Amino acid composition of Lagenaria siceraria seed flour and protein fractions

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 47(6):656-61 · December 2010with51 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s13197-010-0111-4 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Defatted seed flours of Lagenaria siceraria (calabash and bottle gourd) were fractionated into their major protein fractions. The amino acid composition of seed flours and their protein fractions were determined and the protein quality was evaluated. Glutamic acid (139-168 mg/g protein) was the most abundant amino acid followed by aspartic acid (89.0-116 mg/g protein) in both the seed flours and their protein fractions. The total essential amino acid ranged from 45.8 to 51.5%. The predicted protein efficiency ratio and the predicted biological value ranged from 2.4 to 2.9 and 8.7 to 44.0, respectively. Lysine and sulphur amino acids were mostly concentrated in the globulin fractions. The first and second limiting amino acids in seed flours and protein fractions were methionine and valine or threonine. The seed flours contained adequate essential amino acids required by growing school children and adults. The seed has potential as protein supplement in cereal based complementary diets or in the replacement of animal proteins in conventional foods.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Amino acid composition of Lagenaria siceraria seed flour
and protein fractions
Eunice Moriyike Ogunbusola &
Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi &
Oluwatooyin Faramade Osundahunsi
Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 26 June 2010 / Published online: 18 November 2010
#
Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010
Abstract Defatted seed flours of Lagenaria siceraria
(calabash and bottle gourd) were fractionated into their
major protein fractions. The amino acid composition of
seed flours and their protein fractions were determined and
the protein quality was evaluated. Glutamic acid (139
168 mg/g protein) was the most abundant amino acid
followed by aspartic acid (89.0116 mg/g protein) in both
the seed flours and their pro tein fractions. The total
essential amino acid ranged from 45.8 to 51.5%. The
predicted protein efficiency ratio and the predicted biolog-
ical value range d from 2. 4 to 2.9 a nd 8.7 to 4 4.0,
respectively. Lysine and sulphur amino acids were mostly
concentrated in the globulin fractions. The first and second
limiting amino acids in seed flours and protein fractions
were methionine and valine or threonine. The seed flours
contained adequate essential amino acids required by growing
school children and adults. The seed has potential as protein
supplement in cereal based complementary diets or in the
replacement of animal proteins in conventional foods.
Keywords Lagenaria siceraria
.
Calabash
.
Bottle gourd
Protein fractions
.
Amino acid composition
Introduction
Studies on the utilization of vegetable proteins continue to
attract attention globally due to the increasing demand for
cheap and affordable dietary proteins, particularly among the
low income group. Projections based on the current trends
indicate a gap between human population and protein supply
(Vijayakumari et al. 1997). Hence, the need to examine
unconventional legumes and oilseeds as alternative protein
sources for the future (Egbe and Akinyele 1990; Onweluzo
et al. 1994; Chau and Cheung 1998;Fagbemi2007). This
development has stimulated research on the utilization of
Lagenaria siceraria, an indigenous underutilized oil rich
seed as alternate protein source.
Lagenaria siceraria (calabash and bottle gourd) belongs
to Cucurbitaceae family. The plants are annual, herbaceous,
and monoecious with creeping stems. The seeds are edible
and used in the preparation of local soups, fermented food
product (ogiri), fried cake (robo) and pudding (igbalo or
ugbaotiri). The seeds of Lagenaria siceraria are rich in
dietary proteins (Fokou et al. 2004).
Researchers have worked extensively on other species
of Cucurbitaceae such as Colocynthis citrull us, Citrullus
vulgaris and Telfairia occidentalis (Akobundu et al. 1982;
Sathe et al. 19 8 2 ; Ige et al. 1984; Fagbemi and Oshodi
1991; Fagbemi et al. 2005, 2006;Fagbemi2007). Report
on Lagenaria siceraria has been limited to its proximate
composition and functional properties (Fokou et al. 2004).
The knowledge of its amino acid composition and amino
acid profile is necessary in food product formulations.
This investigation was aimed at fractionation of Lagenaria
siceraria seed flour into their major protein fractions and
determination of their amino acid composition to further
exploit the seeds potential use in food system.
