Article

Antifungal effect of lavender honey against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans

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  • Academy of Veterinary Sciences of Galicia
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Abstract

Monofloral lavender honey samples (n = 30), were analyzed to test antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The specific growth rates (μ) showed that all the yeast growths were reduced in the presence of honey. The honey concentration (% w/v) that inhibited 10% of the yeasts growth (X min) ranged from 31.0% (C. albicans), 16.8% (C. krusei) and 23.0% (C. neoformans). A synthetic honey solution was also tested to determine antifungal activity attributable to sugars. The presence of synthetic honey in the C. krusei culture medium at concentrations above 58.0% (w/v) was established as X min, while C. albicans and C. neoformans were more resistant, since X min values were not reached over the ranged tested (10–60%, w/v). What the data suggests is that the component in the lavender honey responsible for the observed antifungal in vitro properties is not sugar based. Honey might be tapped as a natural resource to look for new medicines for the treatment of mycotic infections. This could be very useful, onsidering the increasing resistance of antifungals. It should be noticed that this is the first study concerning the effect of lavender honey on the growth of pathogenic yeasts.

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... It seems that the most critical step is the removal of pollen from traps. Long-term pollen retention in traps can cause an increase in humidity, which favours the growth of microorganisms (González et al., 2005;Estevinho et al., 2011). Microscopic fungi grow when water activity ranges from 0.61 to 1, but can sometimes grow on a very dry surface (Whitefield, 1998;Jay, 2007). ...
... Bee pollen is reported as a substrate that stimulates the production of mycotoxins (Medina et al., 2004), if a beekeeper does not provide adequate and prompt drying (Garcia-Villanova et al., 2004). The main mycotoxin-producing genera are Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which can cause acute or chronic poisoning -mycotoxicosis (Estevinho et al., 2011;Petrovic et al., 2014). Aspergillus and Penicillium in the trapped pollen present a potential risk for human health (Nardoni et al., 2016). ...
... A number of studies (Brindza et al., 2010;Kačaniova et al., 2011;Petrovic et al., 2014) have revealed significant contamination levels of bee pollen by microorganisms. Therefore, it is very important to find out the presence and quantity of microscopic fungi that dominate pollen, as some of these fungi are potential mycotoxin producers, while others, although not producing toxic metabolites can cause allergic reactions (Estevinho et al., 2011). ...
... Nowadays, there are two types of medical-grade honey approved for clinical application in wound management: Revamil H source honey contains bee defensin-1 with bactericidal activity and Manuka medical-grade honey characterized by the presence of high concentrations of 1,2-dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (Kwakman et al. 2010;Kwakman, Te Velde, de Boer, Vandenbroucke-Grauls, & Zaat, 2011). Also, several reports have demonstrated that honey could be employed in the treatment of fungal infections caused by Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida krusei (Ansari et al., 2013;Estevinho, Afonso, & Fe as, 2011;Irish, Carter, Shokohi, & Blair, 2006;Theunissen, Grobler, & Gedalia, 2001). ...
... Also, these discrepant results could be attributed to the resistant phenotypes of C. albicans and its inherent genetic variation. Thus, certain types of monofloral kinds of honey such as Jarra honey have shown fungicidal effect using <20% (v/v) (Irish et al., 2006), meanwhile other types of honey produced by A. mellifera required more than 60% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of 90% of Candida cells (Estevinho et al., 2011). In other studies, employing honey produced in Turkey, concentration of 80% (v/v) was required to diminish the growth of C. albicans (Koç et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, several studies have demonstrated that different geographical origins of honey could cause variable effects on opportunistic pathogen yeasts. Discrepancy on concentrations required to inhibit the same microorganisms has been attributed in certain cases to the floral composition of honey, in specific, to the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and triterpenes (Estevinho et al., 2011). With respect to these components, an isolated fraction of flavonoids of honey originated from Italy have shown inhibitory growth effect on C. albicans (Candiracci et al., 2011). ...
Article
At present there is a growing interest in the search of novel antifungals in natural products. Honey of Melipona beecheii, a stingless bee species, is used to treat a wide spectrum of diseases for centuries. Recently, M. beecheii honey is of great interest in Mexico and Central America due to its biological activities, especially antimicrobial effects. However, antifungal properties of Melipona honey remain poorly explored. The main purpose of this study was to establish the effects of M. beecheii honey treatment against Candida albicans, determining inhibition of growth and changes on cell wall. Agar diffusion assays and broth macrodilution method were employed to determine the antifungal effect of Melipona honey. Also, scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the effects on cell wall of C. albicans. As a result, we obtained that concentrations of 20% (v/v) and above inhibit the growth of C. albicans and induced dramatic changes in the structure and integrity of the cell wall. Remarkably, concentrations of 35% (v/v) caused fungicidal effect in vitro against this opportunistic pathogen. Therefore, this natural product may be an attractive source of new antifungal compounds, useful in treatments of recalcitrant infections.
... In this context, the availability of effective alternatives to azole antifungal agents with different mechanisms of action could have a significant impact on the global burden of health-care costs and patient's lives. 2 of 8 Honey is a natural substance that has been used for wound healing since ancient times [10]. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of honey can be ascribed to multiple mechanisms [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Honey contains over 200 different components, of which sugars, such as glucose and fructose, encompasses the main part (70%) [19]. ...
... Current research suggests that MGH might offer a valuable therapeutic alternative in the treatment of VVC [14,15,18,27,28]. The results of this study showed no effect of 40% Mexican Yucatan MGH alone against Candida albicans isolates, whereas the MGH product had fungistatic and fungicidal activity. ...
... In vitro studies report relatively high minimal concentrations for the inhibition of Candida spp.; a study on the antimicrobial capacities of Slovenian honeys reported no inhibition of different Candida spp. at 50% (v/v), a result similar to this study [29]. Other published MIC values for different kinds of honey against C. albicans lie between 18% and 42% (v/v) or >60% (v/v) in some studies [14,15,27,28,30]. ...
Article
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Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is predicted to increase to almost 158 million cases annually by 2030. Extensive self-diagnosis and easily accessible over-the-counter (OTC) fungistatic drugs contribute to antifungal-resistance, illustrating the need for novel therapies. Honey possesses multiple antimicrobial mechanisms, and there is no antimicrobial resistance towards honey reported. We evaluated the susceptibility of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans and a control strain to regular honey and a medical grade honey (MGH) gel formulation (L-Mesitran, containing 40% honey and vitamins C and E) using an adapted version of the EUCAST protocol at pH 5.2, 4.6, and 4.0. 40% regular honey did not kill or inhibit C. albicans. In contrast, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L-Mesitran was 25%–50%, while fungicidal effects occurred at a 50% concentration (MBC) of the MGH formulation, except for one strain which was not killed at pH 4.0. Overall, pH had little effect on antimicrobial activity. MGH formulation L-Mesitran has antimicrobial activity against C. albicans over a relevant pH range. The vitamin supplements or other components of L-Mesitran may enhance the antifungal activity of the honey. This study supports performing clinical trials for conditions, such as RVVC, to find an alternative to available OTC fungistatic drugs.
... Honey is a natural ingredient manufactured by bees, from the nectar of flowers or plants' secretions, converted in the upper aero-digestive tract of the same insects (Leticia Estevinho et al. 2011). After the fabrication, this sweet product is stored and matured in the honeycomb. ...
... After the fabrication, this sweet product is stored and matured in the honeycomb. The chemical composition of honey is variable depending on the botanical source (Leticia Estevinho et al. 2011). Several properties of honey have been reported. ...
... All honeys displayed antifungal activities against fluconazole resistant Candida spp.. C. krusei and C. glabrata had lower susceptibility and C. tropicalis and C. albicans showed higher susceptibility to the honeys (Shokri and Sharifzadeh 2017). Finally, Estevinho et al. (2011) have also observed that synthetic honey solution was inferior in anti-fungal activity compared with natural honey. The Xminconcentration that inhibited 10% of the yeasts growthfor the lavender honey ranged from 31.0% ...
Chapter
The presence of fungal infections continue to grow worldwide, mostly in immunosuppressed patients, and in individuals with continued antimicrobial treatments. Candida spp. are the most common yeasts involved in these disorders, being associated with a high rate of antifungal resistance and an increased ability to form biofilms, which make the treatment of these infections difficult. This review aims to present and discuss the main biofilm-related infections cause by several Candida spp. and novel therapies that are currently available in the clinical, scientific and academic environment. New drugs with promising antifungal activity, natural approaches (e.g. probiotics, essential oils, plant extracts, honey) and a final consideration on alternative methodologies, such as photodynamic therapy are presented and discussed.
... Global production of the pollen is around 1500 tons per year. The largest producers are China, Australia, and Argentina (Estevinho, Afonso, & Feás, 2011). Pollen is a product harvested by bees. ...
... Carbohydrates constitute a major part of pollen, which are about two-thirds of their total dry weight (Estevinho et al., 2011). Carbohydrates absorbed by human organism are present in pollen in an amount ranging from 24% to 35% on average (Nagai et al., 2004). ...
... Carbohydrates absorbed by human organism are present in pollen in an amount ranging from 24% to 35% on average (Nagai et al., 2004). According to Estevinho et al. (2011), the content of carbohydrates in pollen coming from Portugal ranged from 60.8% to 70.7%. Monosaccharides account for about 94% of total sugars present in the pollen. ...
