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Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy by ambulation in older adults: A brief review

  • Tokaigakuen University

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It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate (>3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate) intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking, jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout, although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur independently of exercise mode and load.
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Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8 369–375
Clinical Interventions in Aging
Possibility of leg muscle hypertrophy
by ambulation in older adults: a brief review
Hayao Ozaki1
Jeremy P Loenneke2
Robert S Thiebaud2
Joel M Stager3
Takashi Abe3
1Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba,
Japan; 2Department of Health
and Exercise Science, University
of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA;
3Department of Kinesiology, Indiana
University, Bloomington, IN, USA
Correspondence: Takashi Abe
Depar tment of Kinesiolog y, Indiana
University, 1025 East 7th Street ,
Room 104, Bloomington, IN 47405, U SA
Tel +1 812 856 7163
Fax +1 812 855 3193
Abstract: It is known that ambulatory exercises such as brisk walking and jogging are potent
stimuli for improving aerobic capacity, but it is less understood whether ambulatory exercise can
increase leg muscle size and function. The purpose of this brief review is to discuss whether or
not ambulatory exercise elicits leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults. Daily ambulatory activ-
ity with moderate (.3 metabolic equivalents [METs], which is defined as the ratio of the work
metabolic rate to the resting metabolic rate) intensity estimated by accelerometer is positively
correlated with lower body muscle size and function in older adults. Although there is conflicting
data on the effects of short-term training, it is possible that relatively long periods of walking,
jogging, or intermittent running for over half a year can increase leg muscle size among older
adults. In addition, slow-walk training with a combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction
elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive marathon
running and regular high intensity distance running in young and middle-aged adults may not
produce leg muscle hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damaging running bout,
although there have been no studies that have investigated the effects of running on leg muscle
morphology in older subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can occur indepen-
dently of exercise mode and load.
Keywords: aerobic exercise, muscle mass, aging, strength, sarcopenia
Brisk walking and jogging are recommended for improving maximal oxygen uptake
(VO 2 max) in older men and women.1–3 Elite race walkers have high VO2 max values,4,5
which are similar to elite long distance and marathon runners.4 Although endurance
exercise is generally not prescribed for increasing muscle mass, some cross-sectional
studies have observed greater muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) in the leg
muscles of distance runners than that of untrained subjects.6,7 Although the previous
studies observed change in muscle fiber size resulting from running, the whole muscle
volume or CSA has not been investigated. Thus, it is unclear whether the greater muscle
fiber CSA in distance runners is due to running or if it is influenced by genetic factors.8
In addition, with cross-sectional studies it is difficult to separate the possibility that
the athletes, in many cases, also performed resistance exercise. Therefore, the effects
of endurance exercise on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain are not well known.
In general, a training intensity of more than 60% of one’s concentric one repeti-
tion maximum (1RM) is commonly considered the minimum intensity required to
achieve muscle hypertrophy.9 In recent years, however, it has been established that
myofibrillar protein synthesis is maximally stimulated following acute work matched
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Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8
resistance exercise at 60% of 1RM, and that increasing the
external load provided no additional stimulation in the syn-
thesis rate.10 Nevertheless, when resistance exercise is not
matched for work and is taken to volitional fatigue, even
lower exercise intensities appear capable of maximizing the
synthetic response. To illustrate, low intensity knee extension
exercise at 30% of 1RM has been demonstrated to increase
myofibrillar protein synthesis at rates that are similar to
those observed with higher intensity resistance exercise
(90% 1RM). However, the lower intensity group to failure
resulted in a more sustained synthetic response.11 Recently,
these findings have been extended to demonstrate that when
low intensity (30% of 1RM) resistance exercise to failure is
performed repeatedly, comparable increases in muscle hyper-
trophy (whole muscle and fiber level) are observed between
low and high intensities.12,13 Additionally, very low intensity
exercise training such as walking (approximately 10% of
maximum voluntary contraction) combined with blood flow
restriction (BFR) to the exercising muscles can elicit muscle
hypertrophy and strength gain in young and older adults.14,15
These increases in muscle size and strength have also been
previously observed with aerobic exercise in older women
without BFR, although the intensity used was approximately
60%–80% of the heart rate reserve.16 These results suggest
that high external loads are not a prerequisite for increasing
muscle protein synthesis, and ultimately muscle hypertrophy.
The exercise intensity to lower limb muscles during brisk
walking and jogging is approximately 30% of maximum
voluntary contraction.17,18 Thus, it is possible that ambula-
tion exercise with a sufficient workload may induce muscle
hypertrophy and strength gain. Therefore, the purpose of
this brief review is to discuss whether or not brisk walking
and jogging/running elicits muscle hypertrophy and strength
gain in older adults.
Daily physical activity and leg
muscle size and function
During the last decade, only a few studies have reported
the relationship between accelerometer (or pedometer)
determined physical activity and skeletal muscle size
in middle-aged and older populations. For example,
Bassey et al19 found that triceps surae muscle strength was
significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.30, P , 0.05)
with recorded amounts of daily walking when averaged
over 7 consecutive days in men aged . 65 years. Scott
et al20 reported that ambulatory activity averaged over 7
consecutive days is positively associated with both leg
strength and muscle quality in women aged 50–79 years.
The associations between ambulatory activity and both leg
strength and muscle quality were nonsignificant in men.20 In
addition, the authors reported that there was no significant
association between ambulatory activity and dual energy
X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimated leg lean tissue mass.
On the other hand, Park et al21 reported a significant posi-
tive correlation between DXA estimated appendicular lean
tissue mass and year averaged duration of physical activity
at .3 metabolic equivalents (METs) in women (r = 0.38,
P , 0.05) and men (r = 0.28, P , 0.05) aged 65–84 years.21
Since DXA assesses the sum of lean tissue mass, which
includes the anterior and posterior upper leg and lower
leg, site specific muscle mass cannot be determined by this
method. Recently, Abe et al22 reported that accelerometer
determined ambulatory activity, especially moderate and
vigorous intensities (.3 METs), is positively correlated
with the tibialis anterior (r = 0.34, P , 0.05), as well as
by the triceps surae muscle thickness (r = 0.41, P , 0.01),
suggesting that .3 METs of physical activity may prevent
age related loss of muscle mass in the lower leg muscles. In
addition, isometric knee flexion strength is positively cor-
related with the duration of moderate physical activity. The
results from the previous studies suggest that ambulatory
activity with moderate or vigorous intensities can improve
lower leg muscle size and function in older adults.