E. M. Ogunbusola
Department of Food Technology, The Federal Polytechnic,
Ado - Ekiti, Nigeria
e-mail: riikebusola@yahoo.com
T. N. Fagbemi (*)
:
O. F. Osundahunsi
Department of Food Science and Technology, The Federal
University of Technology,
Akure, Nigeria
e-mail: tnfagbemi55@yahoo.co.uk
O. F. Osundahunsi
e-mail: tosundahunsi@yahoo.com
J Food Sci Technol (NovDec 2010) 47(6):656661
DOI 10.1007/s13197-010-0111-4
Materials and methods
Two varieties of Lagenaria siceraria (calabash seed LS
1
and bottle gourd seed LS
2
) were bought from farmers in
Irele Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The seeds were manually
shelled, washed and later dried in a hot air oven at 50 °C.
The seeds were pulverized using a Brabender blender,
defatted by refluxing continuously for 8 h using n-hexane.
Defatted meals were dried, pulverized and sieved to pass
through a 500 μm sieve.
Protein fractions were extracted acc ording to their
solubility in different solvents as described by Wisal et al.
(2003). Defatted Lagenaria siceraria seed flour (3.5 g) was
extracted twice with 50 ml of distilled water for 30 min at
room temperature (28±2 °C). The extract was centrifuged
at 4,500 rpm for 20 min and the supernatant was used for
the determination of water soluble albumin. The residue
was then extracted successively in a similar manner with
1 M NaCl, or 1 M NaOH solution, extract was collected
separately and used to estimate the salt soluble (globulin) or
alkali soluble (glutelin) fractions.
The amino acid profiles of the seed flours and protein
fractions were determined using ion exchange chromatog-
raphy. The samples were defatted, hydrolyzed and evapo-
rated in a rotatory evaporator and then injected into the
Technicon sequential multisampling Amino Acid Analyzer
(Techn icon Instru ment Co. Ltd., United Kingdom),
(Adeyeye and Afolabi 2004). Tryptophan content of the
seed flours was determined using the method of Concon
(1975) as modified by Ogunsua (1988 ). The amino acids
obtained were used to evaluate the protein quality of seed
flour. Predicted biological value (BV) was calculated using
the regression equation of Morup and Olesen (1976)as
reported by Chavan et al. (2001).
BV ¼ 10
2:15
q
0:141
Lys
q
0:60
pheþtyr
q
0:77
metþlys
q
2:14
thr
q
0:21
trp
Where,
q ¼
ai sample
ai reference
for ai sample ai reference
or
q ¼
ai reference
ai sample
for ai sample ai reference
a
i
= mg of the amino acid per g of total essential amino
acids.
The predict ed protei n efficiency ratio (PER) was
calculated using one of the equations developed by
Alsmeyer et al. (1974) as stated below.
PER ¼0:464 þ 0:454ðLeuÞ0:105ðTyrÞ
Isoelectric point (IP) was estimated from the amino acids
using the equation of the form given b y Olaofe and
Akintayo (2000).
IP
m
¼
X
n
i¼1
IPiXi
where, IP is the isoelectric point of the i
th
amino acid in the
mixture, X
i
is the mass or mole fraction of the i
th
amino acid
in the mixture and IP
m
is the isoelectric point of the
mixture.
Determinations were carried out in triplicate, along with
standard deviations. Data were subjected to analysis of
variance using SPSS 15 computer programme.
Results and discussion
Variety and fractionation have significant (p<0.05) effect
on the amino acid composition of Lagenaria siceraria seed
flours (Table 1). Glutamic acid was the most abundant
amino acid in both seed flours and all protein fractions. The
values ranged from 140 to 168 mg/g protein with minimum
value in LS
2
globulin fraction and maximum in LS
1
albumin fraction. The second most abundant amino acid
in all the seed flours was aspartic acid ranging from 89.0 to
116 mg/g protein in LS
2
albumin and seed flour, respec -
tively. Mora-Escobedo et a l. (1990) reported simil ar
observation for the amino acids of the albumin and globulin
fractions of amaranth. Oshodi et a l. (1998)reported
tryptophan to be the most concentrated amino acid in
legumes. The most concentrated essential amino acid in all
seed flours and their protein fractions was leucine with
values ranging from 60.0 to 72.1 mg/g protein (LS
2
albumin and the seed flour, respectively).
