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More Frequent Vaginal Orgasm Is Associated with Experiencing Greater Excitement from Deep Vaginal Stimulation

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  • National Institute of Mental Health and Charles University in Prague

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Introduction: Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. Methods: A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. Main outcome measures: The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. Results: VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. Conclusions: The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH—PSYCHOLOGY
More Frequent Vaginal Orgasm Is Associated with Experiencing
Greater Excitement from Deep Vaginal Stimulation
Stuart Brody, PhD,* Katerina Klapilova, PhD,and Lucie Krejcˇová, MSc
*School of Social Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, UK; Department of General Anthropology,
Faculty of Humanities, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12153
ABSTRACT
Introduction. Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile–vaginal intercourse [PVI] without
concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions
resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a
longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep
vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions.
Aims. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep
vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether
vaginal stimulation was present during the woman’s first masturbation.
Methods. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18–36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation
during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites.
Main Outcome Measures. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites
and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation.
Results. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual
arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women’s first masturbation incorporating (or
being exclusively) vaginal stimulation.
Conclusions. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual
readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of
deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different
neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. Brody S,
Klapilova K, and Krejcˇ ová L. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excite-
ment from deep vaginal stimulation. J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736.
Key Words. Sexual Intercourse; Vagina; Vaginal Orgasm; Masturbation; Early Sexual Experience
Introduction
Recent research has shown that stimulation
of the clitoris, distal vagina, and proximal
vagina/cervix is conveyed through different
peripheral nerves (deep vaginocervical stimulation
activates the vagus nerve, among others) and acti-
vate different regions of the somatosensory cortex
of the brain [1,2]. The orgasms induced by clitoral
stimulation and by penile–vaginal intercourse
(PVI) differ in important ways [3–5], including
indices of psychological and physical health, and
sexual function and relationship satisfaction being
associated specifically with PVI [3,6,7]. Notably,
greater likelihood of orgasm from PVI, or more
specifically vaginal orgasm (orgasm elicited solely
by penile–vaginal stimulation without clitoral
masturbation; measured in research studies either
dichotomously as ever having a vaginal orgasm,
or dimensionally as vaginal orgasm consistency
1730
J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736 © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine
[VOC], the percentage of PVI occasions result-
ing in vaginal orgasm) is associated with physi-
ological and self-perceived sexual functioning
within women. Differences have been observed
for measures including: greater tactile sensitivity
[8], higher heart rate variability (an index of
parasympathetic tone relevant to emotional func-
tion, attention, and life expectancy) [9], greater
concordance of vaginal and subjective indices of
sexual arousal [10,11], less functional pelvic mus-
culoskeletal blockage [12], lower likelihood of
developing female sexual arousal disorder [13],
greater satisfaction with sex life and other aspects
of life [14–16], emotional regulation [8,17,18], and
intimate relationship function [7,19].
In addition to the indices of physiological and
perceived sexual functioning present within
women, there is increasing evidence that VOC is
associated with several characteristics of men with
whom women are more likely to have vaginal
orgasm. For example, the men tend to manifest
greater duration and quality of erection [20–22], a
longer penis [22,23], and indices of greater attrac-
tiveness and masculinity [24–26].
The association between penis size and VOC,
together with female preference for longer penises
was confirmed in cross-cultural samples [22,23],
and it is consistent with theories of the possible
adaptive function of vaginal orgasm. Penis size was
found to be positively associated with health-
related cues in men including height, slimness, and
overall physical attractiveness or to 2D:4D digit
ratio indicating a higher level of prenatal testoster-
one exposure (see [23]). Therefore, vaginal orgasm
was proposed as an adaptive mechanism that could
lead to greater reinforcement for PVI with men of
higher quality [23]. Greater sexual responsiveness
in deep vaginal and cervical areas could thus lead
to more frequent PVI and pair-bond quality in
contrast with responsiveness of other vaginal sites
and the area of the clitoris. However, the associa-
tion of VOC and excitability of specific vaginal
regions has not been directly examined. In the
present study, we focus on this topic and examine
whether women’s greater VOC was associated
with greater excitability from deep vaginal stimu-
lation (but not associated with excitability from
clitoral stimulation and with no explicit hypoth-
eses regarding excitability from stimulation of the
vaginal entrance or middle vagina).
Developmental and psychological aspects also
should be considered. Vaginal responsiveness
could be expected to vary across time and age,
owing to many factors including accumulation of
greater sexual experience and positive condition-
ing of vaginal sexual reactions. For example,
greater VOC was found to be associated with
women having been educated in their youth that
the vagina is a source of female orgasm, and those
currently focusing greater mental attention on
vaginal sensations during PVI [22].
Therefore, we also examined whether greater
VOC was associated with having incorporated
vaginal stimulation in the woman’s first masturba-
tion (for those women who ever masturbated) to
explore the role of incorporating the vagina and
thus the potential for sensitization of vaginal areas
in the prediction of VOC.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted in accordance with
the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and
approved by the Institutional Review Board of
Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Prague.
Female participants were recruited via adver-
tisements on the web pages of the university, which
invited women to participate in a study of women’s
sexuality (the present study is one component of an
ongoing research program). The recruitment cri-
teria included: age 18–35 years, with no physical
disabilities and no hormonal, fertility or sexologi-
cal issues. Participants were paid the equivalent of
2 euros to complete the questionnaires. A total of
78 women volunteered for the study. However,
three of them chose not to complete the question-
naires and were thus excluded from the analyses. A
sample size of 75 has over 80% statistical power
[27] to detect a correlation of 0.37 (the medium to
large effect size correlation obtained between
VOC and a personality trait reported in a Journal of
Sexual Medicine study; [17]).