Article
Background An interest in substances of natural origin has been a subject that is increasing constantly-both those known for many years and recently discovered are of great interest to the researchers. This interest also applies to bee products because of their extensive nutritional and therapeutic properties; these products are known and used for several thousand years, but only recently, they became the subject of sparse documented scientific research. With the passing of time, it is difficult to determine what will be the wishes and requirements of the future consumers, what should be introduced to new technologies to ensure the demand for new products. Scope and approach Recently, there has been an increasing demand for natural products, particularly the bee products. Bee bread and pollen, due to their nutritional and medicinal properties, are used for apitherapeutic purposes. These include about 200 different substances, such as free amino acids and vitamins. Special attention should be attributed to unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic, which are found in pollen and bee bread. Key finding and conclusion The fashion for a healthy lifestyle leads to a situation where a number of people start taking care of their health. They search for the highest quality products, preferably with health benefits, rich in vitamins, valuable bioelements, and nutrients. Therefore, bee bread that is rich in beneficial ingredients has proved to fulfill these expectations. It constitutes a wholesome, biologically active nutrient, which can be used in the food industry.
... Irish et al, reported that hydrogen peroxide content in honey greater antifungal effect [9] . While Estevinho et al [7] , described that antifungal properties of the honey are not due to sugar content and it might be attributed to the components of plant origin [7] . Our findings provide evidence for the contribution of floral origin to antifungal activity. ...
... Irish et al, reported that hydrogen peroxide content in honey greater antifungal effect [9] . While Estevinho et al [7] , described that antifungal properties of the honey are not due to sugar content and it might be attributed to the components of plant origin [7] . Our findings provide evidence for the contribution of floral origin to antifungal activity. ...
... Little antifungal activity was observed at <2% honey dilution. This variability in the antifungal effect of honey samples was also observed by several other authors [2,7,11] . The significant antifungal activity in diluted honey samples was also due to hydrogen peroxide produced by enzymatic activity. ...
Article
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Different honey brands from Pakistan, Germany and Arabian countries were examined to test their antifungal potential against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The in-vitro antifungal activity with different concentrations (Undiluted, 10, 20, 30% v/v) of honey was compared with commercial antifungal drug fluconazole. The diameters of zone of the inhibition of various concentrations of honey ranged from 11-22 mm for A. niger and 13-24 mm for P. chrysogenum, respectively. Lenganese honey brand (LH) showed highest activity (62- 68%) in undiluted honey sample (100%) while honey samples from Pakistani origin exhibited 60-65.71% activity against tested fungal strains. Multi-floral honey samples inhibited the fungal growth more efficiently than the unifloral honey. The antifungal activities of Pakistani honey brands were comparable with international honey brands and commercial antifungal drug fluconazole and might serve to protect health against these human pathogenic fungi.
... However, Khosravi et al. claimed that different samples of tested honeys were able to produce a complete inhibition for C. albicans with MIC ranging from 29 to 56% [54]. Additional reports indicated variable sensitivity of C. albicans to different honey samples [55]. In this study, the least sensitive fungal isolates were C. neoformans and the reference strain of C. krusie. ...
... In this study, the least sensitive fungal isolates were C. neoformans and the reference strain of C. krusie. In 2011, Estevinho et al. reported reduced growth rates of C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. neoformans in media contacting monofloral lavender honey samples [55]. C. krusei and C. neoformans were less sensitive than C. albicans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Honey exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria that continues to be a serious health problem. We reported the in-vitro activity of Saudi Sumra honey against clinical pathogenic bacteria and fungi, antibiofilm, anti-quorum-sensing (QS) and antioxidant activities in relation to its phytochemical composition assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Broth dilution method and scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and β-carotene bleaching assays were performed. The GC-MS analysis of Sumra honey showed that 2,4-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furan-3-one 1-methylcyclopropanemethanol were the major identified phytoconstituents. Sumra honey showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 300 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (250 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (350 mg/mL) and Acinetobacter baumannii (250 mg/mL); clinical fungal isolates—Candida auris (600 mg/mL) and Cryptococcus neoformans (>1000 mg/mL); wild type fungal isolates—Candida krusei (>1000 mg/mL) and Candida albicans (700 mg/mL). In addition, Sumra honey demonstrated promising inhibition targeting biofilm formation by 59% for Bacillus subtilis, 48% for S. aureus, 38% for E. coli, and 33.63% for P. aeruginosa. The violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum was reduced to 68%, whereas pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa was reduced to 54.86% at ½ MIC. Furthermore, Sumra honey exhibited strong antioxidant activities (DPPH − IC50 = 7.7 mg/mL; ABTS − IC50 = 5.4 mg/mL; β-carotene − IC50 = >20 mg/mL). Overall, obtained data highlighted the promising potential therapeutic use of Sumra honey treating infections caused by MDR bacteria and fungi. Moreover, Sumra honey can be a good candidate as an inhibitor agent for bacterial cellular communication in strains of P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum.
... Raw honey is inhibitory to fungi, partially due to its high sugar content and low water activity [12]. However, a survey comparing the antifungal effects of raw monofloral honey with synthetic honey demonstrated that heather and lavender honey exhibited higher antifungal activity than sugar-based synthetic honey [13,14]. Other than osmotic inhibition, some chemical components in raw honey are also antifungal: hydrogen peroxide, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lysozymes, and other antioxidant compounds [15]. ...
... ATCC 55079 (NCBI accession number: KU170613.1). The presence of iturin gene clusters in the genome further validated the MS data, indicating the production of C14 -iturin (m/z of [M+H] + 1043.55) and C 15 -iturin (m/z of [M+H] + 1057.57). 4. Core genome phylogeny of 43 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens group isolates. ...
Article
Full-text available
Raw honey contains a diverse microbiota originating from honeybees, plants, and soil. Some gram-positive bacteria isolated from raw honey are known for their ability to produce secondary metabolites that have the potential to be exploited as antimicrobial agents. Currently, there is a high demand for natural, broad-spectrum, and eco-friendly bio-fungicides in the food industry. Naturally occurring antifungal products from food-isolated bacteria are ideal candidates for agricultural applications. To obtain novel antifungals from natural sources, we isolated bacteria from raw clover and orange blossom honey to evaluate their antifungal-producing potential. Two Bacillus velezensis isolates showed strong antifungal activity against food-isolated fungal strains. Antifungal compound production was optimized by adjusting the growth conditions of these bacterial isolates. Extracellular proteinaceous compounds were purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, solid phase extraction, and RP-HPLC. Antifungal activity of purified products was confirmed by deferred overlay inhibition assay. Mass spectrometry (MS) was performed to determine the molecular weight of the isolated compounds. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted to predict secondary metabolite gene clusters encoded by the two antifungal-producing strains. Using MS and WGS data, we determined that the main antifungal compound produced by these two Bacillus velezensis isolates was iturin A, a lipopeptide exhibiting broad spectrum antifungal activity.
... Nevertheless, some studies did report selected fungal resistance to selected honey. [9][10] The in vitro antifungal activity of honey was reported by Estevinho et al. (2011), who observed that honey inhibited the growth of C. albicans, C. krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. 11 Obaseik-Ebor and Afonya (1984) compared the antifungal activity of honey distillate with some antimycotic preparations against C. albicans and found that all the strains resistant to conventional antimycotic agents were inhibited by active fraction of honey. ...
... [9][10] The in vitro antifungal activity of honey was reported by Estevinho et al. (2011), who observed that honey inhibited the growth of C. albicans, C. krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. 11 Obaseik-Ebor and Afonya (1984) compared the antifungal activity of honey distillate with some antimycotic preparations against C. albicans and found that all the strains resistant to conventional antimycotic agents were inhibited by active fraction of honey. 12 Boukraa and Bouchegrane (2007) reports in vitro antifungal efficacy of Algeria honey on A. niger and C. albicans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Otomycosis has been reported to be prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The causative pathogens causing otomycosis include Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans, for which the antifungal treatment regime has not been clearly standardized. Honey is a natural product which has been widely studied for various properties, including antimicrobial properties. This study was aimed at determining the antifungal activities of three types of Malaysian honey; Tualang, Acacia and Kelulut honey, against fungal pathogens of otomycosis. Methods: The honey samples were examined for antifungal activity against Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans. Honey was incorporated into Sabouraud dextrose agar at concentrations of 5% (v/v), 10% (v/v), 20% (v/v) and 25% (v/v). Conidial suspension was inoculated and spread onto honey-SDA agar plates. After incubation colony counts were determined. Results: The honey samples demonstrated varying levels of inhibitory activity at various concentrations against the fungi tested with colony count reducing with increasing honey concentration. All three honeys showed total growth inhibition at 25% (v/v) concentration. Comparing the three types of honey, Kelulut honey was shown to be the most active against the tested fungi. Conclusion: The three honeys used in the study showed promising antifungal activity. Malaysian honeys have shown potential as antifungal substances for possible development of antifungal drugs for the treatment of fungal infections such as otomycosis.
... Bactericidal, bacteriostatic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or anti-tumoral are therapeutic properties of honey that have been described [106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116], giving this product an extremely important role in traditional and modern medicine. Nonetheless the few published reports and the available conclusions, the results on the antifungal activity of honey seem favorable. ...
... The floral honeys had greater antifungal activities compared to the artificial honey. Estevinho et al [106] also remarked this observation. In their study, a synthetic honey solution was tested, in order to conclude if the antifungal activity that was attributable to sugars. ...