The lysine content of Lagenaria siceraria seed flours
and their protein fractions ranged between 37.5 and
60.1 mg/g protein, this is similar to the lysine content of
fluted pumpkin (37.566.6 mg/g cp) reported by Fagbemi
(2007). The lysin e content of seed flour is comparable with
that of reference egg protein (63 mg/g crude protein, FAO/
WHO/UNU 1985). Hence, Lagenaria siceraria seed flours
and their protein fractions could be mixed with cereals like
maize in weaning food formulation (Chavan et al. 2001).
Globulins were however, richer in lysine than the water-
soluble albumin or alkali soluble glutelin. This indicates
that globulin fraction may be a better supplement in cereal
based diet preparation. Tryptophan content of seed flours
ranged from 8.1 to 13.9 mg/g protein. The calculated
isoelectric point varied from 4.3 to 5.1 in LS
2
albumin and
LS
1
seed flour respectively. This will serve as useful guide
in quick precipitation of proteins from biological samples
(Olaofe and Akintayo 2000).
J Food Sci Technol (NovDec 2010) 47(6):656661 657
Table 1 Amino acid composition of total seed flours and protein fractions of Lagenaria siceraria (mg/g protein) variety
Amino acid LS
1
LS
2
Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin
Cystine * 12.3±0.08c 10.6±0.08d 13.9±0.08a 10.6±0.08d 12.5±0.08b 9.9±0.08e 12.6±0.08b 10.5±0.08d
Methionine* 10.4±0.16c 7.0±0.08a 11.2± 0.08b 8.3±0.08f 12.5±0.08a 8.8±0.08e 12.6±0.08a 9.1±0.08d
Aspartic acid 109±0.08d 99.7±0.16f 112±0.33c 108±0.24e 116±0.16a 89.0±0.33 g 109±0.33d 113±0.33b
Threonine* 29.1±0.08e 21.6±0.08 h 25.0±0.08 g 30.1±0.08d 32.6±0.16c 25.9±0.08f 36.2±0.08b 41.1±0.08a
Serine 40.4±0.04c 31.7±0.16 h 39.1±0.08d 32.0±0.08 g 50.4±0.08a 32.8±0.08f 46.6±0.16b 38.0±0.08e
Glutamic acid 166±0.24b 168±0.24a 152±0.41d 161±0.41c 143±0.16f 149±0.16e 140±0.41 g 148±0.24e
Proline 37.5±0.08a 30.8±0.08e 34.2±0.08b 32.0±0.08d 32.5±0.08c 29.0±0.08 g 30.1±0.08f 28.0±0.08 h
Glycine 31.7±0.08 g 40.6±0.16b 40.1±0.08c 38.9±0.08d 32.4±0.04f 40.3±0.08c 35.0±0.08e 47.0±0.16a
Alanine 40.6±0.08ab 40.1±0.08b 36.3±0.08e 37.2±0.08d 32.6±0.08 g 34.7±0.08f 40.9± 0.08a 37.9±0.08c
Valine* 40.6±0.08b 30.2±0.08 g 43.6±0.08a 39.2±0.16d 40.0±0.08c 31.1±0.08f 40.2±0.08c 32.5±0.08e
Isoleucine* 33.0±0.08d 35.1±0.08b 35.5±0.08a 30.4±0.08f 35.6±0.08a 28.2±0.08 g 31.4±0.08e 34.5±0.08c
Phenylalanine* 46.3±0.08b 32.9±0.08 g 41.4±0.16d 36.3±0.08f 48.8±0.08a 37.2±0.08e 45.6±0.16c 37.2±0.08e
Lysine* 56.2±0.16c 42.4±0.16 g 60.1±0.24a 57.2±0.016b 50.8± 0.16e 37.5±0.08 h 52.6±0.16d 48.9±0.16f
Arginine* 58.6±0.16d 50.2±0.16 g 62.9±0.24a 60.3±0.24b 55.2±0.16e 49.4±0.08 h 54.4±0.16f 59.6±0.16c
Histidine* 26.1±0.08a 16.3±0.08 g 24.4±0.08b 22.4±0.08e 23.0±0.08e 16.9±0.08f 22.6±0.08d 24.5±0.08b
Leucine* 65.8±0.016e 65.0±0.24f 71.1±0.16b 66.2±0.16d 72.1±0.16a 60.0±0.16 h 68.3±0.08c 61.5±0.21 g
Tyrosine* 34.9±0.08b 22.5±0.08 g 35.6±0.08a 22.5±0.08 g 30.1±0.04d 27.4±0.08f 30.5±0.08c 29.0±0.08e
Tryptophan* 11.9±0.16c 13.0±0.16b 13.9±0.24a 10.6±0.08d 9.9±0.08e 8.1±0.08f 10.8±0.16d 10.7±0.16d
Cal. Isoelectric point 5.1 4.5 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.3 4.9 4.9
*Essential amino acids; values followed by different letters in the same row are significantly different (p<0.05); LS
1
: Calabash seed flours; LS
2
: Bottle gourd seed flours
658 J Food Sci Technol (NovDec 2010) 47(6):656661
The total amino acid content ranged from 715 to
851 mg/g protein (LS
2
albumin and LS
1
seed flour, Table 2).
