AxSYM CMV IgG microparticle enzyme immunoassay [MEIA]) was compared with an established total antibody blood screening assay (Abbott CMV Total AB EIA). Sensitivity and specificity were assessed using 5050 random blood donors and 13 seroconversion panels. A risk analysis was undertaken to estimate the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV) from presumptive seronegative blood components. The EIA achieved marginally (but not significantly) better resolved sensitivity (100%) than the AxSYM IgG assay (99.93%). The AxSYM IgG resolved specificity (99.34%) was superior to the EIA (96.4%). This superiority was maintained (98.61%) when a modified cutoff was applied to the AxSYM IgG assay to achieve 100 percent resolved sensitivity. The seroconversion sensitivities of the EIA and the AxSYM IgG were equivalent, detecting the same bleed as positive in the majority of the seroconversion panels tested. The median TT-CMV residual risk estimate for the two assays was approximately 1 in 66,000 (range, 42,000-165,000). The AxSYM IgG MEIA is suitable for blood donor screening and was optimized by applying a modified cutoff of 9 AU per mL. The modeling predicts that implementing the AxSYM IgG assay would not negatively impact the already very low risk of TT-CMV associated with seronegative blood components in Australia.
Article
In an attempt to prevent primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation, we randomly assigned 97 patients who were seronegative for antibody to cytomegalovirus before transplantation to receive one of the following: (1) both intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin and seronegative blood products (23 patients); (2) seronegative blood products alone (28 patients); (3) globulin alone (22 patients); or (4) neither treatment (24 patients). Patients not assigned to receive seronegative blood products received unscreened blood products from random donors. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection according to study group among patients in the study for at least 62 days was 5 percent, 13 percent, 24 percent, and 40 percent, respectively. Among 57 patients with seronegative marrow donors, those who received seronegative blood products had significantly less infection (1 of 32) than those who received standard blood products (8 of 25, P less than 0.007). In contrast, the use of seronegative blood products did not appear to prevent cytomegalovirus infection among patients with seropositive marrow donors. The possibility that cytomegalovirus immune globulin as used in this study can prevent cytomegalovirus infection or ameliorate cytomegalovirus disease was not confirmed, and it cannot be recommended for routine use without additional study.
Article
We performed a prospective, randomized trial in CMV seronegative marrow recipients to determine if filtered blood products were as effective as CMV-seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted CMV infection after marrow transplant. Before transplant, 502 patients were randomized to receive either filtered or seronegative blood products. Patients were monitored for the development of CMV infection and tissue-documented CMV disease between days 21 and 100 after transplant. Infections occurring after day 21 from transplant were considered related to the transfusion of study blood products and, thus, were considered evaluable infections for the purpose of this trial. In the primary analysis of evaluable infections, there were no significant differences between the probability of CMV infection (1.3% v 2.4%, P = 1.00) or disease (0% v 2.4%, P = 1.00) between the seronegative and filtered arms, respectively, or probability of survival (P = .6). In a secondary analysis of all infections occurring from day 0 to 100 post-transplant, although the infection rates were similar, the probability of CMV disease in the filtered arm was greater (2.4% v 0% in the seronegative arm, P = .03). However, the disease rate was still within the prestudy clinically defined acceptable rate of < or = 5%. We conclude that filtration is an effective alternative to the use of seronegative blood products for prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection in marrow transplant patients.
Article
Timely and rapid diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is important for the management of transplant patients. We compared three serological assays, IgM immunoblot and IgG/IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA), as well as the detection of CMV antigens in polymorphonuclear blood leukocytes (antigenemia), for their value in the early diagnosis of CMV infection. Thirty-one patients were monitored longitudinally for 3 months after renal transplantation. Laboratory documented CMV infection occurred in 20 patients. All of these cases showed a positive IgM immunoblot result that was confirmed by at least one of the other test assays (IgG EIA 19/20, antigenemia assay 13/20, and IgM EIA 12/20). All of the ten patients whose clinical picture was compatible with symptomatic CMV disease were positive for CMV infection according to IgM immunoblot and IgG EIA, nine were positive according to the antigenemia assay, and seven were positive according to IgM EIA. With reference to the temporal pattern, the antigenemia assay indicated CMV infection significantly earlier than the serological tests (P < or = 0.05). In symptomatic patients CMV antigen-positive leukocytes were, on the average, detected on the day of onset of symptoms, whereas detection by IgM immunoblot, IgG EIA, and IgM EIA followed 8, 13, and 14 days later, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Monocytes are suggested to harbor latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) in peripheral blood, which concurs with the finding that all CMV-susceptible cells carry the CD13 surface molecule. Here, we investigated whether all latently and productively CMV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could be eliminated by depletion of CD13-expressing cells. Depletion of CD13-positive cells was performed with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic cell separation (MACS) beads followed by MACS. CMV DNA and cDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers for two CMV genes, major immediate early and phosphoprotein 150. The presence of infectious virus was tested by incubating homogenized in vitro- or in vivo-infected PBMCs with human fibroblasts. CMV infection of fibroblasts was detected by intracellular expression of CMV proteins. Elimination of CD13-positive PBMCs removed productively in vitro- and in vivo-infected cells, as demonstrated by detection of infectious virus only in PBMC fractions containing CD13-positive cells. In support of this finding, CMV RNA was not detected in pure CD13-negative cell fractions. Furthermore, CMV DNA was found exclusively in CD13-positive PBMCs obtained from patients with acute CMV infection. Our data suggest that CMV replicates exclusively in CD13-positive PBMCs. These findings have important clinical applications, because the elimination of CD13-positive cells may reduce the risk for transmission of latent CMV in blood products and bone marrow grafts and thereby also decrease the risk for CMV-induced complications, such as chronic graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplant patients.