The written questions included items on VOC:
“Have you had a vaginal orgasm (orgasm pro-
duced solely from movements of the penis in your
vagina, without any additional stimulation such as
fingers for the orgasm after foreplay)?”; response
options were: 1 =never, 2 =ever but less than
25% of PVI occasions, 3 =25% to 50%, 4 =50%
to 75%, and 5 =75% to 100%), age, sexual arous-
ability (rated on a visual analog scale from
1=low/none to 7 =very high; the scale was
inspired by a scale developed by Kratochvíl [28])
from deep vaginal stimulation, middle vaginal
stimulation, shallow vaginal stimulation (vaginal
entrance), and clitoral stimulation (a diagram was
provided to indicate the regions), and whether
their lifetime first masturbation involved only
Deep Vaginal Excitement 1731
J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736
clitoral stimulation, only vaginal opening stimula-
tion, only deep vaginal stimulation, or both clito-
ral and vaginal stimulations (nine women who
reported never masturbating were excluded from
the masturbation analyses).
Pearson correlations were conducted between
VOC, age, and sexual arousability during stimula-
tion of clitoris, shallow vagina, middle vagina, deep
vagina/cervix. In addition, a multiple regression
(backward elimination method) was conducted
with the dependent variable of VOC and candidate
predictor variables of age, and sexual arousability
at each of the four genital sites. Analysis of cova-
riance (ancova) was conducted with VOC as the
dependent variable, and whether the vagina was
stimulated during first masturbation as the inde-
pendent variable (the various combinations involv-
ing vaginal stimulation were collapsed, due to
small cell sizes; see below for details) and age as a
covariate. SPSS for Windows version 13.0 (SPSS
Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analyses.
Results
Table 1 provides a summary of age and sexual
experience-related variables. All participants were
university students, Czech or Slovak citizens
(studying and living in Prague at the time of the
study), and 65.3% were living in a long-term rela-
tionship. The results exclude the two women who
never had PVI. The VOC distribution was: never:
31%; 1–24% of PVI occasions: 29%; 25–50% of
PVI occasions: 18%; 51–75% of PVI occasions:
14%; and 76–100% of PVI occasions: 8%. Seventy
of the women had experience with masturbation. At
first masturbation, 61.5% stimulated only their cli-
toris, 3.8% stimulated only their vaginal opening,
3.8% stimulated deep in their vagina, and 9%
stimulated both their clitoris and vagina.
Table 2 presents the bivariate associations
between VOC, age, and sexual arousability during
stimulation of clitoris, shallow vagina, middle
vagina, and deep vagina/cervix. VOC was signifi-
cantly associated only with sexual arousability
during stimulation of the deep vagina (deep
vaginal sexual arousability was also associated with
sexual arousability at the other vaginal sites but not
the clitoris). Sexual arousability during stimulation
of the shallow vagina was associated with sexual
arousability during stimulation of the three other
genital sites, and sexual arousability during stimu-
lation of the middle vagina was associated with the
other vaginal sites but not the clitoris (there was a
trend toward association with age as well).
A multiple regression (backward elimination
method) was also conducted with the dependent
variable of VOC and candidate predictor variables
of age, and sexual arousability at each of the four
genital sites. Again, only sexual arousability during
stimulation of the deep vagina was associated with
VOC (beta =0.354, P=0.002).
In the ancova examining the association of
VOC with whether genital site stimulated during
lifetime first masturbation included the vagina
(with the covariate of age), there was a significant
Table 1 Sample characteristics
N Mean SD
Age 75 22.8 3.7
Age at first masturbation 66 12.3 3.9
Age at first intercourse (range: 14–22) 73 16.8 1.7
Number of sexual partners (range: 1–100) 73 6.7 12.6
Sexual arousability during stimulation of
clitoris
73 5.64 1.87
Sexual arousability during stimulation of
shallow vagina
73 4.67 1.77
Sexual arousability during stimulation of
middle vagina
73 4.21 1.41
Sexual arousability during stimulation of
deep vagina
73 4.52 1.72
Table 2 Bivariate associations between vaginal orgasm consistency (VOC), age, and sexual arousability (SA) perceived
during stimulation of clitoris, shallow vagina, middle vagina, and deep vagina/cervix
SA in shallow
vagina
SA in middle
vagina
SA in deep
vagina
SA in
clitoris Age
VOC r 0.130 0.115 0.354 -0.082 0.168
p 0.277 0.336 0.002 0.492 0.159
SA in shallow vagina r 0.365 0.298 0.245 -0.072
p— 0.001 0.011 0.037 0.544
SA in middle vagina r 0.235 0.054 0.228
p—0.046 0.649 0.053
SA in deep vagina r 0.170 0.003
p 0.151 0.982
SA in clitoris r -0.079
p — 0.507
Note: VOC =vaginal orgasm consistency; SA =sexual arousability perceived during stimulation of specified genital site; r =bivariate correlation coefficient;
p=level of statistical significance; all significant results (P<0.05) are in bold
1732 Brody et al.
J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736
overall effect of genital site: F(1, 56) =12.5,
P=0.001, partial eta squared =0.183. The stimu-
lation of clitoris only group (mean 2.1, standard
deviation [SD] 1.2; see Methods for the coding of
the ranges of VOC) had significantly less VOC
than the women with a history of vaginal stimula-
tion (mean 3.6, SD 1.4) at first masturbation. Age
was not a significant covariate. Seventeen partici-
pants left the item on genital site stimulated during
lifetime first masturbation blank, which included
those women who reported never masturbating, as
well as others who might have simply not recalled
the details of their first masturbation.
On an exploratory basis, a multiple regression
was conducted with VOC as the dependent variable
and the independent variables (backward exclusion
method) of age, age at first masturbation, age at first
PVI, sexual arousability at each of the genital sites,
and whether first masturbation included the vagina.