The total essential amino acid of Lagenaria siceraria flours
ranged between 340 and 439 mg/g protein. This is lower
than 566 mg/g protein reported for egg reference protein
(Paul et al. 1980). It is, however comparable with values
(190503 mg/g protein) reported for some oilseeds such as
Colocynthis citrullus, peanut meal and soybean flours
(Lusas 1979; Akobundu et al. 1982; Sosulski 1983 ; Kuri
et al. 1991). The range of percentage tota l essential amino
acid (45.851.5) obtained for Lagenaria siceraria seed
flour and their protein fractions is well above 36%, which is
considered ad equate for an ideal protein (FAO/WHO 1973).
This suggests that seed flours and their protein fractions
may find use as a food supplement. Globulin fraction had
the highest percentage of total essential amino acid (51.0
and 51.5%) in all the protein fractions. The total sulphur
amino acid content ranged from 17.6 to 25.2 mg/g protein
with cystine ranging from 50.0 to 60.2%. The range of total
neutral, acidic and basic amino acids were 49.153.8%, 30.4
35.4% and 14.417.4%, respectively, which showed that
protein in seed flours and their protein fractions may be acidic
in nature. Similar observation was reported by Aremu et al.
(2006) for some Nigerian underutilized oilseeds.
The predicted PER of Lagenaria siceraria seed flours
and their protein fractions ranged from 2.4 (LS
2
albumin
and glutelin) to 2.9 (LS
2
seed flour). The predicted PER
values were higher than seed proteins of cowpea (1.21),
pigeon pea (1.82) and L. sativus (negative value to 0.03)
(Salunkhe and Kadam 1989). These values are also higher
than the ranges of 0.661.24 and 0.63 2.21 for fluted
pumpkin seed flours and cotton seed, respectively (Fagbemi
2007). The predicted BV of Lagenaria siceraria protein
ranged between 8.7 and 44.0. Fractionation affected BV.
Globulin and gluteli n fractions have higher BV than their
albumin fraction. The predicted BV of Lagenaria siceraria
compared well with the range of 36.5 40.13 reported for
beach pea protein isolates (Chavan et al. 2001)
The chemical score ranged from 21.9 (LS
1
albumin) to
39.4 (LS
2
globulin) (Table 3). The first limiting amino acid
in both raw seed flours and their protein fractions was
methionine (7.012.6 mg/g prote in) followed by valine
(30.243.6 mg/g protein) except in LS
1
globulin fraction,
where threonine (25.0 mg/g protein) was the second
limiting amino acid. The recommended sulphur amino acid
for infants, growing preschool children and growing school
children are 42, 25 and 22 mg/g crude protein respectively
(FAO/WHO/UNU 1985). The seed flours on this basis
provide 41.960%; 70.4100.8% and 80over 100% of
the recommended sulphur amino acid for infant, a growing
preschool child and growing school child, respectively. Salt
soluble proteins are found to be more concentrated in
sulphur amino acid. In general, Lagenaria siceraria seed
flours and their protein fractions contained adequate
amounts of most of the essential ami no acids required by
preschool children and all amino acids essential for school
children and adults.