Short-term training studies
Walk training
A number of studies have reported the effect of walk training
on aerobic capacity and body composition;23 however, only a
few studies have observed the influence of walk training on
lower body muscle size and strength. In active young men,
a short duration (3 weeks) of regular slow-walk training did
not change dynamic leg press strength, isometric knee exten-
sion strength, or magnetic resonance imaging measured thigh
muscle CSA.14 In older women aged 76–78 years, there was
no significant change in computed tomography measured
thigh muscle CSA following 18 weeks of walk training.24
Similarly, active older men and women did not increase mag-
netic resonance imaging measured mid-thigh muscle CSA and
quadriceps muscle volume after 10 weeks of walk training.15
On the other hand, one study reported increases in ultrasound
measured muscle thickness following 6 months of walk train-
ing in sedentary or mildly to moderate active older adults.25
They found that muscle thickness increased significantly for
knee flexors and dorsi flexors, but not for the knee extensors
or plantar flexors. It is clear that the change in muscle size by
walk training may be influenced by initial physical activity
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Ozaki et al
Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8
levels and/or programs (intensity, duration, and frequency).
In the previous study reported by Kubo et al,25 the numbers of
steps increased by 44% from 7025 steps/day to 9915 steps/day
(average walking duration was 45 minutes/day, and frequency
was 5.4 days/week) although the authors did not report the
intensity. These results suggest a possibility that site specific
locomotor muscles, which are unable to be differentiated
from whole muscle thigh or lower leg measurements, increase
following walk training when the volume of walking is sig-
nificantly increased from baseline.
With regard to muscle strength, several studies have
observed increases in strength following walk training in
older adults. A study reported that moderate intensity (about
50% of VO2 max) continuous (8000 steps or more per day)
walking increased isometric knee extension (7%) strength
in older men and women.26 Furthermore, high intensity
interval walking (.5 sets of 3 minutes walking at approxi-
mately 40% of VO2 max followed by 3 minutes of walking
at .70% VO2 max) produced improvements in isometric
knee extension (13%) and flexion (16%) strength.26 On the
other hand, following walk training at 45% of the heart rate
reserve in older men and women, there was no change in
ether isometric knee extension or flexion strength.15 Thus,
it appears that the magnitude of improvement of the muscle
strength may be associated with exercise intensity during
walking. Participants with a low initial fitness level have a
greater potential for improving muscle strength and muscle
hypertrophy following brisk walk training.
To illustrate this, a study reported that maximum
isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength increased
by 10% following 3 months of home based walk training
(30–45 minutes, 3–4 sessions per week) in patients with
chronic heart failure.27 Similarly, patients with peripheral
arterial disease performed supervised treadmill walking
training (3 sessions per week, 12 weeks) and a significant
increase in isokinetic plantar flexion strength is observed.28
Running training
Several studies have investigated the effect of chronic run-
ning on muscle fiber size, fat free mass, and muscle strength
in young and middle-aged subjects. For instance, Dolezal
and Potteiger29 have shown that 20–45 minutes of running at
65%–85% of the maximum heart rate for 10 weeks did not
increase 1RM strength for squat or fat free mass in young
men. Additionally, Glowacki et al30 reported that 12 weeks
of running significantly increased 1RM strength for leg press
and isokinetic knee extension, but it did not change fat free
mass. Additionally, in other studies, fat free mass also did
not change with running.31,32 Thus, it appears that chronic
running does not induce an increase in fat free mass for
young subjects, although lower limb strength may improve
in some cases. Meanwhile, Trappe et al33 have investigated
the effects of 16 weeks of marathon training (60 km per
week) on muscle fiber size for three leg muscles in young
subjects (four men and three women). The authors reported
that type 1 and type 2A fiber size in the gastrocnemius muscle
was significantly reduced by approximately 20% following
training.33 Furthermore, the type 1 and type 2A fiber size
for the soleus muscle and type 2A fiber size for the vastus
lateralis (VL) muscle did not change after the marathon
training. The type 1 fibers of the VL were the only fibers
that significantly increased in size from marathon training.
The authors stated that muscle fiber size in the soleus did
not increase by marathon training because the “untrained”
soleus has simply adapted to normal daily activity and is in a
more conditioned state compared with the VL.34 In contrast,
other studies have observed that muscle fiber CSA in the
VL did not change significantly after chronic running.32,35–37
Thus, it is generally observed that chronic running does
not induce leg muscle hypertrophy, especially in the thigh
muscle, in young and middle-aged adults. However, there are
no investigations about the effects of running on leg muscle
morphology in older subjects. Interestingly, a previous study
reported that a single bout of aerobic exercise enhanced
the anabolic response to insulin (sensitivity of feeding) by
stimulating mixed muscle protein synthesis and producing
a positive protein balance in older adults.38 Therefore, it is
still a possibility that training induced muscle hypertrophy
from running occurs in older men and women with insulin
resistance. It should be stated, however, that although mixed
muscle protein synthesis often serves as a surrogate marker
for myofibrillar protein synthesis, differential responses have
been observed within each subfraction.11 Therefore, it may
be appropriate to measure the individual synthesis rates of
myofibrillar, mitochondrial, and sarcoplasmic proteins to
better to clarify these issues.
Differences between the effects of run training and walk
training on muscle morphology are unclear, but several pos-
sibilities exist. Hikida et al39 investigated the ultrastructural
changes in the gastrocnemius muscles before and imme-
diately after a marathon event, and found marathon race
induced muscle necrosis and also regular distance training
induced muscle necrosis. The authors suggest that the ini-
tial trauma is probably the disruption of the sarcolemma,
which results in an ionic imbalance, especially of calcium.40
The increase in calcium concentration activates a protease
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Leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults
Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8
and breaks down the Z-lines and thin filaments.41 A recent
study showed that calcium concentrations in the VL muscles
increased immediately after a 10 km and a 20 km run, and
the calcium accumulation was positively related to running
distance and time spent running.42 Interestingly, the authors
also found that the calcium response to a 10 km run did
not significantly alter following 10 weeks of run training
(distance of 29 km per week, three times/week). It could
be speculated, therefore, that repeated distance running,
but not walking, caused some damage that would make it
harder to recover from the damaging exercise bout.43 This
insufficient recovery may ultimately affect the capability of
the muscle to grow.