VOC was independently associated (multiple
R=0.61) with inclusion of the vagina at first mas-
turbation (beta =0.41, P=0.001), current deep
vaginal arousability (beta =0.28, P=0.02), and
younger age at first PVI (beta =-0.265, P=0.03).
An additional exploratory analysis examined
the association of genital site at first masturbation
with current sensitivity at the genital sites and
found that only current deep vaginal sensitivity
was significantly [F(1,57) =9.5, P=0.003; partial
eta squared =0.143] related to genital site at first
masturbation (women who stimulated their deep
vagina at first masturbation orgasm have greater
current deep vaginal sensitivity than women
who stimulated only their clitoris at first mastur-
bation orgasm; other comparisons were not
significant).
The final exploratory analysis examined the
association between lifetime number of inter-
course partners and VOC and arousability at the
genital sites. There were no significant correla-
tions with number of partners (all P>0.05). A
log10 transformation [29] of number of partners
correlated significantly only with arousability in
the middle vagina (r=0.25, P<0.05), but this
correlation became nonsignificant when age was
statistically controlled.
Discussion
In both bivariate and multivariate analyses, VOC
was associated with greater perceived sexual arous-
ability during stimulation of the deep vagina but
not with greater sexual arousability at the other
vaginal sites nor at the clitoris. This finding is
consistent with earlier findings that women who
are more likely to have vaginal orgasm have a pref-
erence for a longer penis [22,23] that might more
effectively provide deep vaginal and cervical stimu-
lation, and thus stimulate additional nerves to
those stimulated by middle or shallow vaginal
stimulation, let alone only superficial clitoral
stimulation [2,4]). In an interesting ultrasound
investigation of one couple having PVI in one
position, Buisson et al. [30] found that penile
stimulation of the vagina led to stimulating struc-
tures that could indirectly stimulate areas con-
nected to the clitoris, and in a related study,
ultrasound indicated that perineal contractions
and finger stimulation of the vagina can lead to
clitoral movement [31]. Gravina et al. found that
vaginally orgasmic women had a thicker ure-
throvaginal space, suggesting that more innervated
tissue in the vagina could result in greater likeli-
hood of vaginal orgasm [32]. However at the ulti-
mate level of the brain, Komisaruk et al. [2]
provided clear evidence that in addition to a region
of overlap, different brain regions are activated by
stimulation of clitoris, vagina, and cervix. Our
results indicate that (i) there are differences in
current VOC between women as a function of first
masturbation being at clitoral vs. deep vaginal
sites; and (ii) current VOC being significantly
associated only with sexual arousability perceived
during stimulation of the deep vagina (not with
arousability perceived at the other sites including
the clitoris). Our results also indicate that deep
vaginal sexual arousability is associated with sexual
arousability at the other vaginal sites, but not the
clitoris (implying differential activation). These
results are consistent with the brain imaging dif-
ferences noted by Komisaruk et al. [2], as well as
clinical differences between vaginal orgasm and
clitoral orgasm [4,8,9,17,19,33]. Our finding that
sexual arousability during stimulation of the
shallow vagina was associated with sexual arous-
ability during stimulation of the three other
genital sites is consistent with the findings of
Komisaruk et al. [2] but also not inconsistent with
the finding of Buisson et al. [30,31] because of the
correlation we observed between shallow vaginal
and clitoral arousability. However, as noted, VOC
was not associated with either clitoral or shallow
vaginal arousability.
The results are consistent with an evolutionary
understanding of vaginal orgasm also being an
indicator of quality of the male partner, including
the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm evolved as part
of a female mate choice system favoring somewhat
Deep Vaginal Excitement 1733
J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736
larger than average penises [23,34]. This is a
special case of the concept that women’s orgasm
evolved as a mechanism for mate choice (for a
review of evidence of that general concept, see
[35]). Women who prefer longer penises are more
likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral
orgasms) [23], indicating an orgasm reward system
bound to the one reproductive sexual behavior per
se. Multiple studies found intimate relationship
quality and satisfaction to be associated with
vaginal orgasm [7,13–16,19,36]. Our present study
indicates that deeper vaginal stimulation (as would
more probably occur with a man with a longer
penis) is associated with greater VOC, so at least
one aspect of the higher quality concept is sup-
ported. Moreover, penis length appears to be
related to prenatal and postnatal testosterone
influences [37,38], among other fitness-related
indices [23]. Future empirical research might also
investigate the degree to which the trait preferred
by intersexual selection (e.g., human penis size)
can also be involved in male intrasexual competi-
tion, such as men attempting to ascertain women’s
PVI orgasm or men paying attention to size of
other men’s penises [39]. The associations noted
above between relationship quality and VOC
could be viewed in part as vaginal orgasm being a
genuine interpersonal sexual responsiveness con-
tributing to effective mate retention, and contrast
with women faking orgasm, which is associated
with women’s sexual dysfunction [40].
The finding that sexual arousability during
stimulation of the deep vagina was associated with
sexual arousability at the other vaginal sites, but
not the clitoris, adds to the aforementioned neu-
roanatomical and clinical evidence that vaginal and
clitoral stimulation, arousability, and orgasm
involve different processes.