Article
Background: Candida is the main human fungal pathogen causing infections (candidiasis), mostly in the elderly and immunocompromised hosts. Even though Candida is a member of the oral microbiota in symbiosis, in some circumstances, it can cause microbial imbalance leading to dysbiosis, resulting in oral diseases. Alternative therapies are urgently needed to treat oral candidiasis (usually associated to biofilms), as several antifungal drugs' activity has been compromised. This has occurred especially due to an increasing occurrence of drug-resistant in Candida spp. strains. The overuse of antifungal medications, systemic toxicity, cross-reactivity with other drugs and a presently low number of drug molecules with antifungal activity, have contributed to important clinical limitations. Methods: We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases (PubMed Central, Elsevier's ScienceDirect, SCOPUS and Springer's SpringerLink) for peer-reviewed research literature using a focused review in the areas of alternatives to manage oral candidiasis. The keywords used were "candidiasis", "oral candidiasis", "biofilm + candida", "alternative treatment", "combination therapy + candida" and the reports from the last 10 to 15 years were considered for this review. Results: This review identified several promising new approaches in the treatment of oral candidiasis: combination anti-Candida therapies, denture cleansers, mouth rinses as alternatives for disrupting candidal biofilms, natural compounds (e.g. honey, probiotics, plant extracts and essential oils) and photodynamic therapy. Conclusion: The findings of this review confirm the importance and the urgency of the development of efficacious therapies for oral candidal infections.
... Consequently, the chemical composition of honey varies depending on the botanical source. Honey is then stored in the honeycomb where it ripens and matures [243]. ...
... They also reported greater antifungal activities of the floral honeys compared to the artificial honey. This observation was also reported in the study of Estevinho et al. [243], where a synthetic honey solution was tested to determine the antifungal activity that was attributable to sugars, only to find that the activity was reduced compared to natural honey. It is therefore suggested that the component(s) of honey responsible for the antifungal properties are not sugar based. ...
Article
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Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance, and although its inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them.
... Studies on the antifungal effects of lavender were different. Lavender had a very weak inhibitory effect of fungus in some studies, but, in most cases, its antifungal effect was significantly positive [11][12][13][14]. Devkatte et al. [15] in a study on herbal oils as potential inhibitors of Candida albicans growth aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 38 herbal oil essences. ...
... Mahboubi showed that some essential oils were most effective against candida strains [17]. Basically, lavender oil has a long history of medicinal use in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) [18] and has antimicrobial activity against fungi and bacteria [12,[19][20][21]. Several combinations such as linalyl acetate, linalool, butyric acid, and propionic acid are involved in this activity [11]. ...
Article
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Background. The treatment of candidiasis infections is an important problem in the health care system. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effect of lavender essential oil and clotrimazole on isolated C. albicans from vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, C. albicans isolated from the vaginal discharge samples was obtained. Results. The pairwise comparison showed that lavender and clotrimazole had a significant difference; this difference in the lavender group was lower than clotrimazole. But, after 48 hours, there was no difference seen between groups. There was a significant difference between clotrimazole and DMSO groups. Comparing the changes between groups based on the same dilution, at 24 h and 48 h in clotrimazole group, showed a significant difference two times in the fungal cell count that its average during 48 h was less than 24 h. A significant difference was observed between the two periods in lavender group, only at the dilutions of 1/20 and 1/80. The average fungal cell count after 48 h was also lower in lavender group. Conclusions. Given that the lavender has antifungal activity, this can be used as an antifungal agent. However, more clinical studies are necessary to validate its use in candida infection.
... The moisture content of fresh bee pollen in this study varies slightly-between 0.01 and 0.02%-and was sufficient for fungi growth. The high moisture content can lead to an increase in microscopic fungal contamination which causes the production of mycotoxins [15,40]. ...
Article
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This paper presents the results of a study which was aimed at determining the concentration of Fusarium fungi and their mycotoxins in fresh bee pollen, stored for different periods. The analysed parameters included palynological analysis, moisture content, fungal counts, identification and toxigenic profiles. In this study, 45 bee pollen samples collected from the same apiary families were investigated. Palynological analysis determined six plant families, among which Brassicaceae prevailed. The number of detected isolates in the bee pollen during the study period ranged from 3.5 × 103 to 9.1 × 104 cfu g−1. During the study, the most prevalent fungal genera of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Yeasts were found in fresh bee pollen. The significantly highest amounts of fungal colonies were determined after 3 days of storage of undried pollen. Fusarium fungal genera were detected in 46% of all studied samples, with levels ranging from 101 cfu g−1. After 3 days of storage, the most significant Fusarium spp. increase (17.03%) was detected. F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides prevailed during the whole period of the study. The highest concentrations of mycotoxins ZEN (280 µg kg−1) and DON (120 µg kg−1) were found after 3 days of pollen storage. The results of the present study report the importance of microbiological and mycotoxicological analyses in monitoring bee pollen from the initial stages of its production process.
... Global production of the pollen is around 1500 tons per year. The largest producers are China, Australia, and Argentina (Estevinho et al., 2011). Foraging bees collect pollen from flowers bring pollen back to the hive where it is packed into pellets and stored. ...
Article
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There has been an increasing demand for natural products, particularly the bee products in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans. Bee bread and pollen are widely used for apitherapeutic purposes due to the nutritional and medicinal properties. These include about 200 different substances, especially enzymes, free amino acids and vitamins. Clinical standardization of these products is usually hindered due to chemical variability and inconsistency of bee products depending on honeybee and botanical sources. The major bioactive compounds in honeybee products include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. Royal jelly consist of antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which has potent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C found in propolis shows good antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The major components of bee venom consists of toxic peptides like melittin (pain-inducing), apamin (SK channel blocking), and phospholipase A2 (allergenic). Bee pollen rich in vitamins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics. Bee pollen also contains antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is pharmaceutical as well as widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources and present Covid-19 pandemic situation, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.
... Global production of BCP is ∼1,500 tons per year. The largest producers are China, Australia, and Argentina (55). As a wellknown functional food, the main primary constituents of the BCP are carbohydrates (12,56,57), and water, which are rich in protein (58,59), lipids (57,(60)(61)(62), dietary fiber, and mineral contents, as well as vitamins and antioxidants (63). ...
Article
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Increased demand for a more balanced, healthy, and safe diet has accelerated studies on natural bee products (including honey, bee bread, bee collected pollen royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, and bee venom) over the past decade. Advanced food processing techniques, such as ultrasonication and microwave and infrared (IR) irradiation, either has gained popularity as alternatives or combined with conventional processing techniques for diverse applications in apiculture products at laboratory or industrial scale. The processing techniques used for each bee products have comprehensively summarized in this review, including drying (traditional drying, infrared drying, microwave-assisted traditional drying or vacuum drying, and low temperature high velocity-assisted fluidized bed drying), storage, extraction, isolation, and identification; the assessment methods related to the quality control of bee products are also fully mentioned. The different processing techniques applied in bee products aim to provide more healthy active ingredients largely and effectively. Furthermore, improved the product quality with a shorter processing time and reduced operational cost are achieved using conventional or emerging processing techniques. This review will increase the positive ratings of the combined new processing techniques according to the needs of the bee products. The importance of the models for process optimization on a large scale is also emphasized in the future.
... The practice of harvesting wild bees for honey and wax, as well as hunting wasp colonies for brood and nests, survives in our day, although man has now become a beekeeper and an incipient wasp breeder. Beehive harvested products (honey, pollen, propolis, bee bread, wax, royal jelly, and venom) have been useful since ancient times, not only as food but also as treatment for medical conditions [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Wasps too are appreciated as nutritious food and their nests are used therapeutically in traditional medicine [14]. ...
Article
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Epidemiology of fatalities in Spain due to hornet, wasp, and bee stings (Cause Code of Death: X23) is described. Over a 20-year period (1999–2018), a total of 78 fatalities were recorded, mostly occurring in males (85.9%), of 65 years and older (52.6%), at “unspecified places” (67.9%), and in the months of July and August (50%). The X23 mortality rates (X23MR) expressed in terms of annual rates and per million inhabitants, varied from 0.02 to 0.19 (mean value ± standard deviation = 0.09 ± 0.05), placing Spain at low levels in comparison with other countries. A more detailed and specific breakdown of the distribution of the yearly deaths at the sub-state level and across communities reveals some striking features. They were more concentrated in the communities of Galicia (35.8%), Andalucía (21.7%), and Castilla y León (12.8%). X23MR were estimated in Galicia at 1.82, 1.10, and 2.22 in 2014, 2016, and 2018, respectively; and in Asturias at 1.88 and 0.97, in 2014 and 2017, respectively. The role of the invasive species Vespa velutina (VV) is examined. Due to its habits, abundance, and broader distribution, the risk that VV represents to human health is unmatched by other Hymenoptera native species.
... Lavender honey also showed an in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, C. krusei and C. albicans at a concentration of 10% (w/v). 53 Similarly, an in vitro study of Medihoney was demonstrated to examine the efficiency in inhibiting all 21 bacterial strains as well as yeasts, i.e. C. neoformans, and C. albicans with MIC of 1.8% to 10.8% (V/V) respectively. 54 On the other hand, Ghoshal et al. 55 acknowledged that lactones, terpenoids and alkaloids are the main components responsible for antifungal activity. ...
Article
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Introduction: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) has received enormous attention, not only due to its negative influences on women’s life but also because of the escalating trend of fungal resistance towards current antifungal drugs. In recent decades, researches have been focusing on the development of natural products as the antifungal agents due to their low side effects compared to standard antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods: The antifungal activity of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey (TH) in single as well as in combinations were evaluated in this study. Agar well diffusion method was used and the zone of inhibitions was compared to the standard drug, fluconazole. Results: The antifungal activity of these natural products alone was low and not all combinations were significant. Moreover, both curcumin and piperine are known to have low bioavailability that might limit its fungicidal efficiency. Hence, nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and honey were then developed in this study. The nanoemulsions of three natural compounds have possessed favorable antifungal activity (more than 80%) against the wide range of Candida spp. Particularly, Candida albicans was more susceptible to these nanoemulsions compared to other species tested and some of them were the most resistant to fluconazole. Conclusions: In concise, this study showed evidence in support of the therapeutic use of nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey in antifungal infections.