Conclusion
Amino acid profile of Lagenaria siceraria seed flours and
their water, salt and alkali (albumin, globulin and glutelin,
respectively) soluble protein fractions are of high quality
Table 2 Summary of amino acid composition of the total seed flour and protein fractions of Lagenaria siceraria (mg/g protein) variety
LS
1
LS
2
Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin
Total amino acids (TAA) 851 758 852 803 830 715 819 811
Total essential amino acids (TEAA) 426 347 439 394 423 340 418 399
TEAA/TAA (%) 49.9 45.8 51.5 49.1 51.0 47.6 51.0 49.2
Total non essential amino acids (TNEAA) 425 411 413 409 407 375 402 412
Total sulphur amino acids (TSAA) 22.7 17.6 25.1 18.9 25.0 18.7 25.2 19.6
Cystine (%) in TSAA 54.2 60.2 55.4 56.1 50.0 52.9 50.0 53.6
Total aromatic essential amino acids phe.+tyr. (ArEAA) 81.2 54.4 77.0 58.8 78.9 64.6 76.1 66.2
Total acidic amino acids (TAAA)% Glu. + Asp. 32.4 35.4 30.9 33.5 31.2 33.3 30.4 32.2
Total basic amino acids (TBAA)% Lys. + Arg. + His. 16.6 14.4 17.3 17.4 15.5 14.5 15.8 16.4
Total neutral amino acids (TNAA)% 50.0 50.2 51.8 49.1 53.3 52.2 53.8 51.4
Ratio of TEAA:TNEAA 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0
Predicted protein efficiency ratio (PER) 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.4 2.7 2.4
Predicted biological value (BV) 27.1 8.7 21.0 23.4 31.4 12.3 40.2 44.0
LS
1
Calabash seed flours; LS
2
Bottle gourd seed flours
J Food Sci Technol (NovDec 2010) 47(6):656661 659
Table 3 Amino acid scores of the total seed flour and protein fractions of Lagenaria siceraria variety
LS
1
LS
2
Essential amino acid Reference
a
Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin Seed flour Albumin Globulin Glutelin
EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%) EAAC AAS(%)
Cys. 18.0 12.3 68.3 10.6 58.9 13.9 77.2 10.6 58.9 12.5 69.4 9.9 55.0 12.6 70.0 10.5 58.3
Met. 32.0 10.4 32.5 7.0 21.9 11.2 35.0 8.3 25.9 12.5 39.1 8.8 27.5 12.6 39.4 9.1 28.4
Thre. 51.0 29.1 57.1 21.6 42.4 25.0 49.0 30.1 59.0 32.6 63.9 25.9 50.8 36.2 70.9 41.1 80.6
Val. 76.0 40.6 53.4 30.2 39.7 43.6 57.4 39.2 51.6 40.0 52.6 31.1 40.9 40.2 52.9 32.5 42.8
Iso. 56.0 33.0 58.9 35.1 62.7 35.5 63.4 30.4 54.3 35.6 63.6 28.2 50.4 31.4 56.1 34.5 61.6
Phe. 51.0 46.3 90.8 32.9 64.5 41.4 81.2 36.3 71.2 48.8 95.7 37.2 72.9 45.6 89.4 37.2 72.9
Lys. 63.0 56.2 89.2 42.4 67.3 60.1 95.4 57.2 90.8 50.8 80.6 37.5 59.5 52.6 83.5 48.9 77.6
Arg. 61.0 58.6 96.1 50.2 82.3 62.9 103 60.3 98.9 55.2 90.5 49.4 80.9 54.4 89.2 59.6 97.7
His. 24.0 26.1 109 16.3 67.9 24.4 102 22.4 93.3 23.0 95.8 16.9 70.4 22.6 94.2 24.5 102
Leu. 83.0 65.8 79.3 65.0 78.3 71.1 85.7 66.2 79.8 72.1 86.9 60.0 72.3 68.3 82.3 61.5 74.1
Tyr. 40.0 34.9 87.3 22.5 56.3 35.6 89.0 22.5 56.3 30.1 75.3 27.4 68.5 30.5 76.3 29.0 72.5
Trp. 18.0 11.9 66.1 13.0 72.2 13.9 77.2 10.6 58.9 9.9 55.0 8.1 45.0 10.8 60.0 10.7 59.4
Chemical score 32.5 21.9 35.0 25.0 39.1 27.5 39.4 28.4
1st limiting a. a Methionine Methionine Methionine Methionine Methionine Methionine Methionine Methionine
2nd limiting a. a Valine Valine Threonine Valine Valine Valine Valine Valine
a
Provisional amino acid pattern egg as reference (FAO/WHO/UNU 1985). EAAC Essential amino acid composition (mg/g protein)
AAS Amino acid score; a.a amino acid; LS
1
Calabash seed flours; LS
2
Bottle gourd seed flours
660 J Food Sci Technol (NovDec 2010) 47(6):656661
and very high in lysine. The percentage total essential
amino acids in all flour samples were well above the
recommended values. Lagenaria siceraria seed flours and
their protein fractions may be incorporated into cereals for
the formulation of a wide range of cereal based weaning
foods and other complementary diets because of their high
lysine conten t.