The majority of women who ever masturbated
stimulated only their clitoris during their first
ever masturbation (the percentage was similar to
the percentage reported at recent masturbation in
a large study of Arab women [41]). Women who
incorporated vaginal stimulation in their first
masturbation (including those who stimulated
exclusively their vagina) had greater VOC as
adults than women who stimulated only their cli-
toris during their lifetime first masturbation. This
result might be due to a combination of several
factors dependent on individual development of
each woman, including: (i) already being aware of
the vagina as a source of female orgasm [22]; (ii)
not having an aversion to stimulation of the
vagina; and (iii) subsequent conditioning to
vaginal as opposed to only clitoral stimulation,
thereby enhancing attention to subsequent PVI
sensation. The latter aspect is consistent with
research that found that women who were edu-
cated in their youth that the vagina (as opposed to
only the clitoris) is a source of women’s orgasm
were more likely to have vaginal orgasm [22], and
the related finding that greater mental attention
by the woman to her vaginal sensations during
PVI is associated with greater VOC [22]. From a
practical point of view, educating young women
that the vagina is a source of women’s orgasm
might possibly improve their likelihood of devel-
oping vaginal sensitivity and attention to vaginal
sensation, possibly supporting intimate relation-
ship functioning.
However, an additional exploratory analysis
found that there were independent contribu-
tions to the statistical prediction of VOC from
incorporation of the vagina into lifetime first
masturbation (for the women who had ever mas-
turbated), younger age at first PVI, and current
greater deep vaginal (but not shallow or middle
vaginal or clitoral) arousability. This (as well as
the other additional exploratory analysis that
found that women who stimulated their deep
vagina at first masturbation have greater current
deep vaginal sensitivity than women who stimu-
lated only their clitoris at first masturbation) sug-
gests that some of the variance in deep vaginal
sensitivity (and thus in VOC) might be due to
prenatal factors [33] (which might involve many
possible pathways, including possibly tactile sen-
sitivity thresholds that are related to PVI orgasm
but not to clitoral orgasm [8]). This could also
support sensitive women being more ready to
have the advantage of reinforcing repeated copu-
lation with favored males. Greater PVI frequency
might also enhance vaginal sensitivity (via positive
learning/conditioning or via learning to pay more
attention to the sensation from the vagina), and
thus might augment the potential to have vaginal
orgasm.
A shortcoming of the study is that it used a
convenience sample of relatively modest size, as
opposed to a large nationally representative sample.
Future studies would optimally use large nationally
representative samples [22,42], which would also
allow for investigation of the possible role of a
stable relationship in these aspects of sexual behav-
ior. Future research might also include collection of
hormonal and biochemical profile data on the par-
ticipants and perhaps query women’s recollections
of their motivations for choice of genital sites at
1734 Brody et al.
J Sex Med 2013;10:1730–1736
their first-ever masturbation (if any). The arous-
ability of various areas of the vagina can be exam-
ined in more detail; for example, the nominal
“G-spot” [43] might be found between the shallow
and middle vaginal regions, so future research
might examine this issue. Our use of ranges for
VOC (rather than a continuous measure) likely led
to an underestimate of the observed associations.
It would be also worthwhile to compare self-
perceived sexual arousability of different vaginal
sites with psychophysiological measures of vaginal
site sensitivity (using appropriate methods based on
pressure rather than superficial stroking) and to
examine effects of differing penis lengths and girths
on women’s VOC [23].
Conclusions
The findings suggest that incorporating the vagina
during early masturbation might indicate indi-
vidual readiness for developing greater vaginal
responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC. The
findings also suggest that current sensitivity and
responsiveness of the cervix and deep vaginal
regions is associated with greater VOC, which
might be due to (at least in part) the different
neurophysiological projections of those regions in
comparison with other genital areas. Therefore,
this study contributes to the growing evidence for
vaginal and clitoral orgasm having different physi-
ological and psychological aspects and ultimate
functions. Finally, it points to the need to make
young women aware of the vagina being a source
of women’s orgasm and of the added value of the
perception of the deep vaginal and cervical sensa-
tion during PVI.
Acknowledgments
This publication was supported by the Ministry of Edu-
cation, Youth and Sports—Institutional Support for
Long-term Development of Research Organizations—
Charles University, Faculty of Humanities (Charles
Univ, Fac Human 2013), the grant SVV-2013-267 702
and Charles University Research Centre (UNCE
204004).
Corresponding Author: Stuart Brody, PhD, School of
Social Sciences, University of the West of Scotland,
Paisley PA1 2BE, UK. Tel: +44 1418494020; Fax: +44-
141-8483891; E-mail: stuartbrody@hotmail.com
Conflict of Interest: The author(s) report no conflicts of
interest.
Statement of Authorship
Category 1
(a) Conception and Design
Stuart Brody; Katerina Klapilova; Lucie Krejcˇ ová
(b) Acquisition of Data
Katerina Klapilova; Lucie Krejcˇ ová
(c) Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Stuart Brody; Katerina Klapilova; Lucie Krejcˇ ová
Category 2
(a) Drafting the Article
Stuart Brody
(b) Revising It for Intellectual Content
Stuart Brody; Katerina Klapilova; Lucie Krejcˇ ová
Category 3
(a) Final Approval of the Completed Article
Stuart Brody; Katerina Klapilova; Lucie Krejcˇ ová
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... Otro tipo de variables personales relacionadas con la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo son las demográficas. Con respecto a la edad, se han encontrado trabajos donde se asocia de forma negativa 23,24 , mientras que otros no encuentran ningún tipo de relación 25 . En cuanto al sexo, el estudio de Mah y Binik 26 indica diferencias significativas, obteniendo las mujeres mayores puntuaciones que los hombres en la valoración de la experiencia orgásmica. ...
... Según la orientación sexual, la frecuencia de la experiencia orgásmica no varía en hombres, mientras que en las mujeres homosexuales dicha experiencia tiene una probabilidad significativamente mayor que en las mujeres heterosexuales y bisexuales 27 . Por otra parte, se pone de manifiesto que la masturbación 25 , las vocalizaciones durante el coito 28 y el visionado de vídeos eróticos 29 se asocian de forma positiva a la experiencia orgásmica. Asimismo, se ha demostrado que hacer ejercicio físico se asocia de forma positiva 16 , mientras que los estereotipos de género, como la sumisión de la mujer 30 , así como los abusos sexuales 31 , lo hacen de forma negativa con la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo. ...