... Antimicrobial experiments have shown that propolis extracts derived from bees can also effectively control the proliferation of CA (11). Lavender honey is another product that has been reported to have a certain inhibitory effect on CA and the growth of pathogenic yeasts (12). In vitro antimicrobial activity assays reveal that the natural formula traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine for curing CA targets 23 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, among others (13). ...
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In this study, six compounds were isolated and purified from dandelion, and only sample I exhibited notable antifungal effect on Candida albicans (CA). high‑performance liquid chromatography‑diode‑array detector‑electrospray ionization‑tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that sample I comprised 4‑coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin pentoside, 3,5‑di‑O‑caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5‑di‑O‑caffeoylquinic acid, luteolin, and two unknown compounds, at a relative percent composition of 11.45, 3.96, 10.48, 34.24, 3.91, 11.80, 3.65 and 4.21%, respectively. Further antimicrobial experiments showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of sample I was 32.0 mg/ml, and sample I mainly acts on bacterial growth in the exponential phase of CA growth. Optical density and infrared analyses conclusively suggested that sample I damages the structure of CA cells, particularly the cell wall and cell membrane, resulting in macromolecule leakage of intracellular nucleic acids and cell metabolism disruption. In conclusion, dandelion sample I was reported to increase CA cell membrane permeability by affecting the glycosidic bond in β‑(1‑3)‑D glucan and destroying the cell wall, ultimately leading CA to death.
... to 45% (v/v) [19], that for Portugalian lavender honey against C. albicans was 31.0% (w/v) [31], for Slovenian honey MIC against C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis was found to be greater than 50% ...
Article
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Natural honey is utilized worldwide as nutraceutical due to its proven efficacy in treating chronic and acute infections including fungal infections caused by multidrug-resistant microbes. Candida species e.g. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis are involved in skin infections as well as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Multidrug-resistant candida infections occur frequently in both community and hospitals. To control these devastating fungal infections, identification of new potent antifungal agents is essentially required. Present study was aimed to evaluate antifungal potency of various Pakistani honeys against clinically isolated specimens of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis using agar dilution assay. Natural honey samples showed antifungal activity at minimum inhibitory concentration values of 3-10% w/v against all Candida species tested except for Candida glabrata isolates which showed resistance to honey samples tested.
... [4][5][6][7] The antibacterial activity can vary in spectrum and potency with honeys of different sources. 1 Antifungal effects against Candida albicans, C glabrata, C dubliniensis, C krusei, Trichosoporon spp, and Cryptococcus neoformans have been reported with various dilutions of honeys from different botanical origins. [8][9][10] Honey at concentrations of 11-1.8% has been reported to inhibit large samples of infectious wounds while concentrations of 4-1% suppresses methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). 4,5 In addition, chitosan has drawn substantial attention in medical applications as a precious biomaterial because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as antimicrobial and antitumoral capabilities. ...
Article
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Introduction: Honey and chitosan have shown antimicrobial and wound healing effects. As a biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterial, chitosan has shown antimicrobial capabilities. Objective: In this study, the effects of the incorporation of high molecular weight chitosan hydrogel on antibacterial, antifungal, and wound healing properties of honey were investigated. Materials and methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration of chitosan and honey were examined in pure and 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 (v/v) compound ratios for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. In addition, the inflammatory, granulation and fibrotic tissue formation, reepithelialization indices, and wound shrinkage effects of each treatment were evaluated and compared with saline and silver sulfadiazine. Results: Chitosan/honey 1:3 was found to be effective against all 5 aforementioned germs. Honey, chitosan/honey 1:1, and chitosan/honey 1:3 showed faster wound healing and shrinkage effects. Conclusions: Incorporation of chitosan hydrogel into honey can substantially enhance its antimicrobial and wound healing effects. Chitosan-hydrogel/honey (1:3) is an optimal wound dressing formulation with ample antimicrobial and healing properties.
... Furthermore, our results revealed that Euphorbia honey had an antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms. In fact, several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of different honeys on numerous bacteria including, anaerobes, Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria [36] and fungi such as C. albicans [37,38]. Wasihun and Kasa [39] also found that honey inhibited the growth of multidrug resistant S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. ...
Article
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Currently, chronic wounds and microbial resistance to antibiotics have led to search new healing agents. Combinations of natural products are widely practiced in traditional medicine and exhibited synergistic activity with increased efficacy in treating several pathologies. This study assays the antioxidant, synergistic antimicrobial and burn wound healing activities of Euphorbia honey and Allium sativum (garlic). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each natural product was determined against microorganisms commonly found in wound infections. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was assessed by mixing different concentrations of honey and garlic extract below their relative MICs. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents of both natural products and a selected mixture of them were evaluated. Efficacy of that mixture was also evaluated as topical application on male and female Wistar rats skin burn wound, compared to Euphorbia honey and two conventional treatments. Results showed that the mixture honey–A. sativum has synergistic antimicrobial effect against all tested strains. Besides, A. sativum presented higher antioxidant activity along with higher TPC and TFC compared to honey and their mixture. However, the mixture showed higher wound healing activity reflected by shorter epithelialization and wound contraction time, as well as, better histological recovery of the treated tissues. Our results also showed that burn wound healing is not affected by gender. Our findings support the idea of combining natural products as an effective therapy.
... Beebread contains 14-37% proteins, 24-34% carbohydrates, 3.2% lactic acid, 6-13% lipids, and 2.7% cellulose (Anđelković et al., 2012;Barene et al., 2015;Campos et al., 2008;De Grandi-Hoffman et al., 2013;Estevinho, Afonso, & Feás, 2011;Fuenmayor et al., 2014;Karmakar, 2015;Nagai, Nagashima, Myoda, & Inoue, 2004;Zuluaga, Serrato, & Quicazan, 2015). It further contains mineral components, vitamin K, and free amino acids (Gilliam, 1979;Nagai et al., 2004). ...
... Previous studies of Portuguese raw heather (Erica sp.) honeys revealed H 2 O 2 -dependent antifungal activity against C.albicans, C. krusei, C. famata and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values in the range 14-23% (w/v), [32] slightly higher than MIC value of 6.25% (w/v) obtained for the studied commercial heather honey against C. albicans. On the other hand, low antifungal activity was reported for lavender (Lavandula stoechas) honey from the North of Portugal when tested against C. albicans, C. krusei and C. neoformans [40]. This behaviour contrasts with the analyzed lavender (Lavandula spp.) honey from the south of Portugal (Serra da Malcata), which showed both fungistatic and fungicidal effects against C. albicans, with MIC and MBC values of 12.5% and 25% (w/v), respectively. ...
... The varieties of honey types are influenced by the floral source and different geographical origin which are major contributors to diverse biological effects. (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11) The main difference is however between two types of products known as nectar honey, which is created from nectars of different plants and the honeydew honey which bees produce from secretions of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants. (9,12,13) Different kinds of aphids species like Cinara pectinatae Nördl., Todolachnus abieticola Chol., Mindarus abietinus Koch, Physokermes hemycryphus Dalm can produce different kinds of honeydew honey (14). ...
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The paper examines the antiproliferative, antimicrobial and antioxidative effects of fir (Abies alba Mill.) honeydew honey from mountain region of Croatia (Gorski kotar) as a potential replacement for standard antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Cell viability, annexin V assay and flow cytometry analysis served to analyse the antiproliferative effect on, apoptosis induction in and cell death of cancer cell lines: HeLa, MCF-7, SW620, CFPAC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and normal diploid human fibroblasts (BJ). Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter strains by agar well diffusion and microdilution assays. The DPPH˙ assay determined the radical scavenging activity, while mathematical models helped to evaluate the kinetic data of DPPH˙ inhibition. Antiproliferative effect on all tested cell lines and the prominent effect on normal diploid human fibroblasts (BJ), colorectal adenocarcinoma (SW620, metastatic) and breast epithelial adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, metastatic) was observable. The mechanisms of antiproliferative effect included accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase in all tested cells and induction of apoptosis in SW620 and MCF-7 cells predominantly. The antibacterial assays showed that antibiotic-resistant strains of both bacteria, including multi-resistant strain A. baumannii ATCC® BAA-1605™, were sensitive to all tested honey samples. Radical scavenging assay suggests that antioxidants present in the honey possess different radical suppressing abilities and that they react at different rates with radicals, thereby causing two steps of reaction. The results of the study indicate that Croatian fir honeydew honey has a therapeutic potential due to the strong biological activity and can serve to protect human health.
... Plants and their constituents are a potential for H. pylori therapy because some are selective and biodegrade to nontoxic products [18]. Certain plants and their constituents manifest antibacterial activity against various microorganisms and have been proposed as alternatives to the widely used antibiotics [19,20,21,22,23,24]. They are highly effective toward antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains [25,26], and are likely to be useful in resistance management strategies. ...
Conference Paper
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infectious bacteria. The infection is highly associated with a number of the most important disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulceration, and gastric cancer. In addition, widespread use of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance. Metabolites of plants, particularly higher plants, have been suggested as alternative potential sources for antibacterial products due to their safe. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activities of crude ethanolic extracts of seventeen Vietnamese medicinal plants toward one reference strain and three clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using broth micro-dilution bioassay. The antibacterial activities of these extracts were also compared with those of seven antibiotics, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole. The extracts of Ampelopsis cantoniensis and Cleistocalyx operculatus showed highest antibacterial activity with MIC (MBC) values of 0.31 – 0.97 (2.5 – 5) mg/mL, followed by the extracts of Hedyotis diffusa and Ardisia silvestris with MIC (MBC) values of 1.04 – 1.94 (7.5 – 10) mg/mL. The remaining plant extracts exhibited moderate, low and very low or no active to the H. pylori strains. Further studies are needed to determine the active compounds from the extracts that showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori.