Although it appears that chronic continuous running
does not increase fat free mass and muscle f iber size,
Krustrup et al36 have investigated the effect of 1 hour of
running versus recreational soccer training at the same
exercise time and intensity on muscle fiber size in untrained
men aged 20–43 years, and reported that only soccer training
(1 hour per day and 2.3 days per week) significantly increased
muscle fiber CSA in VL (15%), fat free mass (3%), and
maximal isometric knee extension strength (11%). For
untrained women aged 19–42 years, similar soccer training
(1 hour per day for 1.8 days per week) demonstrated signifi-
cantly increased lean mass of the leg (11%), and they tended
to exhibit increased muscle fiber CSA in VL (P = 0.09).37
These data suggest that soccer training (intermittent jogging/
running) at various intensities and motions (including lateral
movements) has the potential to promote muscle hypertrophy
and strength gain. The mechanism of muscle hypertrophy is
unclear, although it may be possible that the higher eleva-
tion in blood lactate during soccer exercise compared to
continuous running indirectly affect increases in muscle
fiber size induced by recreational soccer training.36 Recently,
Inaba et al44 reported the biomechanical factors contributing
to quickness in lateral movements and found that extension
torques of the hip, knee, and ankle joints contribute sub-
stantially to the changes in side step distances. The lateral
movement and quickness during soccer exercise may be a
crucial factor for muscle hypertrophy in the leg muscles,
especially in the quadriceps muscle. However, further stud-
ies are needed to elucidate whether intermittent running can
induce hypertrophy at the whole muscle level.
Relatively long-term training studies
Most intervention studies on running have been relatively
short-term (less than or equal to 10 weeks), but some studies
have performed walking and jogging for over half a year.
Schwartz et al45 have shown that walking and jogging, 5 days
per week for 27 weeks, did not change thigh muscle CSA in
young men, but significantly increased thigh muscle CSA (9%)
for older men. As previously mentioned, 4 months of running
reduced type 1 and type 2A fiber size (20%) of the gastrocne-
mius muscle for young men and women,31 but Coggan et al46
have demonstrated that walking and jogging, 4 days per week
for 9–12 months, significantly increased (6%–18%) type 1 and
type 2A fiber size of the gastrocnemius muscle in older men
and women. Thus, walking or jogging/running from several
weeks to 2–3 months rarely induces muscle hypertrophy, but it
is possible that relatively long periods of training for over half
a year can increase leg muscle size by approximately 1% per
month for older adults. Further studies are required to make
a final decision because only a few studies have reported that
walking and/or jogging increased muscle size.
Inuence of specic environment
Hypobaric hypoxia
The specific internal environment in the legs during
walking and jogging/running can also influence the muscle
hypertrophy and strength response. For instance, high altitude
mediated hypobaric hypoxia creates many morphological and
physiological changes. A study reported that thigh muscle
CSA decreased by 10% after sojourn at a high altitude
(Himalayas; greater than 5000 m for over 56 days), although
whether a change in physical activity occurred is not clear.
In that study, the loss of thigh muscle size is mainly due to a
decrease in myofibrillar proteins.47 Mizuno et al48 also reported
that muscle fiber size decreased by an average of 15% in the
VL and biceps brachii muscles in both active and less active
men after 75 days of altitude (greater than 5250 m) exposure.
Other studies investigated the effects of acute and chronic
hypobaric hypoxia and physical exercise on muscle protein
metabolism, and the results suggest that the large increase in
protein degradation is the underlying mechanism for the loss
of skeletal muscle mass.49,50 Contrary to chronic hypobaric
hypoxia, a recent study investigated the effects of intermittent
systemic hypoxia on high intensity (70% 1RM) resistance
training induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.51 The
researchers found that muscle hypertrophic responses are
greater in resistance exercise under hypoxia than those of
a normoxia condition. However, Friedmann et al52 reported
that resistance training with low intensity (30% 1RM) under
hypoxia did not promote muscle hypertrophy. These findings
suggest that exercise training under intermittent hypoxia can-
not lead to muscle hypertrophy with low workloads such as
walking and jogging.
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Ozaki et al
Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8
Blood ow restriction
As stated previously, the potential for walk training induced
muscle hypertrophy is weak and may be specific to active
locomotor muscles. Interestingly, when combined with BFR
to the exercising muscles, walk training induced muscle
hypertrophy in the lower limb muscles has been observed
in both young and older adults. An earlier study has shown
that twice daily walk training with BFR at 50 m/minute for
10 minutes of actual walking, 6 days per week for 3 weeks,
increased quadriceps muscle volume (4%) and isometric
knee extension strength (10%) in young men.14 Additionally,
Park et al53 reported an increase in muscle strength following
2 weeks of twice daily BFR walk training in young athletes.53
In older adults, 10 weeks of BFR walk training can lead
to significant improvements in thigh muscle CSA/volume
and knee joint strength.15 Recently, a study has reported
that muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg increased by
4% and 3%, respectively, in the BFR walk group following
training;54 however, gluteus maximus muscle volume and the
lumbar L4–L5 muscle CSA did not change in the BFR walk
group, although there was a trend (P = 0.07) for an increase
in iliopsoas muscle volume. Therefore, the combination of
leg muscle BFR with slow-walk training elicits muscle hyper-
trophy only in the blood flow restricted leg muscles, which
might be due to an accumulation of metabolites within the
muscle fiber and subsequent muscle cell swelling induced
from the application of BFR.55,56
It is an undeniable fact that brisk walking and jogging
are potent stimuli for improving maximal oxygen uptake
(VO 2 max) in older men and women. This improvement
in cardiorespiratory fitness may also be associated with
increases in muscle size and strength depending on the
intensity, duration, and environment in which walking and
jogging/ running are performed. Table 1 shows a summary
of the effects of ambulation on muscle size and strength
in older adults. Daily ambulatory activity with moderate
(.3 METs) intensity, estimated by accelerometer, is
positively correlated with lower body muscle size and
function in older adults. Although the effects of short-term
training are uncertain, it is possible that relatively long
periods of walking, jogging, and/or intermittent running
training for over half a year can increase leg muscle size in
older adults. In addition, slow-walk training in a combina-
tion with leg muscle BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy only
in the blood flow restricted leg muscles. Competitive mara-
thon running and regular high intensity distance running in
young and middle-aged adults may not produce leg muscle
hypertrophy due to insufficient recovery from the damag-
ing running bout, although there is no study investigating
the effects of running on leg muscle morphology in older
subjects. It is clear that skeletal muscle hypertrophy can
occur independently of exercise mode and its load.