... Entre las variables interpersonales, la asociación directa entre la experiencia orgásmica y otras dimensiones del funcionamiento sexual, como el deseo, la excitación o la satisfacción sexual, es evidente 10,25,32 . Asimismo, se ha confirmado la importancia que tiene la calidad de las relaciones de pareja en la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo, avalada, entre otros, por los hallazgos de Costa y Brody 33 en mujeres y de Carvalheira y Santana 35 en hombres. ...
Article
Resumen El orgasmo constituye un componente fundamental de la respuesta sexual. Su investigación ha generado resultados que señalan su importancia en la sexualidad humana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo, su evaluación y su asociación con variables personales, interpersonales y psicosociales. Tras la búsqueda en diferentes bases de datos, se obtienen 121 artículos científicos publicados entre 2000 y 2016, en los cuales la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo es la variable principal. El análisis de las variables asociadas indica que las personales (por ejemplo, el estado de salud o factores demográficos) y las interpersonales (por ejemplo, el funcionamiento sexual) son las más consideradas. En conclusión, se puede señalar la necesidad de desarrollar instrumentos estandarizados para evaluar específicamente la experiencia subjetiva del orgasmo y estudiar de forma conjunta las variables asociadas de cara a proponer modelos explicativos del orgasmo que sean útiles para la práctica clínica.
... It is also possible that the UVS does not function independently but instead as part of the CUV complex, as outlined by certain authors (4,5). Even admitting the independence of the vaginal orgasm from the clitoral orgasm, some authors highlighted the importance of taking into account the response by other part of the vaginal cavity (27). In fact penile length has been independently associated with the achievement of vaginal orgasm (28), through the stimulation of deep vaginal region and cervical site. ...
... In fact penile length has been independently associated with the achievement of vaginal orgasm (28), through the stimulation of deep vaginal region and cervical site. However these studies did not visualize via US the deeper vaginal or cervical zone, but relied upon a questionnaire (27,28). We did not analyze the clitoral response and neither the incidence of the penile length to the achievement of vaginal orgasm, and these could be considered limitations of the study. ...
Article
Introduction: Sexologists have described the urethrovaginal space (UVS) as a region of the body involved in the female orgasm. Recently certain authors have described the UVS via ultrasound (US). Pregnancy is associated with a myriad of physiological, anatomical and biochemical changes. To measure the UVS thickness in the third trimester of pregnancy and to investigate the relationship between the UVS thickness and the presence of vaginal orgasm. Material and methods: Sexually active pregnant patients in the third trimester were included. We measured the UVS via US. Each patient compiled a modified female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and was categorized in group with or without vaginal orgasm. Association between vaginal orgasm and UVS thickness was evaluated via t-test and ROC curve analysis. Results: UVS thickness resulted greater than 15 mm (average) in the third trimester, and was not related to the presence of vaginal orgasm (p>0.05). Conclusion: UVS thickness is high in the third trimester of pregnancy but it is not related to the presence of vaginal orgasm.
... The association between orgasm and sexual excitation and sexual arousal has been previously established [13][14][15][16][17]. There is a tendency to relate the orgasm as a physiological response, without focus specifically on its psychological qualities or subjective experience [5]. ...
... Stoléru et al. [14] indicated that the highest level of sexual arousal reached during any particular episode may vary to the orgasm in both sexes. Brody et al. [15] observed that a greater frequency of orgasms was associated with a greater excitation in women. Furthermore, there is an association between the subjective and objective sexual arousal of women and the orgasmic consistency when they are exposed to an erotic stimulus [16]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to provide validity evidence of the Model of the Subjective Orgasm Experience (MSOE) associating its components with different types of sexual excitation. A total of 96 participants (48 men and 48 women) performed an experimental laboratory task, in which neutral and erotic content films were presented while the genital response was registered. After exposure to sexual stimulus presentation, participants reported their subjective sexual arousal. In addition, four dimensions (affective, sensory, intimacy, and rewards) of the subjective orgasm experience and the individual propensity for sexual excitation were assessed. Results showed that, in men, the affective, sensory, and rewards dimensions of the orgasm experience significantly correlated with the propensity for becoming sexually excited, and the intimacy dimension correlated with the genital response. In women, the sensory dimension of the orgasm experience positively correlated with the subjective sexual arousal. Types of sexual excitation which previously correlated with the orgasm experience were able to predict its four dimensions. The validation of the MSOE provides a more delimited explanation of the psychological experience of orgasm applicable to both sexes. It is an adequate model for both clinical and research purposes.
... The relevance of the subjective experience of orgasm in the context of sexual relationships with a partner lies in its association with sexual satisfaction [5,6], as well as being related to other indicators of sexual health, such as erotophilia, sexual desire, or sexual arousal [3,7,8]. In this context, it has been observed that people who report difficulties related to orgasm experience it with less intensity at a subjective level [5]. ...