... 6,7 The recurrent use of antibiotic eardrops can lead to bacterial resistance. 8 Honey is more often used as an alternative treatment option for different diseases in otorhinolaryngology. 9 Honey has a strong antibacterial 10 and, to a lesser extent, antifungal property 11 and was found to be effective in some forms of dermatitis. 12,13 The effect of medical honey eardrops for external auditory canal disease and their bactericidal capacity have not been studied previously. ...
Article
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Eczematous external otitis is a chronic inflammatory disease and often difficult to treat. Our objective was to investigate the clinical effect and in vitro antibacterial potential of medical honey eardrops as treatment of eczematous external otitis. In a prospective study, 15 patients diagnosed with recurrent eczematous external otitis were treated with medical honey eardrops for 2 weeks. The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visual analog scale of ear complaints, score of eczema, and eradication of bacterial infection. Furthermore, the antibacterial effect of honey eardrops against different bacterial strains was tested in vitro. Treatment resulted in less discomfort and itching and decreased signs of eczema, with high patient satisfaction and without adverse reactions. Honey eardrops showed a strong in vitro inhibitory activity against all tested strains but did not eradicate Staphylococcus aureus infection in vivo. The results of this preliminary study indicate a possible role of honey eardrops in eczematous ear disease.
... Antibacterial and antifungal properties of honey against some microbial species have been reported (Chute et al., 2010;Kwakman et al., 2010). More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to many species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, Gram positives, and Gram negatives (Maria et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Though much has been documented on the biological activity of honey, no scientific report was seen on the antibacterial activity of honey from Oku, Mbengwi and Ngaoundéré in Cameroon. Our aim was to study the in vitro antibacterial activity of honey produced from these places against clinical isolates. Honey samples were tested for antibacterial activity at concentrations from 100 to 20% volume per volume (v/v) against clinical bacterial isolates using agar well diffusion method. MICs and MBCs of honey samples (49.02 to 1.53% v/v) were determined using broth and agar media respectively. Ciprofloxacin was used as reference substance (120 to 0.5 μg/ml). Honey pH was measured using CYBOW11 test strips. Data were analysed with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 19. These honey samples inhibited the studied bacterial growth at concentrations ≥ 40% with S. aureus and E. coli being more susceptible. Antibacterial activities at concentrations > 60% were comparable to that of the reference drug at p=0.05. The MICs and MBCs ranged from 12.25 to 49.02%. The pH of honeys was estimated to be 5. Oku, Mbengwi and Ngaoundéré honey samples showed antibacterial activity against some bacteria known to cause infectious diseases in humans. © 2016 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Honey, inhibition zone diameter, MIC/MBC, clinical isolates, Cameroon
... Monofloral lavender honey types were examined and they showed antifungal activity against Candida krusei, C. albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans [14]. Malaysian honey showed activity against C. parapsilosis and C. albicans due to the enzyme amylase present in honey which expands the osmotic effect in the media by extending the amount of sugars and therefore increasing the antifungal activity. ...
Article
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Topical microemulsion systems for the antifungal activity containing Clotrimazole are available to overcome the problems associated with its low solubility (0.49 mg/L) and slow dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objective of the study is to assess the antifungal activity and stability of Clotrimazole and jambhul honey in microemulsion formulation. The solubility of Clotrimazole in various oils, surfactants and cosurfactants was assessed to finalize the components of the w/o and o/w microemulsions. The pseudoternary diagrams were plotted to obtain the area of microemulsion region. The effect of Smix (surfactant:cosurfactant weight ratio) on the microemulsion region was determined and optimum systems were developed. Eight Clotrimazole microemulsion formulations, each four of water/oil (isopropyl myristae/Tween 80/phophotidyl choline/water) and oil/water (oleic acid/Cremophor EL/Transcutol P/water) were prepared and evaluated. The formulated systems were evaluated for drug content and drug loading capacity and characterized. Creams and gels of optimized formulations were prepared and were evaluated for spreadability, drug content, appearance, pH, viscosity, in vitro release, ex vivo skin permeation and antifungal activity. The optimized microemulsion had a uniform globule size of 84.4 nm. Outcomes of drug content and stability study showed that optimized microemulsion gel remain stable even after 90 days. Zone of inhibition was established against Candida albicans which was determined by cup plate method and compared with clotrimazole microemulsion gel and marketed gel. Microemulsion gel comprising of jambhul honey, oleic acid, Cremophor EL, Transcutol P and water was deemed promising as a topical delivery system of Clotrimazole for the treatment of skin fungal infections.
... Approximately one million cases of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients are reported globally each year, with over 60 % mortality. To treat the fungal disease, the therapeutics used currently are amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole, which were developed from antifungal screening on natural extracts and structure-based semisynthesis from a key module (Estevinho et al. 2011;Pasqua et al. 2011;Kim et al. 2014). Even though therapeutic drugs were successfully developed, new antifungal development research is ongoing due to adverse effects and the increasing resistance of strains to the therapeutics. ...
Article
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To handle the development of antifungal drug resistance, the development of new structural modules and new modes of action for antifungals have been highlighted recently. Here, the antifungal activity of quinonemethidal triterpenoids such as celastrol, dihydrocelastrol, iguestein, pristimerin, and tingenone isolated from Tripterygium regelii were identified (MIC 0.269-19.02 µM). C. glabrata was the most susceptible to quinonemethide among the tested fungi. Furthermore, quinonemethide suppressed cyctochrome c peroxidase expression dramatically, decreasing fungal viability caused by the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, cyctochrome c peroxidase downregulation of quinonemethide may be a key mode of action for antifungals.
... A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT processes, asthma, infected wounds, chronic wounds, skin ulcers, and cataracts [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. This may explain widespread use of honey resulting in its production commercially, artificially, and through natural bee hive. ...
Article
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Objective: To determine antiacanthamoebic activity of natural and marketed honey samples. Methods: Natural honey samples were collected directly from the bee hive and marketed honey samples were purchased from the local market in Karachi, Pakistan. Both honey samples were tested for their flavonoid content (quercetin equivalent per gram of the extract) and phenolic content (gallic acid equivalent per gram). Furthermore, their antioxidant activity was determined by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Using amoebistatic and amoebicidal assays, the effects of honey samples were tested against growth and viability of Acanthamoeba parasites. Results: Natural honey exhibited potent amoebistatic and amoebicidal effects, in a concentration-dependent manner. Honey-treated Acanthamoeba castellanii showed loss of acanthopodia, following which amoebae detached, rounded up, reduced in size, decreased in cytoplasmic mass and they were observed floating in the culture medium. Importantly, honey-treated amoebae did not revive when inoculated in fresh growth medium, however, glycerol-treated amoebae exhibited viable trophozoite and active growth. In contrast, marketed honey samples varied in their efficacy against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The proportion of flavonoid, as determined by quercetin measurements and the proportion of phenolic, as determined by gallic acid measurements was higher in natural honey compared with marketed honey. Similarly, the antioxidant activity, as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was higher in natural honey vs. marketed honey. Conclusions: This study shows that natural honey has antiacanthamoebic properties and possesses higher flavonoid, phenolic and antioxidant properties compared with the marketed honey. These findings are of concern to the public, health officials, and to the manufacturers regarding production of honey for medical applications.
... The biochemical functions and different substances of nectar act as protection from microbial infestation through a novel biochemical pathway called the "Nectar Redox Cycle." [8][9][10][11][12][13][14] In order to identify the floral source of honeys, several chemical markers from nectar, including polyphenols, were proposed. ...
Article
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Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant's nectar, which are collected by bees, which convert the nectar into honey. Consequently, polyphenols constitute minor components of honey. The development of a solid-phase extraction method for honey polyphenols is presented in this study. The technique employs Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent and was tested on monofloral honeys from six different plants: acacia, chestnut, eucalyptus, thyme, sunflower, and wild carrot. Analyses were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry. Several phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified: caffeic and p-coumaric acids, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, chrysin, and pinocembrin. Generally, the quantity of a given polyphenol in the honey was around 0.2 mg/100 g of honey, except for chestnut honey, which contained around 3.0 mg of p-coumaric acid/100 g of honey. Analyses highlighted significant formation of cis isomers for phenolic acids during the extraction despite protection from light.
... *All determinations were carried out in triplicate and the values were expressed as mean ± SD. revealed that all the honey tested had fungistatic and fungicidal activity against C. albicans at low concentration of 1.25% (V/V). The in vitro antifungal activity of lavender honey was reported that lavender honey inhibited the growth of C. albicans, C. neoformans and C. krusei at a concentration of 10% (W/V) (Maria et al., 2011). This is also in agreement with the findings of the current study. ...