The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. None
of the authors had financial or personal conflict of interests
with regard to this study.
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Table 1 Summary of the effects of ambulation on muscle size and
strength in older adults
Study types
(#6 months)
(.6 months)
Daily PA*
Brisk walking + + ++
Running NS (maybe) NS (maybe)NS
Intermittent running +NS NS
Specic environment
Hypobaric hypoxia NS NS
Blood ow restriction ++ NS NS
Notes: No effect (); somewhat effective (+); effective (++); very effective (+++);
*Accelerometer-determined physical activity.
Abbreviations: PA, physical activity; NS, no study.
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Leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults
Clinical Interventions in Aging 2013:8
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Leg muscle hypertrophy in older adults
... The adaptations in cardiorespiratory fitness typically thought to occur as a result of modalities of exercise such as cycling also have been reported to occur as a result of resistance training, though primarily if intensity of effort is sufficiently high (i.e., to momentary failure; Steele et al., 2012) and seemingly irrespective of the manipulation of other variables (i.e., load, set volume, rest periods, and frequency; Ozaki et al., 2013a). Conversely, the adaptations in strength and hypertrophy thought typically to occur from resistance training modalities of exercise have been found to occur as a result of 'cardio' modalities (Konopka & Harber, 2014), though again this seems primarily to be the case if they are performed with a high effort (i.e., combined with blood flow restriction, or with close proximity to failure such as interval training or sprinting; De Oliviera et al., 2016;Lundberg et al., 2013;Ozaki et al., 2015;Ozaki et al., 2013b). Despite this, studies directly comparing resistance training and 'cardio' training modalities upon these chronic adaptations contrast in their findings with some showing certain adaptations to be similar (Messier & Dill, 1985;Sawczyn et al., 2015;Hepple et al., 1997;Jubrias et al., 2001) and others showing some adaptations to differ (Hepple et al., 1997;Jubrias et al., 2001;Farup et al., 2012;Goldberg, Elliot & Kuehl, 1994;Wilkinson et al., 2008). ...
... Further, high effort resistance training increases muscle water content (Giessing et al., 2016;Ribiero et al., 2014) resulting in muscle swelling that appears to be largely independent of external load (Loenneke et al., 2016). As such it is perhaps unsurprising that high effort aerobic modalities also increase muscle water content (Mora-Rodriguez et al., 2016) and result in muscle swelling (Ozaki et al., 2013b). In consideration of Henneman's size principle, motor unit recruitment should also be similar between muscular actions when they are performed to a near maximal effort (Potvin & Fuglevand, 2017) and indeed this has been argued to be the case for resistance training whether performed at high or low loads (Fisher, Steele & Smith, 2017;Vigotsky et al., 2017). ...
... As already noted, blood lactate response in both conditions was similar indicating similar levels of metabolite accumulation, and subsequently, similar changes in Q t occurred indicating similar degrees of muscular swelling. Although prior studies have reported that both 'cardio' exercise and resistance training performed to high intensities of effort can induce increases in muscle water content and produce acute muscular swelling (Ozaki et al., 2013b;Giessing et al., 2016;Ribiero et al., 2014;Loenneke et al., 2016;Mora-Rodriguez et al., 2016), this appears to be the first to directly compare these responses between modalities when effort and duration matched. Cellular swelling has also been argued to be a trigger associated with the proliferation of satellite cells and thus a contributor to the hypertrophic response to exercise (Schoenfeld, 2013;De Freitas et al., 2017). ...
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The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press) or 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted 60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80-100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5-10 s). Measurements included VO 2 , respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. Perceived effort was similar between conditions and thus both were well matched with respect to effort. There were no significant effects by 'condition' in any of the physiological responses examined (all p > 0.05). The present study shows that, when both effort and duration are matched, resistance training (leg press) and 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) may produce largely similar responses in VO 2 , RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that both may offer a similar stimulus to produce chronic physiological adaptations in outcomes such as cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and hypertrophy. Future work should look to both replicate the study conducted here with respect to the same, and additional physiological measures, and rigorously test the comparative efficacy of effort and duration matched exercise of differing modalities with respect to chronic improvements in physiological fitness.
... Foot pain during walking is associated with high plantar pressures generated during gait (Mickle, Munro, Lord, Menz, & Steele, 2010). The results of this study was in concordance with prior studies noticing higher peak plantar pressures in people with equinus foot more than those without the deformity (Lavery, Armstrong, Boulton, & Diabetex Research Group, 2002) as well as the association between running exercise and calf hypertrophy (Ozaki, Loenneke, Thiebaud, Stager, & Abe, 2013;van Oeveren et al., 2021). Equinus deformity was stated if the ankle dorsiflexion was less than 10⁰ with the knee flexed that it may occur from bony deformity or from soft tissue contracture, particularly triceps surae muscles or Achilles tendon. ...
... Particularly, this was attributable to tight calf muscles that decrease the excursion resulted in increased forefoot pressure. Running, walking, and hiking are known as excellent calf-strengthening exercises, especially in inclinations (Ozaki et al., 2013;Chang, Li, Wang, & Zhang, 2020;van Oeveren et al., 2021). Acceleration or agility training in sports that include run, jump, and push off will be beneficial too for toning the calf muscles. ...
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Running had been known producing a posterior muscle tightness in lower extremity, particularly calf muscles, resulting in a relative equinus deformity. Numerous study reported the association between equinus deformity and foot pain, partially due to the increased plantar pressure of forefoot. This study was directed to find a relation between running intensity and increased forefoot plantar pressure. Subjects were divided into two groups according to running intensity as classified as runner or non-runner. Forefoot plantar pressures data were obtained using a foot imprinter and analyzed into numerical values. Ankle maximum dorsiflexion was also examined in an extended knee to detect the calf tightness. Mean forefoot plantar pressure value was Grau 2.89 (range 2-4) in runner group, and Grau 2.15 (range 1-4) in non-runner group (p=0.004). Ankle maximum dorsiflexion was also limited in runner group (16.05±1.98⁰) compared with 19.30±1.38⁰ in non-runner group (p<0.001). There was an association found between running intensity and plantar pressure elevation. Considering the potential damaging effects to the foot, it is recommended for runners or treating physician to look into this problem as well as to make sure that regular calf stretching is advocated.