Article
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Currently, no validated instrument exists for assessing the subjective experience of orgasm in the gay population. The Orgasm Rating Scale (ORS), previously validated in the heterosexual population, comprises four dimensions: Affective, Sensory, Intimacy, and Rewards. This study validated it for sexual relationships in the gay population by obtaining its factorial invariance by sexual orientation and sex, its internal consistency reliability, and evidence of validity in its relationship with other variables. We assessed 1600 cisgender Spanish adults–heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians–divided into 4, sex-based groups of 400 each, according to the Kinsey scale scores. Participants reported recent experiences of orgasm in the context of sexual relationships and responded to the ORS and other scales assessing attitude toward sexual fantasies and sexual functioning. The ORS structure showed a strict multigroup-level invariance by sexual orientation and sex, confirming its four-dimensional structure. The subjective orgasm intensity was associated with a positive attitude toward sexual fantasies and sexual functioning. Scores obtained on the Affective, Intimacy, and Rewards dimensions confirmed the ability to discriminate between gay people with and without orgasmic difficulties. The ORS’s Spanish version presents good psychometric properties as a validated scale to evaluate the subjective experience of orgasm in the gay population.
... In recent years, some researches have associated both the subjective and physiological orgasm experience with other sexual response components, for example, sexual desire [14][15][16][17][18][19], sexual excitation [13,16,18,[20][21][22], or sexual satisfaction [16,18,[23][24][25]. Sexual desire refers to the interest in engaging in sexual activity, solitary or with another person, and can be measured by the amount of thought with sexual content [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Orgasm and sexual desire are components of the human sexual response. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the sexual desire and dimensions of the subjective orgasm experience. A sample composed of 1161 heterosexual adults, distributed into three age groups (18–34, 35–49, and 50 years old or older), completed a background questionnaire, the Orgasm Rating Scale, and the Sexual Desire Inventory. First, the effect that sex and age have on the subjective orgasm experience was analyzed. Second, correlations between sexual desire and orgasm experience were examined. Also, the predictive capacity that dimensions of sexual desire have on the subjective orgasm experience in the context of sexual relationship was examined. Results showed that age had a significant effect on the intensity of the subjective orgasm experience perceived during sexual relationships with a partner and that this experience decreased as people get older. There was an association between the components of sexual desire and the dimensions of subjective orgasm experience. Furthermore, partner-focused sexual desire contributed in a relevant manner to the subjective orgasm experience. Implications for both research and clinical field are also discussed.
... Higher perceived sexual arousability during stimulation of deep vagina has also been associated with greater vaginal orgasm capacity. 30 On the other hand, we also found that less frequent use of kneeling/rear entry position is associated with more frequent orgasm. This is consistent with results reported by Swieczkowski and Walker 11 who found a low frequency of orgasms during this position. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: A limited number of scientific studies explore the frequency with which various sexual positions are used in human populations and the potential of particular sexual position to facilitate female coital orgasm. Aim: The aim of this study was to provide data about the prevalence and frequency of various sexual positions, their rated pleasurability, and their association with female coital orgasm consistency (COC). Methods: A sample of Czech heterosexual population (11,225 men/9,813 women) were presented with a list of 13 sexual positions in black-and-white silhouettes. For each position, they indicated frequency and pleasurability. COC was assessed as the proportion of penile-vaginal intercourse with a current partner which led to orgasm. Main outcome measure: Participants reported the frequency of use of sexual positions and rated their pleasurability. Using ordinal logistic regression, association between the COC and frequency of use of coital positions was tested. Results: In both men and women, the most commonly used sexual positions were face to face/male above, face to face/female above, and kneeling/rear entry. Nonetheless, there emerged some gender differences in the rating of pleasurability of various positions (all P < .001). We found that a higher proportion of female coital orgasms are positively associated with the frequency of use of face to face/female above (odds ratio [OR] = 1.005, P < .001) and sitting/face-to-face positions (OR = 1.003, P < .001) and negatively associated with the frequency of kneeling/rear entry position (OR = 0.996, P < .001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are no gender differences in the frequency of use of sexual positions, but their rated pleasurability differs between men and women, and higher frequency of use of face-to-face positions with female above increases the likelihood of achieving coital orgasm during penile-vaginal intercourse. Most results, however, were of small effect sizes, and more research is needed to further explore this issue. Krejčová L, Kuba R, Flegr J, et al. Kamasutra in Practice: The Use of Sexual Positions in the Czech Population and Their Association With Female Coital Orgasm Potential. Sex Med 2020;8:767-776.
... Thus their ardent promotion of CAT to facilitate PVI induced orgasm consistency (Brody and Costa, 2008;Brody 2017) clearly does not accord with their own best practice advice to obtain such orgasm consistency. Furthermore, in another Czech women study by Brody, Klapilova, and Krejčov a (2013), it was stated that vaginal orgasmic consistency was not obtained from shallow or middle vaginal stimulation but from deep vaginal stimulation clearly appearing to confirm that CAT would not promote the attainment of PVI vaginal orgasms, an obvious example of being 'hoisted by your own petard'! Remarkably, Brody and Costa in a previous study (Costa and Brody, 2011) had to admit that 'the internal structures of the clitoris may have a role in sexual arousal before or during penile-vaginal intercourse' although they qualified this by stating that 'PVI is likely to create qualitatively different arousal and orgasm compared to stimulation focussed on the clitoral glans' yet the latter is exactly what CAT is designed to do. ...
Article
This article reviews clitoral structures, their functions and how they are activated during the stages of female life. The paradox that occurs is that different procedures of activation are claimed by some to favour ‘noxious outcomes' to the physical and psychic health of women who use it to achieve sexual arousal/orgasm with or without penile vaginal intercourse. A number of the difficulties and inconsistencies in relation to these claims are explored. The proposed justification for the ‘noxious outcomes' is that ‘evolution' punishes sexual arousals other than by coitus because it is the only one that leads to gene propagation. In this context, however, the new, evolutionary interpretation of clitoral function in the fertile years as a fundamental proximate mechanism for facilitating female reproductive fitness makes such a justification improbable. The role of coital alignment technique (CAT) in the treatment of female orgasmic disorder is discussed in relation to its features of introital, clitoral and periurethral glans stimulation. Attempts to control female sexuality through various ‘clitoridectomies' are examined and unanswered questions about clitoral stimulation are listed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The British study also found that penis length was not associated with clitoral orgasm [92]. These findings are consistent with the finding in another Czech study that vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation, but not with sexual arousability from the clitoris or even the shallow or middle vagina [93], because shorter penises would be less likely to adequately stimulate the deep vagina and cervix. These findings are also consistent with different peripheral nerves conducting stimuli from the clitoris and from the deep vagina to the brain, and with the different regions of the somatosensory cortex of the brain activated by stimulation of the clitoris, lower vagina, and cervix [86]. ...