Article
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Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans can cause life-threatening infections, especially in immune-compromised patients. Treatment with currently available antifungal agents may lead to severe side-effects and emergence of resistant strains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of MTH and SBP against C. albicans and C. neoformans. Broth dilution method was used to assess the antifungal properties of the MTH and propolis. Different concentrations of the MTH and propolis (0.78 mg/mL - 50.00 mg/mL) in two-fold dilutions were tested against each fungus to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) which was done by visual inspection and spectrophotometric (MIC95) reading at 620 nm. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was obtained by culturing on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Total phenolic acids and flavonoids contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric assay respectively. The MICs of the MTH against C. albicans and C. neoformans by visual inspection were 6.25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL respectively, meanwhile 6.25 mg/mL and 3.13 mg/mL by spectrophotometric reading. The MFCs of the MTH against C. albicans and C. neoformans were 12.50 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL respectively. The MICs of SBP against C. albicans and C. neoformans by visual inspection were both 1.56 mg/mL whereas spectrophotometric reading recorded MICs of 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL respectively. The MFCs of SBP against C. albicans was 6.25 mg/mL and 3.13 mg/mL for C. neoformans. The total phenolic acids and flavonoids contents of MTH were 275.6 mg gallic acid/kg and 71.8 mg quercetin/kg respectively whereas for SBP, the phenolic acids content was 1754.2 mg gallic acid/kg and the flavonoids content was 82.6 mg quercetin/kg. MTH and SBP exhibited significant antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. neoformans. Their antifungal activities might be attributed to the high phenolic acids and flavonoids. This result suggests that MTH and SBP could potentially be used as alternative therapeutic agents against these fungi.
... It also contains a wide range of minor constituents such as minerals, proteins, vitamins, organic acids, enzymes, and phenolic compounds (Alvarez-Suarez, Tulipani, Romandini, Bertoli, & Battino, 2010). Considerable attention has been paid to honey for its antioxidants and antimicrobial activities (Alvarez-Suarez, Tulipani, Romandini, Vidal, & Battino, 2009;Blasa, Candiracci, Accorsi, Piacentini, & Piatti, 2007;Kishore, Halim, Syazana, & Sirajudeen, 2011;Lachman, Orsák, Hejtmánková, & Kovářová, 2010), for eliminating free radical activities (Allen, Molan, & Reid, 1991;Boorn et al., 2010;Estevinho, Afonso, & Feás, 2011). The phenolic compounds in honey also exhibit potential activity as a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of fungal infections (Candiracci, Citterio, & Piatti, 2012). ...
Article
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A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed to quantify the levels of four main polyphenols in various floral sources honeys. The effect of several parameters—such as pH, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) of the buffer, separation voltage and injection time—were systematically investigated. The main polyphenols were successfully separated within 13 min of UV detection at 214 nm. In the tested concentration range, regression equations revealed good linear relationships between the peak areas and corresponding concentration (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9984 to 0.9997). Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. These compounds are not present in large amounts, but can reach up to 2758 μg in 100 g−1 of honey, which are the main flavonoid aglycones found in honey. The flavonoid glycosides are hydrolyzed by bee enzymes to render the aglycones. Therefore, the flavonoid aglycones should be served as a potential marker and capillary electrophoresis could be used as an effective way to look for in various floral sources.
... The antimicrobial activities of honey have been extensively investigated against a large category of bacterial and fungal pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes, S. mutans, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogens, Escherichia coli, Klesiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans (Mundo et al., 2004;Basualdo et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2008;Sherlock et al., 2010;Estevinho et al., 2011). The differences reported in antimicrobial effects of honey are dependent on its geographical origin thus the botanical source as well as time and processing harvesting, storage conditions, and the nature of pathogens tested (Sherlock et al., 2010;Al-Waili et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.
... It is known to have a high antibacterial activity, comparable to or even higher than Manuka honey or other well known antibacterial types of honey (Deb Mandal and Mandal, 2011; Alnaimat et al., 2012; Bobiş et al., 2013). While current studies focus increasingly on the chemical composition of heather honey: palynological and physicochemical composition (Andrade et al., 1999; Pires et al., 2009; Dezmirean et al., 2010; Moise et al., 2013), possible floral marker evaluation (Oelschlägel, 2011), antioxidant properties (Estevinho et al., 2012; Moise et al., 2013), few focused on the antimicrobial or antifungal properties of these types of honey (Henriques et al., 2005; Feás and Estevinho, 2011). ...
Article
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Heather (Calluna vulgaris) honey is a special type of honey, highly valued for its characteristic strong taste, unusual texture and health properties. Antibacterial activity of honey is due to low acidity, high osmolarity, content of hydrogen peroxide and other components such as polyphenolic compounds. In this paper we proposed evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial effect of heather honey on some clinically important bacterial species. Heather honey collected from Cluj Region was chemically characterized and then subjected to antimicrobial activity determination. Disc diffusion method and dilution susceptibility test for antibacterial activity on different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were used. As heather honey is tixotrophic, different solutions in ultrapure water were made and it was found that 80% dilution was suitable for the experiment. The diameters of inhibition obtained were between 9-12 mm at bacterial strains tested. Heather honey has a high antibacterial activity, comparable to honey types that are used worldwide in the treatment of different bacterial infections. Further detailed studies must be carried out to establish the rightful status of this valuable type of honey.
Article
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Honey has been used for therapeutic and nutritional purposes since ancient times. It was considered one of the essential medical assets in wound healing. According to research, honeybees have significant antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and wound-healing properties. Lately, scientific researchers have focused on apitherapy, using bee products to protect and strengthen the immune system. Since honey is the most important natural product rich in minerals, proteins, and vitamins, it has been intensively used in such therapies. Honey has gained significant consideration because of the beneficial role of its antioxidant compounds, such as enzymes, proteins , amino and organic acids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, but mainly due to flavonoids and phenolic acids. It has been proven that phenolic compounds are responsible for honey's biological activity and that its physicochemical properties, antioxidants, and antimicrobial potential are significant for human health. The review also presents some mechanisms of action and the medical applications of honey, such as wound healing dressings, skin grafts, honey-based nanofibers, and cochlear implants, as the most promising wound healing tools. This extensive review has been written to highlight honey's applications in medicine; its composition with the most important bioactive compounds also illustrates its synergistic effect with other natural products having remarkable therapeutic properties in wound healing.
Article
A3IS (Mycosinate) is a synthetic product which only contains ingredients found naturally within honey. A3IS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial product which produces a sustained release of hydrogen peroxide at low but therapeutic levels. The product elicits this release through an enzymatic reaction between glucose oxidase and the substrate glucose once the product is hydrated. As medical uses for different honeys are being re-evaluated, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of A3IS against a comprehensive panel of human pathogens, including Pneumocystis species, providing a unique assessment against a panel of eukaryotic pathogens. Without exception, A3IS exhibited significant efficacy at 50% and 100% inhibitory concentrations against a broad spectrum of human pathogens including yeasts, molds (both hyaline and dematiaceous), and dimorphic fungi. Notably, A3IS was effective against fungal strains with a high level of resistance to fluconazole or voriconazole. The 50% inhibitory concentrations for Pneumocystis carinii and P. murina (surrogates for P. jirovecii) were considered "Marked" and "Moderate" on an established rank scale, and would be considered for in vivo studies, based on an established in vitro-in vivo pipeline. These results indicate that A3IS is a novel anti-fungal agent against an extensive range of human fungal pathogens.
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The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of honey samples collected from different locations at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, Pakistan). Disc diffusion method was used to test the antifungal potential of twenty-one (branded, unbranded, and natural comb) honey samples from the different botanical origins at different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, and 50%, w/v) against Candida albicans and Rhodotorula species. Branded, unbranded, and natural comb honey samples generate different inhibition zones (4-13 mm, 5-15 mm, and 8-17 mm) against Rhodotorula species. Candida albicans showed resistance for all tested honey samples. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Candida albicans and Rhodotorula species were 53.33%-88.12% and 1.76%-90.22% for branded, 61.3% - 93.8% and 9.90% - 95.5% for unbranded, and 67.1%-96.8% and 6.39%-98.8% for natural comb honey. In conclusion, natural comb honey from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa may h
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Aims: Assess the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of ethanol extracts of Portuguese propolis samples when combined with gentamicin, a widely used aminoglycoside antibiotic, or with honey, collected from the same apiary as propolis. Methods and results: Using the agar dilution method and DPPH free radical scavenging assay, antimicrobial and antioxidant synergistic effects between propolis and gentamicin or honey were assessed. Synergism between propolis and gentamicin was observed for all the tested extracts and against all the indicator bacteria, with particular interest against the Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with a threefold decrease of the gentamicin MIC if mixed with 25 µg ml-1 propolis. Likely to propolis and gentamicin, mixtures of sub-MIC concentrations of propolis and honey enhanced the antibacterial action of each individual natural product against the majority of the strains. However, propolis antioxidant capacity decreased along with higher honey content in the mixture. Conclusions: Propolis has strong synergistic effect when combined with gentamicin, allowing the reduction of the therapeutic dose of this drug. Propolis and honey mixtures also display stronger antibacterial effect than the activity exhibited by each sample when tested individually whereas the high antioxidant capacity of propolis seems to be not affected when in combination with honey. Significance and impact of study: When mixed with honey, propolis antioxidant potential is maintained, or just slightly reduced up to 1:1 dilution, and show synergistic antibacterial effects, allowing to optimize the use of this usually scarce natural resource. Also, considering the antibiotic resistance problem, natural beehive products, alone or in mixture, are promising alternatives to retard the outbreak of microbial resistance.
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Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a relapsing vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida species. The prevalence varies among age populations and can be as high as 9%. Treatment options are limited, and in 57% of the cases, relapses occur within six months after fluconazole maintenance therapy, which is the current standard of care. The pathogenesis of RVVC is multifac-torial, and recent studies have demonstrated that the vaginal microenvironment and activity of the immune system have a strong influence on the disease. Medical-grade honey (MGH) has protective, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activity and forms a putative alternative treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated that honey can benefit the treatment of bacterial and Candida-mediated vaginal infections. We postulate that MGH will actively fight ongoing infections; eradicate biofilms; and modulate the vaginal microenvironment by its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immuno-modulatory properties, and subsequently may decrease the number of relapses when compared to fluconazole. The MGH formulation L-Mesitran Soft has stronger antimicrobial activity against various Candida species than its raw honey. In advance of a planned randomized controlled clinical trial, we present the setup of a study comparing L-Mesitran Soft with fluconazole and its practical considerations.