... On the other hand, aerobic exercise is effective at reducing CVD risk by improving heart, lung, and metabolic function, though it appears to have little effect on muscular properties (17). However, recent work indicates that the absence of muscular adaptations in response to aerobic training may be related to exercise intensity and mode of exercise (18,19). The most popular form of physical activity in older adults is walking, and recommendations for older adults promote walking as the primary means to increase physical activity levels (15,20,21). ...
... While walking may challenge older adults and result in cardiovascular improvements, the relatively low intensity of muscular contractions would be unlikely to elicit hypertrophy or functional adaptations of the leg muscles (22). Even higher intensity running does not seem to result in increased muscle size or strength (19,23), and running may blunt the muscular benefits of resistance training when performed concurrently (24). In contrast, stationary bicycle training can increase muscular strength and size (25)(26)(27), and does not seem to interfere with the muscular adaptations to resistance training (24). ...
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Background: Age-related declines in physical function lead to decreased independence and higher healthcare costs. Individuals who meet the endurance and resistance exercise recommendations can improve their physical function and overall fitness, even into their ninth decade. However, most older adults do not exercise regularly, and the majority of those who do only perform one type of exercise, and in doing so are not getting the benefits of endurance or resistance exercise. Herein we present the study protocol for a randomized clinical trial that will investigate the potential for high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to improve maximal oxygen consumption, muscular power, and muscle volume (primary outcomes), as well as body composition, 6-min walk distance, and muscular strength and endurance (secondary outcomes). Methods and Analysis: This is a single-site, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. A minimum of 24 and maximum of 30 subjects aged 60–75 that are generally healthy but insufficiently active will be randomized. After completion of baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to participate in one of three 12-week exercise programs: stationary bicycle HIIT, stationary bicycle moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), or resistance training. Repeat assessments will be taken immediately post intervention. Discussion: This study will examine the potential for stationary bicycle HIIT to result in both cardiorespiratory and muscular adaptations in older adults. The results will provide important insights into the effectiveness of interval training, and potentially support a shift from volume-driven to intensity-driven exercise strategies for older adults. Clinical Trial Registration: This trial is registered with (registration number: NCT03978572, date of registration June 7, 2019).
... Consequently, it might be assumed that repetitive exposure to intense perturbations conversely can trigger adaptations in the strength capacity of the legs. In addition, exercising walking might also improve leg strength [48]. However, some other PBT studies did not find effects on muscle strength in healthy older adults [12,18,36,43], but these either included only static perturbation training or only a small amount of training sessions. ...
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Introduction There is increasing evidence that perturbation-based balance training (PBT) is highly effective in preventing falls at older age. Different PBT paradigms have been presented so far, yet a systematic comparison of PBT approaches with respect to feasibility and effectiveness is missing. Two different paradigms of PBT seem to be promising for clinical implementation: 1. Technology-supported training on a perturbation treadmill (PBTtreadmill); 2. Training of dynamic stability mechanisms in the presence of perturbations induced by unstable surfaces (PBTstability). This study aimed to compare both program's feasibility and effectiveness in fall-prone older adults. Methods In this three-armed randomized controlled trial, seventy-one older adults (74.9 ± 6.0 years) with a verified fall risk were randomly assigned into three groups: PBTtreadmill on a motorized treadmill, PBTstability using unstable conditions such as balance pads and a passive control group (CG). In both intervention groups, participants conducted a 6-weeks intervention with 3 sessions per week. Effects were assessed in fall risk (Brief-BEST), balance ability (Stepping Threshold Test, Center of Pressure, Limits of Stability), leg strength capacity, functional performance (Timed Up and Go Test, Chair-Stand), gait (preferred walking speed) and fear of falling (Short-FES-I). Results Fifty-one participants completed the study. Training adherence was 91% for PBTtreadmill and 87% for PBTstability, while no severe adverse events occurred. An ANCOVA with an intention-to-treat approach revealed statistically significant group effects in favor of PBTstability in the Brief-BEST (p=.009, η²=.131) and the Limits of Stability (p=.020, η²=.110), and in favor of PBTtreadmill in the Stepping Threshold Test (p<.001, η²=.395). The other outcomes demonstrated no significant group effects. Discussion/Conclusion Both training paradigms demonstrated high feasibility and were effective in improving specific motor performances in the fall-prone population and these effects were task-specific. PBTtreadmill showed higher improvements in reactive balance, which might have been promoted by the unpredictable nature of the included perturbations and the similarity to the tested surface perturbation paradigm. PBTstability showed more wide-ranging effects on balance ability. Consequently, both paradigms improved fall-risk-associated measures. The advantages of both formats should be evaluated in the light of individual needs and preferences. Larger studies are needed to investigate the effects of these paradigms on real-life fall rates.
... Previous literature on the effectiveness of moderate walking training shows conflicting evidence in relation to muscle strength 22,23) . The reason for this is uncertain, however, age-related changes in neuromuscular activity may lead to higher activity of antagonist leg muscles (co-contraction) 24) . ...
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[Purpose] The present study aimed to investigate whether self-paced walking training utilizing the facilitating effect of skin cooling with menthol gel application was effective in untrained older healthy females. [Participants and Methods] Forty-two untrained healthy older females (aged 60–69 years) were divided into the following three groups: (i) Walking training with menthol group: GM, (ii) Walking training group: GW, and (iii) Control group: GC. The participants in GM and GW performed self-paced walking for 30 minutes a day, 2 times a week, for 6 weeks. Menthol gel was applied to the front of the thigh of the participants in GM. Maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development were measured pre- and post-training and walking speed was measured during the training. The number of steps taken and walking speed in daily activity were measured and the average of these parameters per day were calculated. [Results] The main findings were [1] knee extension muscle strength increased in GM and GW, and [2] rate of force development only improved in GM. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking training utilizing the facilitating effect of skin cooling enhances muscle function in untrained older healthy females and that the present skin cooling method with menthol gel application may be recommended as a training strategy.
... This was an intriguing finding, as endurance exercise such as running is not traditionally seen as an activity promoting skeletal muscle growth. However, recent evidence suggests that low load exercise such as walking and biking can have anabolic properties in older, untrained individuals [34]. Harber and co-workers investigated the effect of a 12 week, twice per week, cycle ergometer training protocol at 60-80% VO 2 -workload on skeletal muscle size on > 70-year-old women [35]. ...