Chapter
The issues to be considered and approaches to be used in the evaluation of female orgasmic disorder are presented in the context of research evidence and best clinical practice. The sections in this chapter include epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, DSM-5 and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria, and approach to diagnosis (including diagnostic scales and issues to be considered during the clinical interview). Psychological, behavioral, interpersonal, pharmacological, and physiological factors related to female orgasmic disorder are reviewed. The psychological and behavioral issues include family and other developmental and experiential factors, exercise, personality traits, attachment, psychopathology, intimate relationship function, specifics of sexual behaviors, mental focus during sexual activity, specifics of sex education, and partner characteristics including partner sexual function. The physiological factors reviewed include prenatal factors, age, nutrition and substance use, medical conditions and treatments, hormonal influences, autonomic tone, muscle tone, and both peripheral and central neurophysiological pathways. The problem of fluctuating diagnostic criteria is addressed, and the issue of whether a distress criterion scientifically or clinically merits being a requirement for the diagnosis of female orgasmic disorder is evaluated. The evidence for differences between orgasm triggers (including the special psychological, physiological, and interpersonal aspects of vaginal orgasm) is presented. The implications of the process of evaluation of female orgasmic disorder for its treatment formulation are also presented.
Article
Background Orgasm occurrence plays an important role in general sexual satisfaction for women. Until now, only few studies have focused on examining a broad spectrum of sexuality- and relationship-specific factors associated with orgasm in heterosexual women currently in a long-term relationship or on differences between the overall experience of orgasm and multiple orgasms. Aim The present study aims to understand how various sexuality- and relationship-associated factors are related to experiencing partnered orgasm among heterosexual women having stable relationships in Germany. Moreover, the study aims to differentiate between the overall experience of orgasm and the experience of multiple orgasms and shed light on their impact on general sexual satisfaction. Methods Within the nationwide representative survey GeSiD (German Health and Sexuality Survey), n = 1,641 sexually active women aged between 18 and 75 years in heterosexual relationships reported their experience of orgasm during the latest sexual encounter. Data on the type of sexual practices, frequency of sexual activity and of masturbation, relationship satisfaction, feelings of love, closeness, and general sexual satisfaction were analyzed. Outcomes The overall experience of orgasm, the experience of multiple orgasms, and associations between experiencing orgasm and sexual satisfaction. Results Frequency of sexual activity, relationship satisfaction, feelings of love and closeness were moderately to strongly positively correlated with each other and each showed positive associations with the likelihood of orgasm. Greater number of sexual practices and frequency of sexual activity were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing multiple orgasms, which in turn was correlated with higher sexual satisfaction. Clinical Implications In clinical and therapeutic work with women who have difficulty achieving orgasm, central issues should be the perceived relationship quality as well as regular sexual activity with the partner. Strengths & Limitations The present population-representative study is the first in Germany to identify significant factors associated with the experience of orgasm among heterosexual women in relationships. Further studies ought to include the frequency of orgasms in partnered sex over a longer period of time as well as the experience of orgasm during masturbation. Conclusion The experience of orgasm for women is related to a variety of complex interpersonal mechanisms and to be associated with sexual satisfaction. Cerwenka S, Dekker A, Pietras L, et al. Single and Multiple Orgasm Experience Among Women in Heterosexual Partnerships. Results of the German Health and Sexuality Survey (GeSiD). J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX–XXX.
Chapter
Sexual health can be defined as a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being that is related to sexuality and not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Achieving sexual health requires the sexual rights of individuals to be recognized and guaranteed. Among these rights are “the right to comprehensive sexual education” and “the right to information based on scientific knowledge”, suggesting that sexual information should be generated through free and ethical scientific research and appropriately disseminated at all social levels. However, sexology remains a neglected educational discipline in the general population, in particular among physicians, and it is therefore possible that misinformation leads to the proliferation of myths and misconceptions about sexuality. In this chapter, we describe how ingrained these myths or misconceptions are in our population. In addition, we provide answers and recommendations about sexual health that are based on the best evidence.
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Objectives. This article presents the results of a representative national study highlighting the risk factors of female sexual dysfunction in the Czech Republic.Study Design. A representative quota survey of 1000 Czech women of 15 years of age and older. The questionnaire is a part of a wider long-term survey of sexual behavior within the Czech population, which started in 1993. Besides the various aspects of sexual behavior the questionnaire included a specific section on sexual dysfunction.Results. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction amongst women in the Czech Republic is 20%. Risk factors that increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction are: sexual abuse during childhood and having been forced to engage in sex during their lifetime. Having sexually transmitted disease and positive attitudes towards casual sex.Sexual characteristics which strongly associate with SD are: not being satisfied with sex and having faked orgasm “often and almost always”.Conclusion. These results indicate that there are risk factors for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD) which can be identified, and there are other related characteristics that can have a negative impact on sexual behavior.