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Honey is a well-known and historically important sweet food which possesses immense antimicrobial properties. Numerous varieties of honey are present in nature, and all of these honey varieties contain certain key ingredients, which confer upon them various antimicrobial properties. These antimicrobial key ingredients include polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal, and bee-defensin among several others. Honey is nowadays used extensively in modern medicine as potent antibiotic for the treatment of surface wounds and burns. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics to treat antibiotic resistance. As an antifungal agent, honey is used to treat the athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), jock itch (tinea cruris), and ringworm of face, scalp, nail, and hand (tinea corporus). In this chapter, we aim to provide a brief overview of various types of honey and their composition and describe extensively its various antimicrobial properties and how these properties are exploited in modern medicine as an alternative to popular therapeutics or in conjunction with it.
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To evaluate the synergistic action of starch on the antifungal activity of honey, a comparative method of adding honey with and without starch to culture media was used. Candida albicans has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five varieties of honey. In a second step, lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch added to media to determine the minimum synergistic inhibitory concentration (MSIC). The MIC for the five varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 40% and 45% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop has been noticed with each variety. It ranged between 7% and 25%. A negative correlation has been established between the MIC drop and the diastase number (DN).
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To evaluate the synergistic action of starch on the antifungal activity of honey, a comparative method of adding honey with and without starch to culture media was used. Candida albicans has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of five varieties of honey. In a second step, lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch added to media to determine the minimum synergistic inhibitory concentration (MSIC). The MIC for the five varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 40% and 45% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop has been noticed with each variety. It ranged between 7% and 25%. A negative correlation has been established between the MIC drop and the diastase number (DN).
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A total of 10 honey samples from different geographical locations of Nigeria were evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and microbiological quality. The honey samples were examined for antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Clostridium sporogenes and Candida albicans. The study revealed that the honeys had an average pH of 3.86, moisture content of 14.09%, ash content of 0.28% and electrical conductivity of 34.09 µS/cm. The free acidity was about 27.00 meq/kg, lactone acidity 10.55 meq/kg and total acidity of about 37.20 meq/kg. Results of the microbiological characteristics showed total coliform counts of 0 - 3.0 ◊ 10 cfu/g and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) between 1.0 ◊ 10 3 and 5.0 ◊ 10 3 cfu/g. Yeasts and moulds were not detected. The Bacillus species detected were identified as B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. licheniformis, B. firmus, and B. pumilus. The honey samples showed inhibitory activity at the various concentrations against Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, E. coli and Proteus vulgaris with the zones of inhibition increasing with honey concentration. B. cereus, K. pneumoniae and Clostridium sporogenes were inhibited at higher concentrations (50 - 100%) of the honey samples. The honey samples showed no inhibitory activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans.
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Appetiser is a need based product for defence forces deployed at high altitudes. Ready to eat appetisers in the form of munches i.e. pepper munch and lemon munch were developed by using response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design with active ingredients as variables and quality parameters such as acidity, sugars and sensory acceptability score as responses. The ingredients like raisins and dates were pre-processed by frying in ghee (butter oil) while juice was extracted from pseudolemon and lemon. Pepper was pulverized to a fine powder prior to main processing. The optimized composition of ingredients was processed further by dehydration and concentration technique. The products had 8.7-9.8% fat, 6.5-7.9% protein and 72-73% carbohydrates supplying about 80 Kcals/20 g munch. The appetisers packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf-life of 9 months at room temperature (18-33 °C) as well as at 37 °C.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare the demonstrated variation in antimicrobial activity of honey produced by introduced A. mellifera and the stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula, commonly kept in hives in Costa Rica. There was no difference in activity of honey produced by Apis mellifera and T. angustula against the 5 microbes tested. Honey from different phytogeographic regions exhibited differential antimicrobial activity and susceptibility of yeasts to honey of either species was greater than that of bacteria.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal action of three single samples of South African honey (wasbessie, bluegum and fynbos) against Candida albicans. Various dilutions of honey were prepared in brain-heart infusion broth, ranging in concentration from 0 to 25% (w/w). This was inoculated with C. albicans, while a hypertonic sugar solution served as a control. All dilutions were incubated overnight and the optical density was measured in a spectrophotometer. The sugar control and the 3 honey samples stimulated the growth of C. albicans and was optimal between 2.5% and 5% . Increased honey concentrations resulted in reduced growth of C. albicans; wasbessie honey at a concentration of 25% demonstrated 29.4% inhibition on the growth of C. albicans, while the control, bluegum and fynbos honey produced only partial inhibition.
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Abstract Honey samples from different floral sources were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of 40 yeast strains (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata and Trichosoporon spp.). Broth microdilution method (CLSI, M27-A2) was used to assess the activity of the honeys against yeasts at different concentrations ranging from 1.25-80% (v/v). All of the yeast strains tested were inhibited by honeys in this study. Broth microdilution assay revealed that inhibition of growth depends on the type and concentration of honey as well as the test pathogen. Little or no antifungal activity was seen at honey concentrations <2%. Rhododendron and multifloral honeys have generally more inhibitory effect than eucalyptus and orange honeys (P<0.05). Fluconazole-resistant yeast strains were examined for their susceptibility to honeys. This study demonstrated that, in vitro, these honeys had antifungal activity at the high concentration of 80% (v/v) in these fluconazole-resistant strains. Further studies are now required to demonstrate if this antifungal activity has any clinical application.
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We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study of adults (n = 1447) and children (n = 144) with candidemia at tertiary care centers in the United States in parallel with a candidemia treatment trial that included nonneutropenic adults. Candida albicans was the most common bloodstream isolate recovered from adults and children (45% vs. 49%) and was associated with high mortality (47% among adults vs. 29% among children). Three-month survival was better among children than among adults (76% vs. 54%; P < .001). Most children received amphotericin B as initial therapy, whereas most adults received fluconazole. In adults, Candida parapsilosis fungemia was associated with lower mortality than was non-parapsilosis candidemia (24% vs. 46%; P < .001). Mortality was similar among subjects with Candida glabrata or non-glabrata candidemia; mortality was also similar among subjects with C. glabrata candidemia who received fluconazole rather than other antifungal therapy. Subjects in the observational cohort had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than did participants in the clinical trial (18.6 vs. 16.1), which suggests that the former subjects are more often excluded from therapeutic trials.
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The incidence of Candida infections is escalating worldwide. The serious nature of these infections is compounded by increasing levels of drug resistance. We report that certain honeys have significant antifungal activity against clinical isolates of Candida species. Importantly, the minimum inhibitory concentration of these honeys would be achievable in a clinical setting.
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Honey has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and its curative properties are well documented. However, modern medicine turned its back on honey and it is only now, with the advent of multi-resistant bacteria, that the antibiotic properties of honey are being rediscovered.
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Effect of incorporation of 5, 10 and 15% (w/w) honey on physico-chemical properties, sensory quality and storage stability of microwave cooked broiler chicken patties was evaluated and compared to patties containing 500 ppm vitamin C. Inclusion of honey increased (p>0.05) the cooking yield and reduced the raw and cooked pH. The water activity (aw) reduced from 0.933 to 0.912 in 15% honey containing chicken patties (HCCP). Both surface and internal colour values (Hunter lab a*/redness) increased (p<0.05) from 4.6 to 6.8 and 4.8 to 6.6, respectivly in HCCP compared to control indicating development of attractive colour in HCCP. Sensory quality evaluation studies revealed significant (p<0.05) increase in appearance scores of 10 and 15% HCCP compared to control and vitamin C containing patties. Patties containing 5% honey scored (p<0.05) better for flavour, sweetness and overall palatability compared to 10 and 15% HCCP. Treatment with honey reduced the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values. However, patties containing vitamin C had lowest (p<0.05) TBA values. Inclusion of 5% w/w honey in microwave cooked chicken patties resulted in increased cooking yield and redness values with lower aw and TBA values and significant improvement in sensory quality.
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The effect of microwave heating on Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation and colour development, measured as absorbance in Helianthus annuus and Eucalyptus lanceolatus was studied using regression analysis. Formation of HMF and absorbance increased with the increase in microwave power levels and duration of heating. However, microwave power levels showed a greater effect. Both the honey types differed significantly with respect to HMF formation and absorbance under similar microwave heating conditions. Helianthus annuus showed higher HMF formation and absorbance value as compared to Eucalyptus lanceolatus under similar microwave heating conditions. The regression models for HMF formation and absorbance were significant at p<0.00 level and showed R 2 values in the range of 91.5-94.4%. The models developed can be used as a tool to predict changes in colour and HMF content of honey during microwave heating.
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Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.