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    • "Bottle gourd seeds are rich in essential amino acids, protein, minerals, lipids and fatty acids (Achu et al. 2005; Fokou et al. 2009; Essien et al. 2013). Thus the seed are potentially useful for food or livestock feed (Achu et al. 2005; Ojiako & Igwe 2007; Ogunbusola et al. 2010). Landraces which produced the highest FW included: BG-13, BG-67, BG-36, BG-11, BG-17, BG-09, BG-07, BG-06, BG-36 and BG-67. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge on associations between yield and related traits is vital to improve selection efficiency in cultivar improvement. This study determined the relationships among qualitative and quantitative traits in bottle gourd landraces using simple correlation and path analyses. Results showed significant and positive correlations between the number of fruits per plant (NFPP) with number of male flowers (NMF), number of female flowers (NFF), plant height (PHT) and number of branches (NB). Number of seeds per fruit (NSPF) positively correlated with PHT, NMF, NFF, NB and fruit weight (FW). Fruit texture, degree of warts (DW), fruit shape (FS), and degree of neck bending, stem-end fruit shape and fruit neck length (FNL) had significant negative correlations with NFPP or NSPF. Path analysis revealed high direct path coefficient value (0.96) between FW and NSPF. Also, positive direct path coefficient value (0.92) was exhibited between NFF and NFPP. Relatively high direct path coefficient value (0.47) was exhibited between DW and NSPF. This study demonstrated that selection for increased FW and NFF may improve genetic gain in seed yield and fruit yield in bottle gourd breeding. Using the above analyses, the following landraces such as BG-06, BG- 07, BG-09, BG-11, BG-13, BG-24 and BG-67 were selected for breeding.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "nto fine flour, kept in polythene Adeladun, 1983; Oshodi, 1997) Southern part of Nigeria among the Yorubas as soup thickeners (Ogundele and Oshodi, 2010). These gourd seeds are underutilized. However, their flours and protein isolates have been reported to contain relatively high protein contents (Ogundele and Oshodi, 2010; Ogundele et al., 2013a). Ogunbusola et al. (2010) reported on the amino acid and protein fraction of the bottle gourd variety of Lageneria siceraria. This research work is therefore on the impact of sodium sulphite as an extraction medium on the protein isolate of these seeds. continuously with a magnetic stirrer (Gulfex Medical and Scientific, England) for 2 h. The pH of the slurry wa"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein isolates of Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus vulgaris, Lageneria siceraria I (African Wine Kettle gourd), Lagenaria siceraria II (Basket Ball gourd) and Lageneria siceraria III (Bushel Giant Gourd) melon seeds were prepared using sodium sulphite extraction followed by precipitation at the isoelectric points of the seeds. Proximate composition of the isolates were determined using standard methods. Protein contents (%) of the protein isolates are relatively high, with values: 89.04, 89.44, 93.96, 90.42 and 90.63 (%) for Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus vulgaris, Lageneria siceraria I, Lagenaria siceraria II and Lageneria siceraria III melon seeds protein isolates, respectively. The fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents of the protein isolates are however, relatively low.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amino acids of three varieties of Lageneria siceraria seed flours were determined using standard methods of analysis. The three varieties are rich in essential amino acids needed for human health and growth, with a mean of 53.15%. Sulphur amino acid and aromatic amino acid of the seeds ranged from 17.06 mg/g protein to 24.10 mg/g protein and from 80.22mg/g protein to 89.00 mg/g protein respectively. The varieties of these melon seed flours are closely related; however, there are significant differences (P≥0.05) in Cystine, showing that the varieties have some genetic differences.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
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