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Background: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) are less physically active, spend more time sedentary and have lower cardiorespiratory endurance as compared to typically developed individuals. RaceRunning enables high-intensity exercise in individuals with CP with limited or no walking ability, using a three-wheeled running bike with a saddle and a chest plate for support, but no pedals. Training adaptations using this type of exercise are unknown. Methods: Fifteen adolescents/young adults (mean age 16, range 9-29, 7 females/8 males) with CP completed 12 weeks, two sessions/week, of RaceRunning training. Measurements of cardiorespiratory endurance (6-min RaceRunning test (6-MRT), average and maximum heart rate, rate of perceived exertion using the Borg scale (Borg-RPE)), skeletal muscle thickness (ultrasound) of the thigh (vastus lateralis and intermedius muscles) and lower leg (medial gastrocnemius muscle) and passive range of motion (pROM) of hip, knee and ankle were collected before and after the training period. Results: Cardiorespiratory endurance increased on average 34% (6-MRT distance; pre 576 ± 320 m vs. post 723 ± 368 m, p < 0.001). Average and maximum heart rate and Borg-RPE during the 6-MRT did not differ pre vs. post training. Thickness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle increased 9% in response to training (p < 0.05) on the more-affected side. Passive hip flexion increased (p < 0.05) on the less-affected side and ankle dorsiflexion decreased (p < 0.05) on the more affected side after 12 weeks of RaceRunning training. Conclusions: These results support the efficacy of RaceRunning as a powerful and effective training modality in individuals with CP, promoting both cardiorespiratory and peripheral adaptations.
... A viable option is blood flow-restricted exercise (BFRE), which uses a pressurized tourniquet applied to the active limbs during exercise (14,33). BFRE is known to enhance skeletal muscle strength and cross-sectional area more than equivalentintensity nonblood flow-restriction exercise, despite typically using low exercise intensities (1,15,30,34,39,46,54). While aerobic exercise does not typically elicit gains in muscle size and strength, especially at the low volumes used in many exercise and dialysis studies (6,27,49,50), aerobic BFRE continues to confer traditional adaptations of improved aerobic capacity and physical function, especially in deconditioned populations (10,11,46). ...
End stage kidney disease is associated with reduced exercise capacity, muscle atrophy and impaired muscle function. While these may be improved with exercise, single modalities of exercise do not traditionally elicit improvements across all required physiological domains. Blood flow restricted exercise may improve all of these physiological domains with low-intensities traditionally considered insufficient for these adaptions. Investigation of this technique appeals, but is yet to be evaluated in dialysis patients. Using a progressive crossover design, ten satellite haemodialysis patients underwent three exercise conditions over 2 weeks. Condition 1: 2 bouts (10min) of unrestricted cycling during 2 consecutive haemodialysis sessions. Condition 2: 2 bouts of cycling with blood flow restriction while off-haemodialysis on 2 separate days. Condition 3: 2 bouts of cycling with blood flow restriction during 2 haemodialysis sessions. Outcomes included haemodynamic responses (heart rate, blood pressure) throughout all sessions, participant-perceived exertion and discomfort on a Borg scale, and evaluation of ultrafiltration rates and Kt/V obtained post-hoc. Haemodynamic responses were consistent regardless of condition. Significant increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.05) were observed post-exercise, followed by a reduction in blood pressures during the 60 min recovery (12 mmHg, 5 mmHg and 11 mm Hg for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, respectively). Blood pressures returned to pre-dialysis ranges following the recovery period. Blood flow restriction did not affect ultrafiltration achieved or Kt/V. Haemodynamic safety and tolerability of BFR during aerobic exercise on HD is comparable to standard aerobic exercise.
... However, some studies evidence that 'cardio' modalities can promote increases in muscle strength and size (Konopka & Harber, 2014;Ozaki, Loenneke, Thiebaud, & Abe, 2015;Ozaki, Loenneke, Thiebaud, Stager, & Abe, 2013), especially when training is performed at high intensities of effort (Harber et al., 2009;Lundberg, Fernandez-Gonzalo, Gustafsson, & Tesch, 2013), while on the other hand others suggest high effort resistance training is capable of improving cardiorespiratory fitness Steele, Fisher, McGuff, & Bruce-Low, 2012). Despite this, there are relatively few studies directly comparing resistance training and 'cardio' modalities whilst controlling for variable such as intensity of effort and the duration of the exercise bouts. ...
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Purpose: Exercises for increasing muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness are traditionally prescribed separately, based on the different characteristics of the modalities and the adaptations that each typically promotes. This separation has been questioned by recent studies that suggest that the intensity of effort at which the exercise is performed seems to impart greater influence than the equipment involved. Based on this assumption, it has been proposed that ‘cardio’ training and resistance training might promote similar adaptations as long as effort and duration are equated. The objective of the present study was to compare two ‘High Intensity Interval Training’ protocols matched for effort and duration using different exercise modalities, leg press (resistance training) and cycle ergometry (‘cardio’), upon changes in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower limb composition in recreationally trained men. Methods: Twenty-five trained men (28.9 ± 5.6 years, 6.6 ± 5.6 years of training experience) were randomly divided into two groups. One group performed sprint interval training on a cycle ergometer (4 sets of 30 seconds sprints) and the other performed leg press (4 sets of 10-12 repetitions to momentary failure). Both groups trained three times a week for 5 weeks. Before and after the training period, the participants performed a 10-repetition maximum (10RM) for knee extension, An incremental exercise test on a treadmill for time to exhaustion (TTE) and peak oxygen consumption (V ̇O2peak), and underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess lower limb composition. Results: Knee extension 10RM and TTE increased in both groups with no statistically significant between group difference (p = 0.614 and p = 0.210). There was a statistically significant between group difference for change in V ̇O2peak (p = 0.023) with only the cycle ergometer group showing a significant within group increase. For all lower limb composition outcomes, changes were minimal. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that 5 weeks of effort and duration matched ‘High Intensity Interval Training’ using cycle ergometry ‘cardio’ or leg press resistance training may produce similar strength and endurance (TTE) adaptations. However, ‘cardio’ modality training may produce greater increases in cardiorespiratory fitness.