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In this study, we investigated and compared some chemical properties and in vitro biological activities of three different types of Turkish honey. The first two honey samples were monofloral from chestnut and rhododendron flowers, collected from the east Black Sea region, and the third sample was the heterofloral form of astragalus (Astragalus microcephalus Willd.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and other several mountain flowers, collected from Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia. The chemical properties of the honey samples, such as total moisture, ash, total protein, sucrose, invert sugar, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content and acidity, were determined. Total phenolics, superoxide radical- and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants with ±-catechin, butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid, and trolox® used as reference. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method, using eight bacteria and two yeasts. The mineral contents were also determined by an AAS method. The chestnut flower honey had the highest phenolic content, superoxide radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, while the heterofloral honey sample exhibited the highest peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were also found to be related to the sample concentrations. The mineral content of the chestnut honey was much higher than the others. The samples showed moderate antimicrobial activity against some microorganisms, especially Helicobacter pylori ATCC 49503, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The honey samples studied proved to be a good source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
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In this study, we measured time-kills and post-antifungal effects (PAFEs) for micafungin against Candida albicans (n=4), Candida glabrata (n=3), Candida parapsilosis (n=3) and Candida krusei (n=2) isolates and further characterised the PAFEs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 0.5-1.0 mg/L against C. parapsilosis and 0.008-0.125 mg/L against the other species. Micafungin caused kills >1 log at 1 x MIC, 4 x MIC (range 1.19-3.10 log) and 16 x MIC (2.27-3.68 log), achieving fungicidal levels (> or = 3 log) against nine isolates. One-hour drug exposure during PAFE experiments resulted in kills of 0.73-2.88 log and 1.72-3.55 log at 4 x and 16 x MIC, respectively, achieving fungicidal levels against five isolates. Isolates of each species collected 8 h after a 1-h exposure to micafungin (4 x and 16 x MIC) were hypersusceptible to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Calcofluor White. Cells tested during the PAFE period demonstrated cell wall disturbances as evident on electron micrographs as well as significant reductions in adherence to epithelial cells. Phagocytosis by J774 macrophages was significantly enhanced for three PAFE isolates tested. Micafungin is fungicidal and exerts PAFEs that kill diverse Candida spp., disturb cell walls of viable organisms, reduce adherence and enhance susceptibility to phagocytosis.
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Honey has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and its curative properties are well documented. However, modern medicine turned its back on honey and it is only now, with the advent of multi-resistant bacteria, that the antibiotic properties of honey are being rediscovered. This is the published version of an article published in the journal: New Zealand BeeKeeper. Used with permission.
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Honey, propolis, and royal jelly, products originating in the beehive, are attractive ingredients for healthy foods. Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflamatory, antibrowning, and antiviral. Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees. This substance has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to its many biological properties to possess, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Royal jelly has been demonstrated to possess numerous functional properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, vasodilative and hypotensive activities, disinfectant action, antioxidant activity, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. Biological activities of honey, propolis, and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilatory actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase.
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Phenolic compounds of dark and clear honeys from Trás-os-Montes of Portugal were extracted with Amberlite XAD-2 and evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant effect was studied using the in vitro test capacity of scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and of reducing power of iron (III)/ferricyanide complex. The antimicrobial activity was screened using three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lentus) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli). The results obtained from the partial identification of honey phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector showed that p-hydroxibenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, naringenin, pinocembrin and chrysin are the phenolic compounds present in most of the samples analyzed. Antioxidant potential was dependent of honey extract concentration and the results showed that dark honey phenolic compounds had higher activity than the obtained from clear honey. In the biological assays, results showed that S. aureus were the most sensitive microrganisms and B. subtilis, S. lentus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli were each moderately sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of honey extracts. Nevertheless, no antimicrobial activity was observed in the test with P. aeruginosa.
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To synthesise the evidence regarding honey's role in health care and to identify whether this evidence applies more specifically to cancer care. Systematic review. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were agreed by two reviewers and a keyword strategy was developed. EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE and PUBMED databases were screened to identify suitable articles. The citation list from each included study was also screened for potentially suitable papers. The key findings from each study were entered onto a data extraction sheet. In total, 43 studies were included in the systematic review, which included studies in relation to wounds (n = 19), burns (n = 11), skin (n = 3), cancer (n = 5) and others (n = 5). In addition, a systematic review regarding honey use in wound care was also included. While the majority of studies noted the efficacy of honey in clinical use, five studies found honey to be equally as effective as the comparator and three found honey to be less effective than the comparator treatment. Other research did not illustrate any significant difference between standard treatment regimes vs. honey treatment. Studies were generally poor in quality because of small sample sizes, lack of randomisation and absence of blinding. Honey was found to be a suitable alternative for wound healing, burns and various skin conditions and to potentially have a role within cancer care. In the cancer setting, honey may be used for radiation-induced mucositis, radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, hand and foot skin reactions in chemotherapy patients and for oral cavity and external surgical wounds.
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The use of honey in wound management has enjoyed a resurgence. This is largely due to the growing clinical problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the combined difficulties for the practitioner in managing chronic wound types, such as burns, leg ulcers or surgical wounds, that may become infected, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas. The associated costs of treating such wounds are escalating as a result. While the use of honey as a wound dressing has been recognized, at least since Egyptian times circa 2000 BC, it is only more recently, due to the development and licensing of modern honey wound dressings, that such dressings have become more widely available and used in wound management. This article focuses on the use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds and burns. It will examine the effects of honey at the wound bed and its clinical applications, along with the current dressings available. Also discussed are the practical considerations, if, like any wound dressing, honey is to be used safely, appropriately and for the benefit of the patient.
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There has been a renaissance in recent times in the use of honey, an ancient and traditional wound dressing, for the treatment of wounds, burns, and skin ulcers. In the past decade there have been many reports of case studies, experiments using animal models, and randomized controlled clinical trials that provide a large body of very convincing evidence for its effectiveness, and biomedical research that explains how honey produces such good results. As a dressing on wounds, honey provides a moist healing environment, rapidly clears infection, deodorizes, and reduces inflammation, edema, and exudation. Also, it increases the rate of healing by stimulation of angiogenesis, granulation, and epithelialization, making skin grafting unnecessary and giving excellent cosmetic results.
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Cryptococcus neoformans has risen to a worldwide highly recognizable major opportunistic pathogen with deadly consequences. It has become a model fungus to study a variety of paradigms in the host-fungus relationships. Genomic studies are advancing knowledge on its evolution and dissecting its virulence composite. Studies designed to understand host immunology to this fungus are leading to development of active and passive prevention and therapeutic strategies. This article collates and analyzes both new and old knowledge about the pathogen to help frame the meaning of human cryptococcosis as it starts to evolve in the new millennium.
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Renewed interest in honey for various therapeutic purposes including treatment of infected wounds has led to the search for new antibacterial honeys. In this study we have assessed the antibacterial activity of three locally produced honeys and compared them to three commercial therapeutic honeys (including Medihoney and manuka honey). An agar dilution method was used to assess the activity of honeys against 13 bacteria and one yeast. The honeys were tested at five concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 20%. Twelve of the 13 bacteria were inhibited by all honeys used in this study with only Serratia marcescens and the yeast Candida albicans not inhibited by the honeys. Little or no antibacterial activity was seen at honey concentrations <1%, with minimal inhibition at 5%. No honey was able to produce complete inhibition of bacterial growth. Although Medihoney and manuka had the overall best activity, the locally produced honeys had equivalent inhibitory activity for some, but not all, bacteria. Honeys other than those commercially available as antibacterial honeys can have equivalent antibacterial activity. These newly identified antibacterial honeys may prove to be a valuable source of future therapeutic honeys.
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As strategies to prevent invasive fungal infections among both hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients have evolved, the epidemiology of these infections has changed. Several unique features of select Candida species and molds have facilitated the emergence of these pathogens as more-common causes of infection than in previous years. In this context, the changing pathogen profiles, unique antifungal susceptibilities, and approaches to treatment are outlined.
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Despite the widespread use of antifungals for prophylaxis, Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) remains the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease. From an analysis of multi-institutional surveys of Candida BSIs performed in Europe, including the large prospective survey by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (2089 episodes from seven countries), a limited role of species with decreased susceptibility to azoles in causing BSIs and a low proportion of antifungal resistance was evident. Large prospective epidemiological surveys using common databases are needed to monitor trends in incidence and changes in species distribution, to identify new at-risk patients and to evaluate the impact of the introduction into the market of new antifungal agents.
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We report the detection of several fungicide residues (Dichlofluanid, Benomyl, Iprodione, Procymidone and Vinclozolin) in red and white bottled wines from two Portuguese wine-producing zones. Studies were done in order to evaluate the active compound transfer percentage from grapes to the final product along fermentation process. We also investigated their effects in Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as well as their influence on the physical, chemical and organoleptic wine properties. All the tested fungicides had a negative effect on in vitro yeast growth, with Dichlofluanid and Benomyl being the most toxic. Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most resistant yeasts while Rhodotorula glutinis was the most susceptible. Microvinification experiments carried out in the presence of fungicides produced wine samples with unaltered physical, chemical and organoleptic properties, though Benomyl, a slight delay in the initiation of fermentation process was observed.
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To audit current practice regarding selection and use of graduated elastic compression stockings (GECS) in the authors' Trust. Following a literature review it was important for the Trust that the authors audited current practice before the development and implementation of any new guidelines. A literature review enabled the authors to establish best practice principles for the use of GECS and develop guidelines for use across their Trust. However, feedback from various sources highlighted conflicting practices regarding the methods by which patients either did or did not receive stockings, and which lengths and brands were used. As the guidelines aimed to allow implementation of standardized change across the Trust, it was important to establish current practice with regard to GECS selection and use. Therefore, an audit tool was developed carried out on the use of GECS. An audit tool was developed and implemented to establish the practices before the implementation of the guidelines. The audit demonstrated that there was no consistent policy within the surgical services directorate for the correct use of GECS. It is important that all healthcare providers have a local policy for GECS use, which makes it clear how an assessment for patients requiring GECS needs to be conducted and how that assessment is documented.
Functional properties of honey, propolis, and royal jelly Develop-ment of ready-to-eat appetisers based on pepper and their quality evaluation
  • M Viuda-Martos
  • Ruiz
  • Y Navajas
  • Fernández
  • J López
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