Article
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus which can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Its seroprevalence in adults ranges from 40% to 100% depending on geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Seropositive individuals have latent CMV infection with viral DNA present in peripheral blood leucocytes. CMV can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in susceptible individuals, e.g. CMV-seronegative bone marrow allograft patients. Evidence, from a number of reports, suggests that provision of leucodepleted blood components may be as effective as the use of components from CMV-seronegative donors in preventing CMV infection and disease. This is relevant in the UK because Blood Transfusion Services are implementing universal leucodepletion of cellular blood components to minimize the theoretical risk of transmission of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This review examines data on the biology of CMV, discusses options for testing and summarizes the impact of CMV-seronegative and leucodepleted blood components on transfusion-transmitted CMV.
Article
Both CMV-seronegative blood and unscreened, filtered blood carry a low but definite risk of transmitting CMV infection. To explain this residual risk, evidence of cell-free viremia was sought in seroconverting and seroprevalent blood donors and seroconverting transfusion recipients by means of a plasma-based assay for CMV DNA. A CMV DNA PCR assay (COBAS Amplicor CMV Monitor, Roche) was used to detect CMV DNA in 384 paired plasma samples from 192 donors who seroconverted to anti-CMV, 488 anti-CMV EIA-positive samples from 60 seroprevalent donors, and 113 serial samples from 11 seroconverting recipients with posttransfusion CMV hepatitis. Three of 384 samples from 192 seroconverting donors had low levels of plasma CMV DNA (400-1600 copies/mL); one donor was positive before seroconversion, and the other two, after seroconversion. None of the 488 serial samples from 60 anti-CMV- positive donors contained CMV DNA in plasma. Three of 11 recipients demonstrated transient plasma viremia that temporally coincided with seroconversion. Plasma CMV DNA was detected in a small percentage of seroconverting blood donors and a larger percentage of recipients but was undetectable in seroprevalent donors. Plasma viremia in seroconverting donors may partially explain the low residual risk of CMV transmission by both CMV-seronegative and WBC-reduced seropositive blood.
Article
The question whether the use of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative versus white blood cell (WBC)reduced blood components is equally efficacious in preventing transfusion-acquired CMV infection remains unresolved. A total of 829 recipients of CMV-seronegative components were followed in 11 studies, and a total of 878 recipients of WBC-reduced components were followed in 12 studies. Twelve (1.45%) of 829 recipients of CMV-seronegative components and 24 (2.73%) of 878 recipients of WBC-reduced components developed CMV infection in these studies. Among bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients, the risk of CMV infection was, respectively, 1.63% (11/674) and 3.01% (21/697). Four of 7 controlled studies of CMV-seronegative components and 1 of 3 controlled studies of WBC-reduced components indicated benefit from these special components compared with CMV-unscreened/ non-WBC-reduced components. One of 3 controlled studies indicated benefit from CMV-seronegative components, as compared with WBC-reduced components. Across a subset of studies whose results were integrated in a meta-analysis, CMV-seronegative or WBC-reduced components were virtually equivalent to each other when they were compared with CMV-unscreened/nonWBC-reduced components. CMV-seronegative components were associated with a 93.1 % reduction in the risk of CMV infection; WBC-reduced components were associated with a 92.3% reduction in risk (summary odds ratio [OR] = 0.069; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037-0.128; P <.05; and summary OR = 0.077; 95% Cl, 0.031-0.190; P<.05, respectively). However, across 3 studies that compared CMV-seronegative and WBC-reduced components to each other, CMV-seronegative components were associated with a 58% reduction in risk (summary OR = 0.42; 95% Cl, 0.22-0.79; P<.05). Thus, a meta-analysis of the available controlled studies indicates that CMV-seronegative blood components are more efficacious than WBC-reduced blood components in preventing transfusion-acquired CMV infection.
Article
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is considered to latently infect blood cells. Transfusion-transmitted infection (TT-CMV) of immunocompromised patients occurs despite the use of CMV-seronegative or leukoreduced units. The prevalence of CMV DNA in plasma was investigated in 82 blood donors who had previously been seronegative for CMV and showed anti-CMV immunoglobulin G for the first time, 598 blood donors who were seropositive for at least 1 year, and 150 seronegative blood donors. In a second part of the study, the overall prevalence of CMV DNA in blood donations was assessed based on 31,745 donations. CMV DNA was repeatedly detected in plasma samples of 44 percent of newly seropositive donors (12%-62%, depending on the interval to the last seronegative donation). All steadily seropositive or seronegative donors were negative for the presence of CMV DNA. Detection of CMV DNA in connection with seroconversion was accompanied by significantly increased neopterin, increased alanine aminotransferase, and reduced white blood cell counts, but the sensitivity of these surrogate markers was only 71 percent. The overall prevalence of CMV DNA in blood products due to primary CMV infection of donors was at least 0.13 percent. Viremia of newly seropositive donors may be an important reason for the residual risk of TT-CMV despite leukoreduction. Furthermore, transfusion of WBC-reduced blood components from seronegative donors could imply a greater risk of TT-CMV than transfusion of WBC-reduced blood from donors who have been seropositive for at least 1 year, because window-phase donations but no reactivation could be detected in this study.
Antigenemia, immunoblotting, and enzyme immunoassay for early diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients
  • Fischer
Bekanntmachung des Paul-Ehrlich-Instituts über die Ergebnisse des Stufenplan-verfahrens zur Einführung der Leukozytendepletion von zellulären Blutprodukten zur Transfusion
  • Paul-Ehrlich-Insitut