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Caros leitores, É com grande satisfação que apresentamos o livro "Ciências da Saúde: desafios e potencialidades em pesquisa - Volume 2". Esta obra reúne diversas publicações de autores renomados da área da saúde, trazendo uma ampla gama de temas relevantes e atuais para a comunidade científica e profissionais da área. Os capítulos deste livro abordam desde estudos sobre doenças crônicas, como diabetes e hipertensão, até avanços em tratamentos oncológicos e novas perspectivas na área da saúde mental. Os autores se dedicaram a trazer uma visão crítica e inovadora sobre os desafios enfrentados na área da saúde, bem como as potencialidades que podem ser exploradas para um melhor cuidado com a saúde da população. Agradecemos aos autores pela sua dedicação e comprometimento na elaboração dos capítulos desta obra. Sabemos o quão desafiador é o trabalho de pesquisa na área da saúde e reconhecemos o esforço de todos para apresentar uma produção de alta qualidade e relevância científica. Esperamos que este livro seja uma fonte de inspiração e conhecimento para aqueles que buscam aprimorar seus estudos e práticas na área da saúde. Desejamos uma excelente leitura a todos!
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Introduction: Up to 20% of patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) surgery report no or suboptimal pain relief after TKR. Moreover, despite chances of recovering to preoperative functional levels, patients receiving TKR have demonstrated persistent deficits in quadriceps strength and functional performance compared with healthy age-matched adults. We intend to examine if low-load blood flow restricted exercise (BFRE) is an effective preoperative method to increase functional capacity, lower limb muscle strength and self-reported outcomes after TKR. In addition, the study aims to investigate to which extent preoperative BFRE will protect against surgery-related atrophy 3 months after TKR. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised controlled and assessor blinded trial, 84 patients scheduled for TKR will be randomised to receive usual care and 8 weeks of preoperative BFRE or to follow usual care-only. Data will be collected before randomisation, 3-4 days prior to TKR, 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months after TKR. Primary outcome will be the change in 30 s chair stand test from baseline to 3-month follow-up. Key secondary outcomes will be timed up and go, 40 me fast-paced walk test, isometric knee extensor and flexor strength, patient-reported outcome and selected myofiber properties.Intention-to-treat principle and per-protocol analyses will be conducted. A one-way analysis of variance model will be used to analyse between group mean changes. Preintervention-to-postintervention comparisons will be analysed using a mixed linear model. Also, paired Student's t-test will be performed to gain insight into the potential pretraining-to-post-training differences within the respective training or control groups and regression analysis will be used for analysation of associations between selected outcomes. Ethical approval: The trial has been accepted by the Central Denmark Region Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (Journal No 10-72-19-19) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (Journal No 652164). All results will be published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals regardless of positive, negative or inconclusive results.
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We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min), with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measured upper (3.8%, P < 0.05) and lower leg (3.2%, P < 0. 05) muscle volume increased significantly, whereas the muscle volume of the gluteus maximus (-0.6%) and iliopsoas (1.8%) and the muscle CSA of the lumber L4-L5 (-1.0) did not change. There was no significant change in muscle volume in the walk training alone. Our results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles. Exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non- blood flow restricted muscles (gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles). Key pointsPrevious studies of blood flow restricted walk training have focused solely on thigh muscles distal to pressure cuffs placed on the upper most portion of the proximal thigh.In the current study, both proximal and distal muscles were evaluated following the combination of walk training with leg blood flow restriction (BFR). Muscle hypertrophy only occurred in the thigh and lower leg, which were the blood flow restricted muscles examined.No significant change was observed in the non-restricted trunk muscles following 3 weeks of twice-daily BFR walk training.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the training responses observed with low-load resistance exercise to volitional fatigue translates into significant muscle hypertrophy, and compare that response to high-load resistance training. Nine previously untrained men (aged 25 [SD 3] years at the beginning of the study, standing height 1.73 [SD 0.07] m, body mass 68.9 [SD 8.1] kg) completed 6-week of high load-resistance training (HL-RT) (75% of one repetition maximal [1RM], 3-sets, 3x/wk) followed by 12 months of detraining. Following this, subjects completed 6 weeks of low load-resistance training (LL-RT) to volitional fatigue (30% 1 RM, 4 sets, 3x/wk). Increases (p < 0.05) in magnetic resonance imaging-measured triceps brachii and pectorals major muscle cross-sectional areas were similar for both HL-RT (11.9% and 17.6%, respectively) and LL-RT (9.8% and 21.1%, respectively). In addition, both groups increased (p < 0.05) 1RM and maximal elbow extension strength following training; however, the percent increases in 1RM (8.6% vs. 21.0%) and elbow extension strength (6.5% vs. 13.9%) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower with LL-RT. Both protocols elicited similar increases in muscle cross-sectional area, however differences were observed in strength. An explanation of the smaller relative increases in strength may be due to the fact that detraining after HL-RT did not cause strength values to return to baseline levels thereby producing smaller changes in strength. In addition, the results may also suggest that the consistent practice of lifting a heavy load is necessary to maximize gains in muscular strength of the trained movement. These results demonstrate that significant muscle hypertrophy can occur without high-load resistance training and suggests that the focus on percentage of external load as the important deciding factor on muscle hypertrophy is too simplistic and inappropriate.
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We have reported that the acute postexercise increases in muscle protein synthesis rates, with differing nutritional support, are predictive of longer-term training-induced muscle hypertrophy. Here, we aimed to test whether the same was true with acute exercise-mediated changes in muscle protein synthesis. Eighteen men (21 ± 1 yr, 22.6 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); means ± SE) had their legs randomly assigned to two of three training conditions that differed in contraction intensity [% of maximal strength (1 repetition maximum)] or contraction volume (1 or 3 sets of repetitions): 30%-3, 80%-1, and 80%-3. Subjects trained each leg with their assigned regime for a period of 10 wk, 3 times/wk. We made pre- and posttraining measures of strength, muscle volume by magnetic resonance (MR) scans, as well as pre- and posttraining biopsies of the vastus lateralis, and a single postexercise (1 h) biopsy following the first bout of exercise, to measure signaling proteins. Training-induced increases in MR-measured muscle volume were significant (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups: 30%-3 = 6.8 ± 1.8%, 80%-1 = 3.2 ± 0.8%, and 80%-3= 7.2 ± 1.9%, P = 0.18. Isotonic maximal strength gains were not different between 80%-1 and 80%-3, but were greater than 30%-3 (P = 0.04), whereas training-induced isometric strength gains were significant but not different between conditions (P = 0.92). Biopsies taken 1 h following the initial resistance exercise bout showed increased phosphorylation (P < 0.05) of p70S6K only in the 80%-1 and 80%-3 conditions. There was no correlation between phosphorylation of any signaling protein and hypertrophy. In accordance with our previous acute measurements of muscle protein synthetic rates a lower load lifted to failure resulted in similar hypertrophy as a heavy load lifted to failure.