Article
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It has been hypothesized that female orgasm evolved to facilitate recruitment of high-quality genes for offspring. Supporting evidence indicates that female orgasm promotes conception, although this may be mediated by the timing of female orgasm in relation to male ejaculation. This hypothesis also predicts that women will achieve orgasm more frequently when copulating with high-quality males, but limited data exist to support this prediction. We therefore explored relationships between the timing and frequency of women's orgasms and putative markers of the genetic quality of their mates, including measures of attractiveness, facial symmetry, dominance, and masculinity. We found that women reported more frequent and earlier-timed orgasms when mated to masculine and dominant men—those with high scores on a principal component characterized by high objectively-measured facial masculinity, observer-rated facial masculinity, partner-rated masculinity, and partner-rated dominance. Women reported more frequent orgasm during or after male ejaculation when mated to attractive men—those with high scores on a principal component characterized by high observer-rated and self-rated attractiveness. Putative measures of men's genetic quality did not predict their mates' orgasms from self-masturbation or from non-coital partnered sexual behavior. Overall, these results appear to support a role for female orgasm in sire choice.
Article
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Introduction. Research indicates that (i) women's orgasm during penile–vaginal intercourse (PVI) is influenced by fitness-related male partner characteristics, (ii) penis size is important for many women, and (iii) preference for a longer penis is associated with greater vaginal orgasm consistency (triggered by PVI without concurrent clitoral masturbation). Aims. To test the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm frequency is associated with women's reporting that a longer than average penis is more likely to provoke their PVI orgasm. Method. Three hundred twenty-three women reported in an online survey their past month frequency of various sexual behaviors (including PVI, vaginal orgasm, and clitoral orgasm), the effects of a longer than average penis on likelihood of orgasm from PVI, and the importance they attributed to PVI and to noncoital sex. Main Outcome Measures. Univariate analyses of covariance with dependent variables being frequencies of various sexual behaviors and types of orgasm and with independent variable being women reporting vs. not reporting that a longer than average penis is important for their orgasm from PVI. Results. Likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater vaginal orgasm frequency but unrelated to frequencies of other sexual behaviors, including clitoral orgasm. In binary logistic regression, likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater importance attributed to PVI and lesser importance attributed to noncoital sex. Conclusions. Women who prefer deeper penile–vaginal stimulation are more likely to have vaginal orgasm, consistent with vaginal orgasm evolving as part of a female mate choice system favoring somewhat larger than average penises. Future research could extend the findings by overcoming limitations related to more precise measurement of penis length (to the pubis and pressed close to the pubic bone) and girth, and large representative samples. Future experimental research might assess to what extent different penis sizes influence women's satisfaction and likelihood of vaginal orgasm. Costa RM, Miller GF, and Brody B. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): Implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm. J Sex Med 2012;9:3079–3088.
Article
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Whether women's orgasm is an adaptation is arguably the most contentious question in the study of the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, this question is a veritable litmus test for adaptationism, separating those profoundly impressed with the pervasive and myriad correspondences between organisms' phenotypes and their conditions of life from those who apply the "onerous concept" of adaptation with more caution, skepticism or suspicion. Yet, the adaptedness of female orgasm is a question whose answer will elucidate mating dynamics in humans and nonhuman primates. There are two broad competing explanations for the evolution of orgasm in women: (1) the mate-choice hypothesis, which states that female orgasm has evolved to function in mate selection and (2) the byproduct hypothesis, which states that female orgasm has no evolutionary function, existing only because women share some early ontogeny with men, in whom orgasm is an adaptation. We review evidence for these hypotheses and identify areas where relevant evidence is lacking. Although additional research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn, we find that the mate-choice hypothesis receives more support. Specifically, female orgasm appears to have evolved to increase the probability of fertilization from males whose genes would improve offspring fitness.
Article
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Female coital orgasm may be an adaptation for preferentially retaining the sperm of males with “good genes.” One indicator of good genes may be physical attractiveness. Accordingly, R. Thornhill, S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer (1995) found that women mated to more attractive men reported an orgasm during a greater proportion of copulations than did women mated to less attractive men. The current research replicates this finding, with several design variations. We collected self-report data from 388 women residing in the United States or in Germany. Results support the hypothesis that women mated to more attractive men are more likely to report an orgasm at the most recent copulation than are women mated to less attractive men, after statistically controlling for several key variables. Discussion addresses (a) the inability of the present research to specify the causal link between female orgasm and male attractiveness and (b) the proactive nature of female sexuality documented in recent research guided by an evolutionary perspective.
Article
In a large representative sample of the Swedish female adult population (N = 1256), having an orgasm from purely penile stimulation of the vagina (as opposed to orgasms from clitoral stimulation) was associated with greater satisfaction (with sex life, mental health, relationships with both partners and friends, and life in general), more frequent sexual desire, greater likelihood of having one's first ever orgasm from intercourse rather than masturbation, and lesser recent masturbation frequency. The association of vaginal orgasm with these measures was unconfounded by a marginal association of vaginal orgasm with frequency of vaginal intercourse (which was independently associated with most of the measures of greater satisfaction). Vaginal orgasms were not associated with having had orgasms from partner masturbation or cunnilingus. The results are discussed in terms of recent advances in sexual physiology showing different pathways for vaginal versus clitoral sensation and orgasm, other empirical research showing psychological and physiological advantages of penile – vaginal intercourse over other sexual behaviours, psychoanalytic theory, and the need to overhaul the practices of sex therapy and sex education.
Article
It used to be difficult to obtain reliable, current, scientific material on sexual health until I added The Science of Orgasm to my library. It is certainly worth the space and the price. The Science of Orgasm is an excellent, well-written assembly of the current scientific understanding of not only the phenomenon of orgasm but of sexual pleasure in general. The fact that sexual science is in its infancy, partly because of lack of federal funding, does not diminish the value of this book. On the contrary, the 358-page, hardcover book addresses most of the questions frequently asked by patients on sex and orgasm.