Dietary patterns in association with postpartum weight retention
Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 04/2013; 97(6). DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.048702
BACKGROUND: Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) can contribute to obesity development in women of reproductive age. Few studies have examined the association between postnatal diet and PPWR. OBJECTIVE: We examined both PPWR and substantial PPWR (≥4.55 kg) in association with the following dietary patterns: the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). DESIGN: Women (n = 1136) in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007) self-reported their prepregnancy and postpartum weights at ∼4, 7, 10, and 14 mo. Dietary patterns were calculated from a food-frequency questionnaire administered ∼4 mo postpartum. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations for repeated measurements were used to examine PPWR and substantial PPWR, respectively, in association with the dietary patterns with adjustment for energy intake, breastfeeding, age, education, smoking, and marital status. RESULTS: At 14 mo postpartum, the mean (±SD) PPWR was 1.1 ± 6.7 kg, and 22.4% of women had substantial PPWR. Although the change in PPWR over time seemed to differ by diet quality 4-7 mo postpartum, no differences were ultimately observed in the total mean PPWR or probability of substantial PPWR across aMED and AHEI-2010 categories during the rest of the follow-up (P > 0.12). Instead, PPWR and substantial PPWR were associated with total energy intake (at ∼7-14 mo postpartum: 0.97 kg/1000 kcal (95% CI: 0.40, 1.55 kg/1000 kcal); OR: 1.25/1000 kcal (95% CI: 1.03, 1.52/1000 kcal), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum diet quality assessed by 2 patterns was not associated with weight retention. Total energy intake, regardless of the diet composition, plays a more important role in weight retention.
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- "sweetened beverages, French fries and chips, fast food)  after birth is associated with increased postpartum weight retention. In addition, there is one recent longitudinal study showing that diet quality postpartum, assessed by the adherence to either a Mediterranean style diet or the Dietary guidelines for Americans, was not associated with postpartum weight retention . In contrast, Stendell-Hollis et al. found in an interventional trial that adherence to either a Mediterranean style diet or the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) My Pyramid diet supported the promotion of postpartum weight loss  but this study only covers the lactation period. "
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth. This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. >=5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression. In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG. Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention.
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ABSTRACT: Background Long-term obesity after pregnancy is associated with obesity prior to pregnancy and retention of weight postpartum. This study aims to identify socioeconomic differences in prepregnancy body mass index, quantify the impact of prepregnancy obesity on birth outcomes, and identify determinants of postpartum weight retention. Methods A total of 2231 pregnant women, recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland in Australia during antenatal clinic visits, completed a questionnaire to elicit information on demographics, socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics. Perinatal information was extracted from hospital records. A follow-up questionnaire was completed by each participant at 12 months after the birth to obtain the mother’s postpartum weight, breastfeeding pattern, dietary and physical activity characteristics, and the child’s health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to model the association between prepregnancy obesity and outcomes. Results Being overweight or obese prepregnancy was strongly associated with socioeconomic status and adverse behavioural factors. Obese women (18% of the cohort) were more likely to experience gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and their children were more likely to experience intensive- or special-care nursery admission, fetal distress, resuscitation, and macrosomia. Women were more likely to retain weight postpartum if they consumed three or fewer serves of fruit/vegetables per day, did not engage in recreational activity with their baby, spent less than once a week on walking for 30 minutes or more or spent time with friends less than once per week. Mothers who breastfed for more than 3 months had reduced likelihood of high postpartum weight retention. Conclusions Findings provide additional specificity to the increasing evidence of the predisposition of obesity prepregnancy on adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. They may be used to target effective behavioural change interventions to address obesity in women.