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The most frequently reported symptom of exposure to high altitude is loss of body mass and decreased performance which has been attributed to altered protein metabolism affecting skeletal muscles mass. The present study explores the mechanism of chronic hypobaric hypoxia mediated skeletal muscle wasting by evaluating changes in protein turnover and various proteolytic pathways. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 200 g were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7,620 m) for different durations of exposure. Physical performance of rats was measured by treadmill running experiments. Protein synthesis, protein degradation rates were determined by (14)C-Leucine incorporation and tyrosine release, respectively. Chymotrypsin-like enzyme activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and calpains were studied fluorimetrically as well as using western blots. Declined physical performance by more than 20%, in terms of time taken in exhaustion on treadmill, following chronic hypobaric hypoxia was observed. Compared to 1.5-fold increase in protein synthesis, the increase in protein degradation was much higher (five-folds), which consequently resulted in skeletal muscle mass loss. Myofibrillar protein level declined from 46.79 ± 1.49 mg/g tissue at sea level to 37.36 ± 1.153 (P < 0.05) at high altitude. However, the reduction in sarcoplasmic proteins was less as compared to myofibrillar protein. Upregulation of Ub-proteasome pathway (five-fold over control) and calpains (three-fold) has been found to be important factors for the enhanced protein degradation rate. The study provided strong evidences suggesting that elevated protein turnover rate lead to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and calpains.
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between male and female in the activity level of trunk and lower limb muscles during basic daily physical actions. Six young adult male and six female subjects performed 14 daily life actions, i. e. postural maintenance and change, and body weight transfer actions. The surface EMG of six muscles of the trunk and the lower limb was recorded using a portable electromyography apparatus. Maximal EMG response (EMGmax) during isometric maximal voluntary contraction for each muscle was used to normalize the EMG signal. In the performed actions, the average activity level of each muscle corresponded to 20% EMGmax or less in male and 30% EMGmax or less in female subjects, though there were some actions which exceeded 40% EMGmax in the soleus muscle. As a result of 3-way ANOVA, significant effects for each of the 3 factors (action, muscle and sex) for muscular activity level were recognized and there were significant interactions among each pair of factors. The mean activity level of leg muscles in actions which support and transfer body weight was significantly higher in females than males. In the case of identical actions, the total time taken to reach a high muscular activity level was longer in females than males. From these results, it can be assumed that the load on the lower limb muscles is larger for females than males in the case of supporting and transferring body weight in daily life.
Background and aims: It is unknown if the site-specific muscle loss of ageing muscle is associated with accelerometer-determined daily step count and/or intensity of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between accelerometer- determined physical activity and lower body muscle size in women. Methods: Forty-eight women aged 52 to 76 years had their muscle thickness (MTH) measured by B-mode ultrasound at seven sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of their upper- and lower-leg. Daytime physical activity was measured using an accelerometer on 30 consecutive days and the total duration of each level of exercise intensity (light-PA, moderate-PA and vigorous-PA), average step count, and physical activity-related energy expenditure were calculated. Results: Age was inversely correlated with anterior 30% upper-leg MTH (r=-0.296, p<0.05), but not with other measured MTH sites. Light-PA was not significantly (p>0.05) correlated with measured lower body MTH. However, moderate-PA was correlated (p<0.05) with lower-leg MTH, while vigorous-PA was correlated (p<0.05) with lower-leg and anterior 30% upper- leg MTH. Following adjustment for confounding factors, the anterior and posterior lower-leg MTH was positively correlated (p<0.05) with duration of moderate- PA and vigorous-PA, as well as average step count. Conclusions: Thus daily moderate and vigorous physical activity was associated with higher muscle mass in the lower leg, but not in the upper-leg muscle, suggesting that the site-specific upper-leg muscle loss may not be prevented or attenuated by daily physical activity.
The purpose of this study was to determine how different training modes would influence blood levels of growth hormone (hGH) and selected physiological parameters. Three training groups were established: LIFT, in which subjects trained with free weights and a Universal Gym three times per week with three sets at six to eight repetitions per lift (75 percent of one-repetition maximum) for 10 weeks; RUN, in which subjects ran at 75 percent of HR max three times per week; and COMBO, in which subjects underwent both LIFT and RUN training. Resting hGH levels were determined before and after training, and the hGH response to a single bout of exercise was determined at one, four, eight and 10 weeks. Each subject was tested for one-repetition (1 RM) strength in the bench and leg press during weeks one and 10 of training. Resting and exercise response blood samples were taken from an anticubital vein and centrifuged, and the serum was analyzed for hGH by radioimmunoassay techniques. The results of the hormonal measurements indicate that except for a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the resting levels of hGH in the LIFT group, training did not alter hGH levels at rest. The 10 weeks of exercise training did not change the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise in the LIFT and COMBO groups, but did shift the hGH peak of RUN subjects from four to eight minutes by the eighth week of training. The non-hormonal factors affected were: [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max of RUN and COMBO was significantly higher (p < 0.05) above LIFT; LBM and upper body strength of LIFT and COMBO was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) than RUN; and significant gains (p < 0.05) in lower body strength occurred only in LIFT, The data indicate that 10 weeks of exercise training does not significantly alter the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise, but can influence the appearance of the hormonal peak. The results also show that a training program involving both running and lifting can produce the same gains in [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max and upper body strength as single-activity programs, but does not produce lower body strength gains. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Lateral quickness is a crucial component of many sports. However, biomechanical factors which contribute to quickness in lateral movements have not been understood well. Thus, the purpose of this study was to quantify three dimensional kinetics of hip, knee, and ankle joints inside steps to understand the function of lower extremity muscle groups. Side steps at nine different distances were performed by nine male subjects. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded, and net joint torque and work were calculated by a standard inverse-dynamics method. Extension torques and work done at hip, knee, and ankle joints contributed substantially to the changes in side step distances. On the other hand, hip abduction work was not as sensitive to the changes in the side step distances. The main roles of hip abduction torque and work were to accelerate the center of mass laterally in the earlier phase of the movement and to keep the trunk upright, but not to generate large power for propulsion.
Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise.